RFID taig ka istamaal jin tol booth par electronic tol sangrahan ke liye kiya jaata hai unamein shaamil hain jaurjiya ka krooj card, California ka faasatraik, Colorado ka E-470, ilinois ka I-paas, oklaahoma ka paaikapaas, vistaar karte poorvi raajyon ka E-ZPass pranaali (maisaachusets ke fast len, delaaveyar, new haimpashaayar tarnapik, maireelaind, new jersey tarnapik peinsilveniya tarnapik, vest varjeeniya tarnapik, New York ki throove pranaali, varjeeniya, main tarnapik aur rode dweep ke nyooport brij sahit), sentral florida bhi is takaneek ka istemaal apne E-PASS pranaali ke maadhyam se karte hain. E-paas aur sanapaas paarasparik roop se sangat hain. florida ka sanapaas, Texas mein vibhinn pranaali jismein shaamil hain D/FW ka NTTA tolataig, ostin metro TxTag aur Houston HCTRA EZ taig (jo praarambhik 2007 ke roop mein kisi bhi Texas tol road par maanya hain), kensaas ka K-taig, "kraus-ijraail raajamaarg" (raajamaarg 6), fileepeens ka south lujon expressway E-paas, Brisbane ke kveensalaind motaravej ka govaaya taig (pehle E-tol ke naam se gyaat), Australia, mein system, otopista del sol (sans raajamaarg), otopista sentral (kendreeya raajamaarg), otopista los librtadores, kostaanera norte, vespusiyo norte express aur vespusiyo sur shahari raajamaarg aur har aane wala shahari raajamaarg (ek "mukt pravaah" saadhan mein) chili mein niji niveshakon ko chhoot praapt, Hongkong ke sabhi tol surang (ototol) aur Portugal ke sabhi raajamaarg (viya verd, tol ke poore network ka vistaar karne waali duniya ki pehli pranaali), France (libr-T pranaali), Italy (teleepaas), Spain (Via-T), braajeel (sem paraar - Via Fáacil). taig, jo aam taur par sakriya prakaar ke hote hain, vaahanon ke booth se gujarte samay door se padhe jaate hain aur taig jaankaari ka prayog ek poorv bhugataan khaate se tol raashi ko naame likhne ke liye kiya jaata hai. yeh pranaali tol plaaja ke maadhyam se yaataayaat ko gati dene mein madad karti hai, choonki yeh RFID vaahan taig ke liye taareekh, samay aur bill ke aankade darj karta hai. greater Toronto area mein plaaja aur kataar-mukt 407 express tol root, sabhi biling ke liye ek traansapondar (ek sakriya taig) ke prayog ki anumati deta hai. isse, license plate dvaara ek vaahan ki pehchaan karne ki aavashyakta samaapt ho jaati hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
adviteeya pehchaan, RFID taig ke liye ek anivaarya aavashyakta hai, number yojana ki vishesh pasand ke baavajood. RFID taig deta kshamata itni badi hogi ki har vyaktigat taig mein ek adviteeya code hoga, jabki vartamaan baar code, kisi vishesh utpaad ke liye ek hi prakaar ke code ke liye seemit hain. RFID taig ki vishishtata ka matlab hai ki kisi utpaad ko ek sthaan se doosare sthaan par jaate samay track kiya ja sakega, jo antat: upabhokta ke haathon mein samaapt hoga. isse chori aur utpaad nuksaan ke anya roopon se nipatne mein madad milegi. utpaadon ka anurekhan ek mahatvapoorn visheshata hai jise taig ki ek anoothi pehchaan aur vastu ki kram sankhya vaale RFID taig se achhi tarah se samarthan milta hai. isse companiyon ko gunavatta ki kami aur parinaamasvaroop smruti abhiyaan se nipatne mein madad milegi aur saath hi bikri ke baad upabhoktaaon ki traiking aur rooparekha ke baare mein chinta bhi badhegi.

