agar system vaanchhit degree ki vishvastata ke pratinidhitv karne ke liye paryaapt digital deta ka bhandaaran karta hai to parimaaneekaran truti ko kam kiya ja sakta hai. ek nirdhaarit enaalaug sanket ko theek-theek prastut karne ke liye kitni digital data ki aavashyakta hoti hai usaki jaankaari naaikvist-shaannon namoona prameya ek mahatvapoorn nirdesh pradaan karta hai.
raksha ki ek dviteeya shreni, taig kloning ko rokane ke liye kriptograafi ka upayog karti hai. kuchh taig ek prakaar ke "roling code" yojana ka upayog karte hain, jismein taig pahachaanakarta jaankaari pratyek scan ke baad parivrtit ho jaati hai, is tarah dekhi gayi pratikriyaaon ki upayogita ko kam kar deti hai. adhik parishkrut upakaran chunauti-pratikriya pramaaneekaran mein sanlagn hote hain jahaan taig, reedar ke saath soochana ka aadaan pradaan karta hai. in protokaul mein, taig aur reedar ke beech asurakshit sanchaar channel par gupt taig jaankaari naheen bheji jaati hai. balki, reedar taig ke liye ek chunauti jaari karta hai, jo ek parinaam ke saath javaab deta hai jiski ganana kuchh gupt moolya ke saath bandhe kriptograafik sarkit ka upayog karte hue ki jaati hai. aise protokaul, samamit ya saarvajanik kunji kriptograafi par aadhaarit ho sakta hai. koot roop se saksham taig ki aamtaur par keemat naatakeeya roop se uchch hoti hai aur ise saral samakaksh se adhik bijli ki aavashyakta hoti hai aur parinaamasvaroop in taig ki tainaati adhik seemit hai. is laagat/vidyut bandhan ne kuchh nirmaataaon ko kaafi kamjor ya svaamitv waali enkripshan yojanaaon ka upayog karke kootlekhit taig lagaane mein prerit kiya, jo parishkrut hamle ko aavashyak roop se naheen rokate. udaaharan ke liye, eksaun-mobil speedapaas, Texas instroomeints dvaara nirmit ek kootalekh-saksham taig ka upayog karta hai, jise digital signechar traansapondar (DST) kehte hain, jismein kam laagat ke liye ek chunauti-pratikriya protokaul karne ke liye ek kamjor, svaamitv enkripshan yojana shaamil hai.
usi samay, nae ekeekrut paripth (ICs) eliyn, impinj aur NXP (poorv mein Philips) dvaara shuroo kiye gaye jisne behtar pradarshan dikhaaya aur IT parisanpatti nigraani anuprayog mein visfot hua. aaj ki taareekh mein isko bruhat paimaane par apnaane vaale bank of America aur vels faarago prateet hote hain - pratyek ki ek darjan se adhik deta kendron mein 100,000 se adhik parisanpatti hai.[16]
keemat ke ghatne se RFID praudyogiki teji se prachalit ho rahi hai. January 2003 mein jilet ne ghoshana ki ki usane eliyn technology ko 500 million taig ka aadesh diya hai. jilet ke V.P. dik kaantavel, jo ab Cisco ke karmachaari hain, ka kehna hai ki company ne har taig ke liye "das seint ke andar" bhugataan kiya hai. Japani HIBIKI pahal, is keemat ko kam karke 5 yen (4 yooroseint) par laana chaahata hai. aur January 2009 mein envego ne 5.9 seint ke taig ki ghoshana ki.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
INS Sarvekshak had previously visited Mauritius in February 2006 and March 2007 to undertake hydrographic surveys. The survey work by INS Sarvekshak was of immense help to Mauritius with regards to fishing, ecosystem preservation and management, establishment of artificial reefs, delimitation of the Continental Shelf of Mauritius and safe navigation of ships and crafts.[8] In 2007 the ship surveyed Port Mathurin, Rodrigues, which was last surveyed 133 years ago.[9] In 2011 the ship was also deployed in Seychelles to carry out hydrographic surveys off the atoll of Aldabra, Picard Island, Polyminie and part of Malabar Island and Grande-Terre island on the request of Government of Seychelles as the last survey of the area was done back in 1960s.[10] As part of goodwill tour 20 students from Jammu and Kashmir also toured the ship in 2011.[11]
1995 se 1970 ke beech gareeb vikaasasheel deshon mein prati vyakti cigarette ki khapat mein 67 pratishat ki vruddhi hui hai, jabki usamein ameer viksit duniya mein 10 pratishat giraavat aayi hai. dhoomrapaan karne vaalon mein se assi pratishat ab kam viksit deshon mein rahate hain. 2030 tak vishv svaasthya sangathan (WHO) ki bhavishyavaani hai ki 10 million logon ki maut prativrsh dhoomrapaan se sambandhit beemaariyon se hogi jo duniya bhar mein maut ka ek sabse bada kaaran hoga, mahilaaon mein iski sabse badi vruddhi hogi. WHO ki bhavishyavaani hai ki 20 veen sadi mein dhoomrapaan se hui mauton ki daron mein 21 veen sadi mein das guna vruddhi hogi. ("Washington"(Washingtonian) patrika, December 2007).
yaantrik tark aksar aisi vaashing machine mein un logon ke roop mein saste niyantrakon mein prayog kiya jaata hai. mashahoor roop se, Charles baibej dvaara pehla computer design ko yaantrik laujik ke prayog ke liye dijaain kiya gaya tha. yaantrik laujik ko, bahut chhote computer mein bhi istemaal kiya ja sakta hai jise naino takaneek dvaara banaaya ja sakta hai.

