dendaari lekha ek aisa faail ya khaata hai, jismein vyakti ya company dvaara aapoortikrtaaon ko bakaaya, lekin ab tak adatt (karj ka ek roop) paisa hota hai. jab aapko beejak praapt hota hai, to aap use faail se jodte hain aur bhugataan karte samay use hataate hain. is prakaar, A/P rin ka ek aisa svaroop hai, jo aapoortikrta apne khreedaaron ko pesh karte hain, jiske jriye pehle se hi praapt kisi utpaad ya seva ke liye baad mein bhugataan anumat hota hai.
ek baar input deta ko sahi maanane ke baad, khud dijaain ko abhi bhi shuddhata ke liye satyaapit kiya jaana chaahiye. kuchh upakaran pravaah, pehle ek dijaain ke utpaadan dvaara design ki pushti karte hain aur fir upakaran pravaah ke liye sangat input deta ke utpaadan ke liye design ki skaining karte hain. yadi scan kiya hua deta, input deta ke saath mel khaata hai, to upakaran pravaah ne shaayad koi trutiyaan pesh naheen ki.
jin deshon mein ek saarvajanik svaasthya pranaali hai, vahaan dhoomrapaan karne vaale beemaar logon ki samaajik chikitsa dekhbhaal ki laagat karon mein vruddhi ke maadhyam se vahan ki jaati hai. is morche par do tark maujood hain, "dhoomrapaan samarthakon" ka tark hai ki bhaari dhoomrapaan karne vaale aam taur par lamba jeevan naheen jeete jisse budhaape ko prabhaavit karne waali kharcheeli aur puraani beemaari naheen hoti aur yeh samaaj mein svaasthya seva ke bojh ko kam karta hai. "dhoomrapaan virodhi" tark ke anusaar svaasthya chikitsa ka bojh badhta hai kyonki dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki saamaanya aabaadi ki tulana mein kam umr mein lambi beemaari dar adhik hai.

beedi patali hoti hai, aksar masaaledaar, dakshin Asiaee cigarette teindu patte mein lipte tambaakoo se bani hoti hai aur surakshit rakhane ke liye antim sire par ek rangeen dhaage se bandhi hoti hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] beedi peene se uchch star ka kaarban monoaaksaaid, nikoteen aur sanyukt raajya America mein vishisht cigarette se raal niklata hai.[40][41] saamaanya cigarette ki tulana mein beedi apekshaakrut kam keemat waali hoti hai, jo Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, kanbodiya aur Bhaarat mein gareebon ke beech lambe samay se lokapriya hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
tambaakoo ek krushi utpaad hai jo nikoteeniya prajaati ke paudhon ki taaja pattiyon ka prasanskaran hai. is prajaati mein kai upajaatiyaan hain, haalaanki nikoteeniya tabaakum (Nicotiana tabacum) saamaanyat: ugaaya jaata hai. nikoteeaana rastika (Nicotiana rustica) nikoteen ki uchch saandrata ke maamale mein doosare number par hai. in pattiyon ki kheti hoti hai aur dheeme okseekaran ki suvidha aur tambaakoo ke patte mein kairoteenauyad ko kam hone diya jaata hai taaki vah svasth ho jaaye. isse tambaakoo ke patton mein kuchh yaugik taiyaar hote hain jo meethi ghaas, chai, tel gulaab ya fal jaisa khushaboodaar jaayaka paida karte hain. paikejing se pehle tambaakoo aksar nashe ki shakti badhaane ke liye anya yogaj ke saath sanyukt roop se rakha jaata hai taaki utpaad ka peeech (pH) badal jaaye ya dhoomrapaan ka prabhaav ya svaad behtar ho jaaye. sanyukt raajya America mein in yojakon mein 599 padaarthon ka niyman kiya gaya hai.[8] is utpaad ko uske baad prasanskrut aur paik kar upabhokta baajaar ke liye bhej diya jaata hai. khapat ke saadhan ke taur par sakriya tatvon ke saath kam gaun-utpaad ko naye tareeke ke roop mein sammilit kar is kshetr mein vyaapak sambhaavnaaon ka vistaar kiya gaya hai.

Canadian Cattle Identification Agency ne baarakod taig ke liye ek sthaanaapann ke roop mein RFID taig ka prayog shuroo kiya. taig ki aavashyakta gojaateeya jhund ke mool ki pehchaan karne ke liye hoti hai aur iska prayog yeh pata lagaane ke liye kiya jaata hai kab ek paiking plant ek shav ko khaarij karta hai. vartamaan mein CCIA taig ka istemaal, ek svaichhik aadhaar par viskaunsin mein aur America ke kisaanon dvaara kiya ja raha hai. USDA vartamaan mein apna swayam ka kaaryakram viksit kar raha hai.
baad mein, nirvaat tube ka istemaal kiya gaya. ye bahut tej the, lekin garmi utpann karte the aur filaameints ke jal jaane ke kaaran avishvasaneeya the. fainaaaut aam taur par paanch se saat the, jo tube ke vidyut se heeting dvaara seemit the. 1950 ke dashak mein, filaameint ke saath vishesh "computer tube" viksit kiye gaye jo silikaun ki tarah asthir tatvon ko nikaal dete the. ye kai hajaaron ghante tak chalte hain.