praarambhik ekeekrut paripth ek aanandadaayak sanyog the. unhein paise bachaane ke liye nirmit naheen kiya gaya tha, balki vajan bachaane ke liye aur Apollo gaaideins computer ko ek antariksh yaan ko ek inarshial gaaideins system ko niyantrit karne ki anumati dene ke liye banaaya gaya tha. pehla ekeekrut paripth laujik gate ki keemat kareeb $50 thi (1960 dollar mein, jab ek engineer $10,000/varsh kamaata tha). sabhi ko aashcharyachakit karte hue, jab sarkit ka thok mein utpaadan hone laga to ve digital laujik nirmaan ki sabse sasti vidhi ban gaye. is praudyogiki mein sudhaar ne laagat mein sabhi baad ke sudhaaron ko prerit kiya.


praudyogiki ke udaya ke saath, kuchh vyaktiyon ko RFID maanav pratyaaropan ke kaaran adhikaaron ki haani ka dar hai. vereechip ek RFID pratyaaropan par kaam kar raha hai jismein GPS traiking kshamata hogi.[84] ameriki sarkaar dvaara yeh takaneek na keval ek vyakti ke liye balki astitv mein maujood har bhautik vastu ki kisi bhi aur har samay bhaugolik avasthati jaanane ki anumati degi. jahaan ek or yeh takaneek laapata bachchon ya bhagodon ka pata lagaane mein sahaayata kar sakti hai, vaheen doosari or yeh sarkaaron ko RFID chip vaale kisi vastu ya vyakti par nazar rakhane ki anumati deta hai. iske alaava, ise saiddhaantik roop se kisi vyakti ki jaankaari ya sahamati ke bina kiya ja sakta hai; aur isi baat par vivaad hai.
mahangi engineering prakriyaaon ko svachaalit karne ke liye, kuchh EDA state table le sakte hain jo state machine ka varnan karte hain aur ek state machine ke mishrit bhaag ke liye ek truth table ya ek fankshan table ka utpaadan kar sakte hain. state table paath ka ek tukada hai jo pratyek state ko paristhitiyon ke saath soocheebaddh karta hai, jo unke aur sambandhit utpaadan sanketon ke beech sankraman ko niyantrit karta hai.
dendaari lekhe ek saamarik, moolya-yojit lekha kaarya hai, jo ek sangathan mein praathamik bina vetan-chitthe ke vitran kaarya sampann karta hai. at: AP parichaalan, sangathan ke vitteeya chakr mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai. AP sangathan ko sampoorn dendaari prakriya ke prabhaav ke moolyaankan aur sudhaar hetu, vyavasthit aur anushaasit drushtikon ke jriye apne uddeshyon ko poora karne mein saksham banaata hai. paaramparik AP gatividhiyon ke alaava, jismein anya paksh ikaaiyon (aapoortikrta, vikreta, kar praadhikaari, aadi.) ki deyataaon ko sveekaara jaata hai aur company aur aapoortikrtaaon ke beech sahamat rin neetiyon ke aadhaar par bhugataan kiya jaata hai, vartamaan AP vibhaagon ne dhokhaadhadi nivaaran, laagat mein kami, kaaryapravaah pranaali samaadhaan, nakadi pravaah prabandhan, aantarik niyantran tatha vikreta (saplaai chen) vitt poshan samet aur bhi vyaapak bhoomikaaon ko grahan kiya hai .[3]
The newly formed government under the leadership of N Chandrababu Naidu took office on June 8, 2018. In about three weeks time Parakala was appointed by the Chief Minister as Communications Advisor to the Government with a Cabinet Rank. Parakala established the communications network for the new state. He created systems and structures that not only communicated the point of view of the government to the people, but also collected dependable feedback from the people and conveyed it to the government leaders. Government schemes and programmes were clearly and creatively explained to the people. New Media, i.e., social media, was introduced into every department of the government. Parakala quit as Advisor to the Government as soon as the leader of the opposition made a critical comment on his continuance in the government in the wake of Telugu Desam braking its alliance with BJP as Parakala's wife happens to be a minister in the NDA government. He wrote in his letter of resignation that he was pained at the Opposition Leaders's comments and did not want any shadow of doubt to be cast on the government and the Chief Ministers fight agains the injustice done to the state by the NDA led union government.