poore Europe mein aur vishesh roop se peris mein (pranaali RATP dvaara 1995 mein shuroo ki gayi), lion, bordo, grenobal, nainsi aur maarsile France mein, poore purtagaali raajamaarg vyavastha mein aur kai purtagaali saarvajanik car park mein, Milan, turin, Italy mein nepals aur floreins aur Belgium mein brasels, kailipso antararaashtreeya maanak ke anuroop RFID paas ka saarvajanik parivhan pranaali ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai. unka upayog ab Canada (mauntriyl), maiksiko, isaraail, Columbia mein bogota aur parera, naarve mein stavaangar, laksamabarg, aadi mein bhi kiya jaata hai.


baajaar mein aise kai utpaad upalabdh hain jo RFID saksham card ya passport ke sambandhit vaahak ko apne deta ke parirkshan ki anumati deinge. balki ab to, sanyukt raajya America ki sarkaar ne apne nae karmachaari ID card ke liye ek anumodit parirkshan aasteen ya lifaafe ke saath use bhejana aavashyak kar diya hai.[68] is baat ko lekar virodhaabhaasi vichaar vyaapt hain ki kya elyoominiym RFID chip ke padhne ko rok sakta hai. kuchh logon ka daava hai ki elyoominiym parirkshan, jo moolat: ek fairaade pinjare ka nirmaan karta hai, bilkul kaam karta hai.[69] doosaron ka daava hai ki elyoomeeniym panni mein ek RFID card ko sirf lapetne se keval prasaaran mein aur adhik baadha aati hai, isliye poori tarah se ise rokane mein kaaragar naheen hai.[70]


puraane samay ke dhoomrapaan karne vaale prasiddh vyakti apni chhavi ke ek hisse ke roop mein cigarette ya pipe ka istemaal karte the, jaise jeen paul saartr kigauloise -brand ki cigarette,albart aainsteen,Joseph staalin, dagalas maikaaarthar, bartreind Russel, bing krosbi ki paaipein ya samaachaar prasaaranakartaEdward aar. murro ki cigarette. kuchh khaas lekhak dhoomrapaan ke liye jaane jaate the, udaaharan ke liye dekhein kaurnel professor richrd clean ki kitaab sigrets aar sabalaaim, French saahitya ke is professor ki bhoomika ne baad mein 19 veen aur 20 veen sadi mein dhoomrapaan mein bhoomika nibhaai. lokapriya lekhak kart vonnegut ne apne upanyaason mein cigarette peene ki apni lat ka ullekh kiya hai. Britain ke pradhaanamantri herold Wilson saarvajanik taur par pipe peene ke liye vikhyaat the aur vinstan charchil ko sigaar ke liye jaana jaata hai. sar aarthar kaunan dauyal dvaara racha gaya kaalpanik jaasoos sharlak holmas "apne London ke jeevan ke sust dinon mein jab kuchh naheen ho raha hota tha to apne atyadhik kriyaasheel mastishk ko vyast rakhane ke liye" khud ko kokeen ke injekshan lagaane ke alaava pipe, cigarette aur sigaar peeta tha. DC vertigo kaumik book (haasya pustak) mein elan moor ka paatr John kaanstestaain dhoomrapaan ka paryaaya ban gaya hai, itna ki pehli kahaani ke paraamarsh nirmaata garth inees ne use John kaanstestaain ke fefadon ke Cancer ke aaspaas keindrit kar diya. peshevar pahalavaan James fulingatan ne haalaanki bahut din se dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ko durbhaagya ko aamantrit karne vaale ek charitra "saindamain" (pariyon ki kahaaniyon ka ek bauna, jo bachchon ki aankhon mein ret jhonkakar unhein sone ke liye vivsh kar deta tha) ki sanjnyaa di hai.
vivotek ke sanyojan mein dairy queen ne bhi apne nae vafaadaari aur puraskaar kaaryakram ke hisse ke roop mein mobile phone par RFIDs ka prayog shuroo kar diya hai. apne phone par lagaane ke liye sanrakshak, ek RFID taig praapt kar sakte hain. sakriyn ke baad, phone mein pronnati aur koopan praapt honge, jise vivotek ke vishesh NFC upakaranon ke dvaara padha ja sakta hai.