praudyogiki ke udaya ke saath, kuchh vyaktiyon ko RFID maanav pratyaaropan ke kaaran adhikaaron ki haani ka dar hai. vereechip ek RFID pratyaaropan par kaam kar raha hai jismein GPS traiking kshamata hogi.[84] ameriki sarkaar dvaara yeh takaneek na keval ek vyakti ke liye balki astitv mein maujood har bhautik vastu ki kisi bhi aur har samay bhaugolik avasthati jaanane ki anumati degi. jahaan ek or yeh takaneek laapata bachchon ya bhagodon ka pata lagaane mein sahaayata kar sakti hai, vaheen doosari or yeh sarkaaron ko RFID chip vaale kisi vastu ya vyakti par nazar rakhane ki anumati deta hai. iske alaava, ise saiddhaantik roop se kisi vyakti ki jaankaari ya sahamati ke bina kiya ja sakta hai; aur isi baat par vivaad hai.
purushon mein mahilaaon ki tulana mein dhoomrapaan ki lat paanch guna adhik hoti hain,[13] haalaanki chhote aayu varg mein is laingik antar mein giraavat aati hai.[14][15] viksit deshon mein purushon mein dhoomrapaan apne charam par pahunch chuka hai aur usamein giraavat aani shuroo ho gayi hai haalaanki mahilaaon ke maamale mein vruddhi barkaraar hai.[53]
yaantrik tark aksar aisi vaashing machine mein un logon ke roop mein saste niyantrakon mein prayog kiya jaata hai. mashahoor roop se, Charles baibej dvaara pehla computer design ko yaantrik laujik ke prayog ke liye dijaain kiya gaya tha. yaantrik laujik ko, bahut chhote computer mein bhi istemaal kiya ja sakta hai jise naino takaneek dvaara banaaya ja sakta hai.
computer niyantrit digital system ko software dvaara niyantrit kiya ja sakta hai jo ki haardaveyar ko badle bina nae fankshan ko jodne ki anumati deta hai. aur aksar ise adyatan utpaad ke software ke dvaara kaarkhaane ke baahar kiya ja sakta hai. jisse utpaad ke design ki trutiyon ko graahak ke haath mein utpaad ke aane ke baad sanshodhit kiya ja sakta hai.
hamane pahale se hee sanvardhit vaastavikata (eaar) aur aabhaasee vaastavikata (veeaar) praudyogikee ke lie 2016 mein kuchh pramukh kadamon ko dekha hai. okulas ripht ko sakaaraatmak risepshan ke lie jaaree kiya gaya tha, aur hajaaron veeaar aips aur gems ka paalan kiya gaya tha. hamane piksamon go bhee dekha, eaar gem, 100 miliyan se adhik daunalod ke saath visphot kiya. baajaar eaar aur veeaar ke lie taiyaar hai, aur in epleekeshans ke lie hamaare paas pahale se shuruaatee stareey upakaran aur tek mil chuke hain, lekin isase pahale ki ham cheejen sachamuch le jaenge, agale saal hone ja rahe hain. ek baar ve karate hain, aapako vyaavahaarik roop se har cheej ke eaar aur veeaar sanskaranon ke lie taiyaar rahana hoga- aur paalan karane ke lie paryaapt vipanan avasaron ka paalan karana hoga.
As a child, Pakravan accompanied his parents to Cairo, where his father was appointed diplomatic agent. There, he received his primary education at the Lycée Français. He was then sent to Liège, Belgium where he attended high school and university. Pakravan then studied at the artillery school in Poitiers, France, and the Ecole d’Application d’Artillerie in Fontainebleau.
sansthaan ki ye sahaayak khaata bahiyaaain hai. deya khaata bahi mein sansthaan ke sabhi deya khaate tatha praapya khaata bahi mein uske sabhi praapya khaate ankit rahate hain. yadi khaaton ki sankhya adhik hui to ek se adhik khaata bahiyaaain varnaanukram ya bhaugolik aadhaar par suvidhaanusaar bhi ye bahiyaaain rakhi jaati hai. sansthaan ke samaanya khaate mein bhi deya tatha praapya dhan ka aalekh rahata hai. in khaata bahiyon ki alag vyavastha shramavibhaajan ke sahaj laabh ke kaaran ki jaati hai kyonki iske dvaara vitt vibhaag ko baaaint kar tatha alag svatantr roop se bhi kaam karne mein sahaayata milti hai. saath hi shram aur samay ki bachat hoti hai. hisaab kitaab ke Milan mein bhi isse sahaayata milti hai kyonki sansthaan ke saamaanya khaate se in bahiyon ke khaate ka santulan samay samay par hota rahata hai jisse bhool chook ki chhaanabeen bhi aasaani se ho jaati hai. bade vyaapaarik sansthaanon mein in sahaayak bahiyon ka upayog vyaapak paimaane par kiya jaata hai.
Singapore mein, saarvajanik parivhan ki bason aur trainon mein nishkriya RFID ko laagoo kiya gaya hai jise EZ-Link card ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. bheed bhare shahar ke aatanrik kshetron mein yaataayaat ko char tol dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai jise stord vailyoo card (kaishakaard ke roop mein gyaat) ke upayog ko ek sakriya taiging pranaali ke saath upayog dvaara laagoo kiya jaata hai.
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