fraanseesi jeen nikot (jinke naam se nikoteen shabd vyutpann hua) ne 1560 mein France ko tambaakoo se parichit karaaya aur fir tambaakoo England mein fail gaya. kisi angrej ke dhoomrapaan ki pehli report 1556 me Bristol mein ek naavik ki hai, "usaki naak se dhuaan niklata dekha gaya".[3] chai, kaufi aur afeem ki tarah tambaakoo bhi abhi kai maadak dravyon mein se ek hai jo mool roop se dava ke roop mein istemaal kiya gaya tha.[25] French mein vyaapaariyon dvaara 1600 ke aaspaas tambaakoo ko vahaan parichit karaaya gaya jise aaj ke aadhunik samay mein jaambiya aur senegal kehte hain. usi samay morakko ke kaafile timbakatoo aur Portugal ke aaspaas ke kshetron mein tambaakoo le aaye aur yeh vastu (aur paudhe) dakshin Africa ko diye, jisse poore Africa mein 1650 ke dashak mein tambaakoo ki lokapriyta sthaapit ho gayi.

↑ "VeriChips Implanted at CityWatcher.com". Compliance and Privacy. http://www.complianceandprivacy.com/News-VeriChip-concern.asp. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-03. "No one I spoke with at Six Sigma Security or at CityWatcher knew that the VeriChip had been hacked. They were also surprised to hear of VeriChip's downsides as a medical device. It was clear they weren't aware of some of the controversy surrounding the implant. (Liz McIntyre)"

In the 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, the Left Democratic Front (LDF) secured a huge win with a total of 91 seats in 140 assembly constituencies. At the age of 92, VS travelled across the state campaigning for the party with much vigour. V S Achuthanandan also contested this election from Malampuzha constituency, where he won by a margin of 27,142 votes. Being the face and most recognizable leader of the front, he staked his claim to be the next Chief Minister. However, the State and Central leadership appointed Pinarayi Vijayan as Chief Minister instead.
yeh vyavasaaya aniyamit hai, haalaanki antarraashtreeya maanak sthaapit karne vaale nikaaya maujood hain, jinka ek udaaharan hai sanyukt raajya America, Canada, Britain aur anya deshon mein 5,000 se adhik sadasyon ka ek sangh, antarraashtreeya dendaari lekhon ke peshevar (IAPP).[1] apni vyaavasaayik maanak sanrachana ke ansh ke roop mein,[2] IAPP ne dendaari lekhon ki ek nai paribhaasha sthaapit ki hai:
upakaran pravaah ka lekhan aur deebaging, digital design ka utpaadan karne waali companiyon mein ek sthaapit engineering visheshata hai. upakaran pravaah aam taur par ek vistrut computer faail ya faailon ke set mein mit jaata hai jo yeh varnan karta hai ki kaise laujik ka bhautik roop se nirmaan karein. ismein aksar ek ekeekrut paripth ya mudrit sarkit board par traanjistar aur taar kheenchne ke nirdesh shaamil hote hain.