RFID ke kai pustakaalaya anuprayog hain jo atyadhik laabhakaari ho sakte hain vishesh roop se parisancharan karmachaariyon ke liye. choonki RFID taig ko kisi vastu ke andar se bhi padha ja sakta hai, kisi saamagri ko scan karne ke liye kisi kitaab ke aavaran ya DVD ke khol ko kholne ki jaroorat naheen hai. isse ripteeteev motion injureej ko kam kiya ja sakta hai. jahaan pustakon ke oopar ek baarakod hai, vahaan abhi bhi yeh suvidha hai ki lenevaale ek kitaab ko ek baar mein karne ki bajaae, pustakon ke ek poore dher ko ek baar mein scan kar sakte hain. choonki RFID taig ko gati mein bhi padha ja sakta hai, RFID reedar ka upayog lautaai gayi saamagri ki kanveyar belt par rahate hue jaanch karne se karmachaari samay mein bachat hoti hai. lekin, jaisa ki baarakod ke saath hai, yeh sabhi lenevaalon ke dvaara swayam hi kiya ja sakta hai jiska arth hua ki unhein fir kabhi karmachaariyon ki sahaayata ki jaroorat na ho. ek nishchit sthaan ke in reedar ke alaava portebal reedar bhi hain (laaibreriyn ke liye, lekin bhavishya mein sanbhavat: lenevaalon ke liye bhi, sanbhavat: yahaan tak ki unke swayam ke saamaanya-uddeshya vaale reedar). in sab ke saath, vastusoochi ko kuchh second ke bheetar, saamagri ke ek poore shelf par kiya ja sakega, jiske tahat ek bhi pustak ko aalamaari se hataana naheen padega.[30]. amyo, sveedan mein, RFID ka istemaal netraheenon ke liye shravya pustakein lene ke liye kiya jaata hai.[31] Malaysia mein, malteemeediya university laaibreri, saaibarajaya mein pustakon ka sateek sthaan ingit karne ke liye smart shelvs ka prayog kiya jaata hai.[32] Netherland mein, haath mein pakade jaane vaale reedar ko is uddeshya ke liye shuroo kiya gaya hai.

1612 mein jemsataaun ke avasthaapan ke chhah saal baad John raalf pehle adhivaasi hain jinhonne tambaakoo ki ek nakadi fasal ke roop mein safalataapoorvak kheti ki. tambaakoo ki maang mein teji se vruddhi hui, use "bhoora sona" kaha gaya, kyonki usane sone ke abhiyaan mein vifal varjeeniya ko share company mein punarjeevit kar diya.[21] puraani duniya ki maangon ko poora karne ke liye tambaakoo ki paidaavaar lagaataar ki gayi jiske parinaamasvaroop jameen ki urvara shakti sheegra hi kam ho gayi. isne pashchim ko ek agyaat mahaadveep mein basane ke liye prerak ka kaarya kiya aur isi tarah tambaakoo utpaadan ka ek vistaar hua.[22] bekan vidroh ke pehle tak anubandhit daasata hi praathamik shram bal ka aadhaar thi jiske kaaran das pratha par dhyaan kendrit hua.[23] yeh pravrutti ameriki kraanti ke baad kam hui aur daasapratha laabhaheen maani gayi. haalaanki yeh pratha 1794 mein punarjeevit ho gayi jab kapaas ki charkhi ka aavishkaar hua.[24][page needed]
Parakala is a trained political economist. After his return from the London School of Economics (LSE) in 1991 summer, he established a policy and research consultancy and by name Centre for Public Policy Studies (CPPS). He led the Centre as its director. CPPS worked for governments, both union and state, and undertook many evaluation studies for inter-governmental organisations such as Unicef, ILO, UNDP, WTO etc. CPPS also undertook public opinion polls and election analyses. CPPS is now made into a private limited company with the name RightFOLIO. RightFOLIO has a large portfolio: political analysis, election studies, Communications, Conferences, Brand Consulting, and Human Resource consulting. Parakala is now heading RightFOLIO as its Managing director.
mobail divais dheere-dheere hamaare dainik jeevan mein praudyogikee jod rahe hain. kisee bhee samay kisee bhee smaartaphon ke bina kisee bhee samay dekhane ke lie yah durlabh hai, hamen vaastavik duniya mein vyaavahaarik roop se anant jaanakaaree tak pahunch pradaan kar raha hai. hamaare paas pahale se hee sait-too-stor kray kee tarah cheejen hain, jisase onalain graahakon ko bhautik khudara sthaan mein khareedane aur lene ke lie saksham kiya ja sakata hai, lekin agale star bhautik aur dijital vaastavikataon ke beech aur ekeekaran bhee hoga. amezain jaise onalain braand daish batan jaisee adhik bhautik utpaadon ko shuroo karana shuroo kar denge, aur volamaart jaisee bhautik braand adhik dijital suvidhaen shuroo kar denge, jaise stor maips aur utpaad pareekshan
web aadhaarit prabandhan upakaran, sangathanon ko apni sampatti ki nigraani ki anumati dete hue duniya mein kaheen se bhi prabandhan ke faisale karne mein saksham karte hain. web aadhaarit anuprayog ka ab matlab hai ki, teesara paksh, jaise vinirmaata aur thekedaar ko parisanpatti deta ko adyatan karne ke liye pahunch di ja sakti hai, udaaharan ke liye jismein shaamil hai, nireekshan itihaas aur online pralekhan hastaantaran jo yeh sunishchit karta hai ki antim upayogakarta ke paas hamesha sahi, rial-time data ho. sangathan, pehle se hi mobile parisanpatti prabandhan samaadhaan ke saath RFID taig ko sanyojit karke apni sampatti ko darj karne aur uske sthaan par najar rakhane, usaki vartamaan sthiti aur unka rakh-rakhaav kiya gaya hai ya naheen, yeh jaanane ke liye prayog kar rahe hain.
iski tulana mein atulyakaalik system ka design bahut kathin hota hai kyonki sabhi sambhav samay mein bhi sambhaavit state ka vichaar kiya jaana chaahiye. nyoonatam aur adhiktam samay ke table ke nirmaan ke sabse saamaanya vidhi ke anusaar ismein saare state vidyamaan ho aur vaise state ke mineemaaij ke liye sarkit ko samaayojit kiya jaata hai aur jo iske sabhi hisson ke susangat state mein samay-samay par jaane ke liye sarkit ko baadhya kare. (ise "self-reesinkronaaijeshan" kaha jaata hai.) aise saavdhaan design ke bina sanyogavash atulyakaalik laujik ka utpaadan karna aasaan hai jo "asthir" hai aur vaastavik electronics hai jismein apratyaashit parinaam hote hain kyonki electronic upakaranon ke moolyon mein chhote badlaavon ki vajah se sanchit vilamb hota hai. kuchh sarkit (jaise sinkronaaijr-flip flop, svich debaaunsar aur jo baahari anasinkronaaijd ko atulyakaalik laujik sarkit mein pravesh karne ki anumati deta hai) sahaj roop se apne design mein antarnihit atulyakaalik rahe hain aur is tarah hi vishleshan kiya jaana chaahiye.
1860 ke dashak mein ameriki naagrik yuddh tak usaka vikaas sthir raha, jab praathamik shram shakti daasata se sthaanaantarit hokar fasalon ka hissedaar bani. yeh, maang mein parivartan ke saath hua aur cigarette ke utpaadan ke saath tambaakoo audyogeekaran ki or badha. 1881 mein ek shilpkaar James bonasaik ne cigarette ke utpaadan ki gati badhaane ke liye ek machine ka utpaadan kiya.[29]
sabse saamaanya-uddeshya transfer-laujik machine ek computer hai. yeh moolat: ek svat: baainari abekas hai. aam taur par computer ki niyantran ikaai ka design ek micro program ke roop mein kiya gaya hai jise ek maaikroseekveinsar dvaara chalaaya jaata hai. yeh micro program ek player-piyaano rol ki tarah hoti hai. har taalika pravishti ya sookshm program ke "shabd" state ke har bit ko command deti hai jo ki computer par niyantran karti hai. anukramak fir use ginti karta hai aur memori ya sanyojan laujik machine mein yeh ginti sambodhit karta hai jismein micro program samaahit hota hai. maaikroprograam se bits ankaganiteeya laujik ikaai, memori aur computer ke anya bhaagon aur swayam maaikrosikyonsar par niyantran karta hai.
New York shahar mahanagar parivhan praadhikran ne ek RFID pareekshan kiya jismein maastarakaard dvaara pepaas ka upayog kiya gaya. yeh pareekshan mukhya roop se IRT leksingatan evenyoo line par kiya gaya jismein anya laainon ke kai vyast station bhi shaamil the. yeh pareekshan 31 May 2009 ko samaapt hua, lekin pepaas ke upayog ke vikalp ko vyaapak paimaane par baad ki taareekh mein pun: shuroo kiya ja sakta hai. MTA, New York shahar ke sabave aur bason par kiraaya bhugataan ke liye smaartalink (PATH dvaara shuroo) ko sveekaar karne aur antat: metrokaard ke ek pratisthaapan ke roop mein chalaane ki sambhaavana ka adhyayan kar raha hai.
usi samay, nae ekeekrut paripth (ICs) eliyn, impinj aur NXP (poorv mein Philips) dvaara shuroo kiye gaye jisne behtar pradarshan dikhaaya aur IT parisanpatti nigraani anuprayog mein visfot hua. aaj ki taareekh mein isko bruhat paimaane par apnaane vaale bank of America aur vels faarago prateet hote hain - pratyek ki ek darjan se adhik deta kendron mein 100,000 se adhik parisanpatti hai.[16]

2007 mein kalaakaar jodi aartakoon ne apni vishv pariyojana Kansa shuroo ki. sirpa masaalin ki maanav sadrush lakdi ki moortiyon mein andar ek RFID hota hai. hans-ularish golar-masaalin ne ek new media Art vark ka nirmaan kiya jo Internet par kansa ke vyaktigat moortiyon ko tres karta hai. maalikon se us shahar ko panjeekrut karne ke liye kaha jaata hai jahaan unki moorti sthit hai. aartakoon mein sandarbhit RFID ki adviteeya sankhya dvaara maalik, apni moorti ki pehchaan mool moorti ke roop mein kar sakte hain.
V.S started his early political life by organising the agricultural workers in Kuttanadu. He was a well dedicated organizer of coir factory workers at the age of 16 under A.K. Gopalan and A.V. Kunjambu. Even though V.S. Achuthanandan lacked formal education, he was noted for his simplicity, dedication and deep reading. He was initiated into the political movement by P. Krishna Pillai. Later he participated in the freedom movement and the Communist Movement. V.S was in the forefront of the Punnapra-Vayalar uprising and Freedom Struggle against the policies for C.P Ramaswamy Iyer, Divan of Travancore who wanted to establish an American model government in Travancore. He was arrested on 28 October 1946 and was taken to Poonjar police station. He was beaten up severely in the lock – up. Policemen pierced his sole in both legs with bayonet. V.S spent five and half years in jails and four years underground during his political life.
enbeded software design imyooniti aveyar prograaming ka prayog karta hai, jaise avarodh nirdesh ke saath aprayukt kaaryakram smruti ke roop mein bharne ka prayaas karta hai jo truti ke pun: praapti kaaryakram ki or sanket deta hai. is vifalta ke khilaaf raksha mein madad karta hai jo micro kantrolar anudesh soochak ko bigaad sakte hain, jo anyatha yaadruchhik code ke nishpaadit ka kaaran ban sakte hain.

haalaanki, is baat par bahas chal rahi hai ki kab aur kahaan pustakaalayon mein pratham baar RFID shuroo hua, ise pehli baar ek takaneek ke roop mein pustakaalaya seting mein kaaryapravaah mein vruddhi karne hetu 1990 ke dashak mein prastaavit kiya gaya. pustakaalayon mein sarvapratham RFID shuroo karne vaalon mein nishchit roop se Singapore hai aur New York mein raukafelar vishvavidyaalaya is takaneek ka upayog karne wala sanyukt raajya America mein pehla shaikshanik pustakaalaya hai, jabki Michigan mein Farmington Community Library is takaneek ka upayog karne waali pehli saarvajanik sanstha hai, donon ne 1999 mein RFID ka upayog shuroo kiya. Europe mein, RFID ka upayog karne wala pratham saarvajanik pustakaalaya Netherland mein hoogejand-saipemeer mein hai, jahaan 2001 mein lenevaalon ko ek vikalp diya gaya. unhein aashcharyachakit karte hue, bujurg logon sahit 70% ne RFID vikalp ka prayog kiya aur jaldi hi anukoolit ho gaye.
pashu taiging ke liye dijaain kiye gaye pratyaaropit kiye jaane vaale RFID chip, ab insaanon mein istemaal kiye ja rahe hain. RFID pratyaaropan ke saath ek aaranbhik prayog, saaibaranetiks ke british professor kevin vaaravik dvaara kiya gaya jinhonne 1998 mein apne haath mein ek chip pratyaaropit kiya. 2004 mein kaunaraad ches ne Barcelona aur rautaradaim mein apne naait club mein apne VIP graahakon ki pehchaan ke liye jo iska prayog peya ke bhugataan ke liye karte the, pratyaaropit chips ki peshakash ki[42].
Gen2 EPC inlej ki sabse kam laagat smaartakod dvaara 100 million ya adhik ke khand mein pratyek tukade ke liye $0.05 ki hai$[61]. fir bhi, aagaami roopaantaran (atirikt lebal stock ya inkaipsooleshan prasanskaran/pravishti aur ek suvidha ya DC ke liye maal dhulaai laagat sahit) aur upayogi RFID lebal mein inlej se aur maujooda Gen 2 protokaul maanak ka design, kul antim laagat mein badhotri karega, vishesh roop se RFID aapoorti shrrunkhala vastu-stareeya taiging ke liye atirikt suraksha upaayon ke vistaar ke saath.
gharon mein aam taur par vidyut company, telephone company, kebal teleevijn ya upagrah dish seva, akhbaar ka chanda aur anya aisi niyamit sevaaen dendaari lekhe hain. gruhasth log saamaanyat: check ya kredit card ka upayog karte hue, hastachaalit tareeke se maasik aadhaar par inka dhyaan rakhate aur bhugataan karte hain. vyaapaar mein, aam taur par A/P faail mein vyaapak sevaaen shaamil hoti hain aur saamaanya roop se lekhaakaar ya bahi-khaata likhnevaale, jab unhein beejak milta hai to is dendaari khaate mein aane vaale dhan aur jab ve bhugataan karte hain, to is khaate se jaane vaale dhan ke pravaah ki khoj-khabar ke liye lekhaankan software ka prayog karte hain. badi companiyaan ek sangathan ke beejakon ke sansaadhan mein prayukt kaagj aur hastachaalit tatvon ko svachaalit karne ke liye teji se vishesh dendaari lekhon ke svachaalan ka prayog kar rahi hain.

rajistar hastaantaran laujik mein dviaadhaari sankhya flip flop ke samoohon mein sangraheet hain jise rajistar kaha jaata tha. pratyek rajistar ka aautaput taaron ka bandal hai jise ek "bas" kaha jaata hai jo anya aakalan ke liye us number ko paas rakhata hai. yeh aakalan keval sanyojan laujik ka ek bhaag hai. pratyek aakalan ke paas ek bas aautaput hota hai aur ye kai input rajistaron se juda ho sakta hai. kabhi-kabhi ek rajistar ke paas inke input par bahusanketak hota hai jisse yeh kai bason mein se kisi ek se number ko store kar sakta hai. vaikalpik roop se kai cheejon ke aautaput ko bafars ke maadhyam se joda ja sakta hai jo ek ko chhodkar sabhi upakaranon ke aautaput ko band kar sakta hai. input se pratyek rajistar ke naye data ko sveekaar karne par anukramik state machine niyantran karta hai.
yeh vyavasaaya aniyamit hai, haalaanki antarraashtreeya maanak sthaapit karne vaale nikaaya maujood hain, jinka ek udaaharan hai sanyukt raajya America, Canada, Britain aur anya deshon mein 5,000 se adhik sadasyon ka ek sangh, antarraashtreeya dendaari lekhon ke peshevar (IAPP).[1] apni vyaavasaayik maanak sanrachana ke ansh ke roop mein,[2] IAPP ne dendaari lekhon ki ek nai paribhaasha sthaapit ki hai:
vyaya prashaasan aam taur par dendaari lekhon ke saath kreeb se juda hua hai aur kabhi-kabhi ek hi karmachaari dvaara ye kaarya kiye jaate hain. vyaya prashaasak yeh pushti karte hue karmachaari ke vyaya report ka satyaapan karta hai ki vimaan yaataayaat, bhoo-parivhan, bhojan aur manoranjan, teleefon, hotel tatha anya vyaya ke samarthan mein raseedein upalabdh hain. yeh pralekhan, kar uddeshyon ke liye aur anupayukt ya glat kharchon ki pratipoorti ki rokathaam ke liye aavashyak hai. vimaan yaataayaat kharch mein, shaayad sabse adhik dhokhaadhadi ki sambhaavana hai, kyonki havaai yaatra ki uchch laagat aur havaai yaatra sambandhi pralekhan ki bhraamak prakruti ki vajah se, jismein aarakshan, raseedein aur vaastavik tikton ka vinyaas shaamil hain.
Well many many congratulations to the creator of this Amazing App to manage business. I own a Mobile Repair Shop and managing my stock, sale, purchase, ledger, expenses, profit and loss, monthly sales, party statement, reminders for payment and stock, and most importantly billing and I can also use my logo on my bills. And the customer care is also great. They respond within hours.
khudara vikretaaon ke maadhyam se bikne vaale utpaadon ke nirmaata khudara vikreta ko beche gaye apne utpaadon ko badhaava dene ke liye ek seemit avadhi ke liye is ummeed ke saath chhoot deta hai, ki khudara vikreta bachat ko apne graahakon tak pahunchaaega. haalaanki, khudara vikreta aamtaur par forward baaing mein vyast ho jaate hain aur chhoot avadhi ke dauraan adhik utpaad khareedne lagte hain jitna ki ve prachaar avadhi ke dauraan bechne ka iraada naheen rakhate. kuchh khudara vikreta ek prakaar ke antarapanan mein sanlagn ho jaate hain aur riyaayati utpaad ko anya khudara vikretaaon ko bechne lag jaate hain, is abhyaas ko daaivarting ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. is abhyaas ka mukaabala karne ke liye, nirmaata, prachaarit maal par RFID taig ke prayog ki sambhaavanaaon ko talaash rahe hain taaki ve track kar sakein ki vaastav mein kaun sa utpaad poori tarah se riyaayati keematon par aapoorti shrrunkhala ke maadhyam se becha gaya hai.[27]
Wall-Mart ka ek aur prabhaag, saims club bhi is disha mein aage aaya hai. dinaank 7 January 2008 ko isne apne aapoortikrtaaon ko yeh bataate hue patra bheja ki 31 January 2008, se pratyek poorn ekal-vastu pailet, jise desoto, Texas, ke uske vitran kendron par ya us DC dvaara seva pradatt seedhe uske kisi store par bheja ja raha hai, us par ek EPC Gen 2 RFID taig hona zaroori hai. iska paalan karne mein naakaam rahane vaale aapoortikrta ko seva shulk dena hoga. [24]

In 2017 Sarvekshak became the 1st ship of Indian Navy ever to deploy solar power. It has innovatively deployed the zero-maintenance solar power system, capable of generating 5.4 kW electricity and replacing the ship’s traditional 4.4 kW emergency diesel alternator.[12] The installation cost was around Rs. 19 lakh and the generation cost is Rs. 12 per kv per hour. The estimated savings for a lifespan of about 15 years is around Rs. 1 crore. The current diesel generator consumes a litre of diesel to produce five units of electricity. Captain Rajesh Bargoti, the commanding officer of the ship, said It took about six months to put the entire system in place. We are now using solar energy for lights and a couple of air conditioners.'[13] The estimated profit generated in a ship service life of 25 years is Rs 2.7 crore in this small project alone. "Even if the system is used for 25 days in one year, the system can repay its cost in less than 10 years while protecting the nature," the Navy said.
vishv svaasthya sangathan ka anumaan hai ki tambaakoo ki vajah se 2004 mein 5.4 million logon ki mrutyu hui[75] aur 20 veen sadi ke dauraan 100 million se adhik logon ki mrutyu hui.[76] isi tarah, sanyukt raajya America rog niyantran aur nivaaran kendra ne tambaakoo ka prayog ka varnan viksit deshon mein maanav svaasthya aur duniya bhar mein samay se pehle maut ke sabse mahatvapoorn jokhim vaale kaarak ke roop mein ki hai."[77]
yadi kisi taig yukt vastu ka bhugataan kredit card ya ek lauyalti card ke upayog ke saath sanyojan ke roop mein kiya jaata hai, to paroksh roop se us vastu ki duniya bhar mein adviteeya ID (RFID taig mein samaahit) ko padh kar kreta ki pehchaan ko nikaalna sambhav ho jaaega. aisa tabhi sambhav hai jab dekhne vaale vyakti ke paas agar lauyalti card deta aur kredit card data tak abhigm bhi ho aur upakaran wala vyakti yeh jaanta ho ki aap kahaan jaane vaale hain.
1860 ke dashak mein ameriki naagrik yuddh tak usaka vikaas sthir raha, jab praathamik shram shakti daasata se sthaanaantarit hokar fasalon ka hissedaar bani. yeh, maang mein parivartan ke saath hua aur cigarette ke utpaadan ke saath tambaakoo audyogeekaran ki or badha. 1881 mein ek shilpkaar James bonasaik ne cigarette ke utpaadan ki gati badhaane ke liye ek machine ka utpaadan kiya.[29]

soochana ka bhandaaran enaalaug ki tulana mein digital pranaali mein aasaani se kar sakte hain. digital system ka shor pratirksha vightan ke bina deta ko sangraheet aur pun: praapt karne ki anumati deta hai. ek enaalaug system mein, puraane aur chheejan se shor sangruheet soochana ko nasht karta hai. ek digital pranaali mein jab tak kul shoragul ek nishchit star se neeche hai, jaankaari ko poori tarah se pun: praapt kiya ja sakta hai.
2004 mein haardaveyar action group ne ek nae protokaul, class 1 janareshan 2 intarafes nirmit kiya jisne kai samasyaaon ko sulajhaaya jiska anubhav class 0 tatha class 1 ke saath kiya gaya tha. EPC Gen2 maanak, December 2004 mein manjoor hua tha aur sambhaavana hai ki yeh aage badhte nishkriya RFID taig maanakon ka aadhaar banega. ise Intermec se ek vivaad ke baad ki is maanak se unke RFID-sambandhit kai peteint ka ullanghan ho sakta hai, manjoori di gayi. yeh faisala kiya gaya ki sirf maanak se unke peteint ka ullanghan naheen ho raha hai, balki yeh ki yadi taig ko ek vishesh tareeke se padhna hai to ho sakta hai ki Intermec ko kuchh rauyalti ka bhugataan karna hoga. EPC Gen2 maanak ko ISO 18000-6C ke roop mein maamooli sanshodhanon ke saath 2006 mein apnaaya gaya.
fraanseesi jeen nikot (jinke naam se nikoteen shabd vyutpann hua) ne 1560 mein France ko tambaakoo se parichit karaaya aur fir tambaakoo England mein fail gaya. kisi angrej ke dhoomrapaan ki pehli report 1556 me Bristol mein ek naavik ki hai, "usaki naak se dhuaan niklata dekha gaya".[3] chai, kaufi aur afeem ki tarah tambaakoo bhi abhi kai maadak dravyon mein se ek hai jo mool roop se dava ke roop mein istemaal kiya gaya tha.[25] French mein vyaapaariyon dvaara 1600 ke aaspaas tambaakoo ko vahaan parichit karaaya gaya jise aaj ke aadhunik samay mein jaambiya aur senegal kehte hain. usi samay morakko ke kaafile timbakatoo aur Portugal ke aaspaas ke kshetron mein tambaakoo le aaye aur yeh vastu (aur paudhe) dakshin Africa ko diye, jisse poore Africa mein 1650 ke dashak mein tambaakoo ki lokapriyta sthaapit ho gayi.
RFID passport ke liye maanak antarraashtreeya naagar vimaanan sangathan (ICAO) dvaara nirdhaarit kiye jaate hain aur ye ICAO dastaavej 9303, bhaag 1, khand 1 aur 2 mein nihit hain (6 sanskaran, 2006). ICAO E-passport mein ISO/IEC 14443 RFID chip ko "kauntaiktales intigreted sarkit" ke roop mein sandarbhit karta hai. ICAO maanak, E-passport ko pahachaanane ke liye saamane ke aavaran par ek maanak E-passport logo upalabdh karaate hain.
rekheeya paripth ki tulana mein aankik paripth ko istemaal karne ki vajah iska ek laabh yeh hai ki shor[2] ke kaaran sanketo ka vightan naheen hota hai va unhein aasaani se bheja aur darshaaya ja sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye, 1 aur 0 ke kram mein banaaye huye lambe aavaaj ke ek sanket ko truti ke bina pun:nirmaan kiya ja sakta hai basharte sanket banaane ke dauraan paida hua shor itna na ho ki usaki vajah se 1 va 0 ko pahachaana hi na ja sake. seedi mein ek ghante ke sangeet ko kareeb 60 lakh dviaadhaari ankon (baainari dijits) ke roop mein sangraheet kiya ja sakta hai.
↑ Null, Linda; Lobur, Julia (2006). The essentials of computer organization and architecture. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pa॰ 121. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0763737696. http://books.google.com/books?id=QGPHA19GE-IC&pg=PA121&dq=digital++circuits+and+Boolean+logic#v=onepage&q=digital%20%20circuits%20and%20Boolean%20logic&f=false. "We can build logic diagrams (which in turn lead to digital circuits) for any Boolean expression..."

1980 ke dashak mein kuchh shodhakartaaon ne paaya ki lagbhag sabhi tulyakaalik rajistar-transfer masheenon ko first-in-first-out tulyakaalan laujik ka upayog karke atulyakaalik dijaainon mein parivrtit kiya ja sakta tha. is yojana mein digital machine, ek data pravaah ke ek set ke roop mein pahachaani jaati hai. pravaah ke har kadam mein, ek atulyakaalik "tulyakaalan sarkit" nirdhaarit karta hai jab us step ka aautaput thos aur ek prastut sanket deta hai ki un stejon ko "deta ko pakado" jismein un stejon ke input mein prayog hua hai. iske liye kuchh apekshaakrut saral tulyakaalan sarkit ki aavashyakta hai.
nirpeksh sankhya mein duniya bhar mein, RFID sanyukt raajya America mein sabse adhik istemaal kiya jaata hai (apne 300 million nivaasiyon ke saath), jiske baad United Kingdom aur Japan ka sthaan hai. anumaan hai ki duniya bhar mein 30 million se adhik pustakaalaya saamagriyon par ab RFID taig laga hai jismein rom mein Vatican laaibreri mein kuchh shaamil hain.[29]
RFID traansapondar chips ko golf geind mein pratyaaropit kiya gaya hai jisse unhein track kiya ja sake. aise traiking ka upayog homing upakaran ka upayog kar, khoi hui geind ko khojane mein aur kampyootareekrut driving range praaroop mein kiya ja sakta hai jo ek khilaadi dvaara maare gaye shot ko track karta hai aur doori aur sateekata par pratikriya deta hai.
paryaapt vaigyaanik saboot se pata chalta hai ki cigarette ki oonchi keemat ke kaaran cigarette ki samagr khapat mein kami aati hai. jyaadaatar adhyayanon se sanket milta hai ki moolya mein 10% ki vruddhi se cigarette ke samagr upabhog mein 3% se 5% kami ho jaayegi. moolya vruddhi ke baad yuvaaon, alpasankhyakon aur kam aay vaale dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ke nasha chhodne ki sambhaavana, anya dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki tulana mein do se teen guna adhik badh jaati hai.[84][85] dhoomrapaan karna aksar ek bahut drudh hone ka udaaharan maane jaate hain haalaanki, uda. hai ki keematon mein bhaari vruddhi ka parinaam, jiska khapat par kaafi kam prabhaav padta hai.
kuchh pranaaliyon mein yadi digital deta ka ek bhaag lupt ho jaae ya galat tareeke se vyavahrut hon, to sambandhit deta ke vishaal khandon ka arth poori tarah se badal sakta hai. kyonki kleef ifekt ke kaaran, upayogakartaaon ke liye bataana mushkil hai ki koi vishisht system vifalta ke kagaar par sahi tha ya fir vah asafal hone se pehle bahut adhik shor ko sahan kar sakta hai ya naheen.
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