kai deshon jaise Ireland, laataviya, estoniya, Netherland, France, Finland, naarve, Canada, Australia, sveedan, Portugal, Singapore, Italy, Indonesia, Bhaarat, lithuaaniya, chili, Spain, aaisalaind, United Kingdom, sloveniya aur maalta ne saarvajanik sthaanon par dhoomrapaan ke khilaaf kaanoon banaaye hain, jinmein baar aur restaurant bhi shaamil hain. restaurant mein bhi kuchh nyaayaalayon ne anumati di hai ki ve sunishchit dhoomrapaan kshetron (ya dhoomrapaan nishedh ke liye) ka nirmaan karein. sanyukt raajya America mein kai raajyon mein restaurant mein dhoomrapaan nishedh hai aur kuchh sharaabakhaanon mein bhi dhoomrapaan nishedh hai. Canada ke praanton mein inador kaaryasthalon aur saarvajanik sthaanon par dhoomrapaan avaidh hai jinmein sharaabakhaane aur restaurant bhi shaamil hain. 31 March 2008 ko Canada ne sabhi saarvajanik sthaanon par dhoomrapaan par pratibandh lagaaya, saath hi saath kisi bhi saarvajanik jagah ke pravesh dwaar ke 10 meter ke bheetar bhi yeh pratibandh laagoo hai. Australia mein dhoomrapaan par pratibandh har raajya mein alag-alag hai. vartamaan mein kveensalaind mein sabhi saarvajanik sthalon ke androoni hisson mein dhoomrapaan par poornataya pratibandh hai (jinmein kaaryasthal, sharaabakhaane, pab aur bhojanaalaya shaamil hain) saath hi saath aavaajaahi vaale samudra tat aur kuchh saarvajanik sthalon ke baahari kshetr shaamil hain. tathaapi, chihnit dhoomrapaan kshetr apavaad hain. Victoria mein train stationon, bas staap aur train staap par dhoomrapaan nishiddh hai aur in saarvajanik sthaanon par jahaan dhoomrapaan se parivhan ka intajaar kar raha gair dhoomrapaan karne wala prabhaavit ho sakta hai aur 1 July 2007 se use sabhi inador saarvajanik sthalon par laagoo kar diya gaya hai. New Zealand aur Brazil mein saarvajanik sthaanon se sanlagn kshetr mein dhoomrapaan karne par pratibandh laga diya hai, jismein mukhya roop se sharaabakhaana, restaurant aur pab shaamil hai. Hongkong mein 1 January 2007 ko kaaryasthal mein dhoomrapaan par pratibandh laga diya gaya jaise restaurant, karaaoke rooms, imaaraton aur saarvajanik park. sharaab parosane vaale baar jinmein 18 varsh ki aayu se kam ke logon ko pravesh naheen dete, ko 2009 tak chhoot di gayi. romaaniya mein railgaadiyon, metro stationon, saarvajanik sansthaanon (jahaan aamtaur par nirdisht sthal baahar hai) aur saarvajanik parivhan mein dhoomrapaan avaidh hai.
On 12 May 2013, three of his personal staffs VK Sasidharan (additional private secretary), A Suresh (personal assistant) and K Balakrishnan (press secretary) were ousted by the Politburo, which was entrusted by the CPI(M) central committee to decide on the action to be taken against them. They were expelled on charges of leaking information to media, according to CPIM.[18] With the decision, Achuthanandan's arch-rival and Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M) state secretary Pinarayi Vijayan appears to have won. The state committee of the party where Vijayan has a huge majority also wanted Achuthanandan to be removed from the post of leader of opposition but this was not done. "This is a clipping of the wings of Achuthanandan", said K.M. Shahjahan.[19]
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sarkaarein, yaataayaat prabandhan ke liye RFID anuprayogon ka upayog karti hain, jabki motor vaahan companiyaan, utpaad prabandhan ke liye vibhinn RFID traiking samaadhaan ka upayog karti hain. in samaadhaanon mein se kai, bhavishya mein ek saath kaam kar sakte hain, haalaanki gopaneeyata niyam kai pahal ko us gati mein aage badhne se rokate hain jiski takaneek anumati deta hai.
mahangi engineering prakriyaaon ko svachaalit karne ke liye, kuchh EDA state table le sakte hain jo state machine ka varnan karte hain aur ek state machine ke mishrit bhaag ke liye ek truth table ya ek fankshan table ka utpaadan kar sakte hain. state table paath ka ek tukada hai jo pratyek state ko paristhitiyon ke saath soocheebaddh karta hai, jo unke aur sambandhit utpaadan sanketon ke beech sankraman ko niyantrit karta hai.
dendaari lekhe ek saamarik, moolya-yojit lekha kaarya hai, jo ek sangathan mein praathamik bina vetan-chitthe ke vitran kaarya sampann karta hai. at: AP parichaalan, sangathan ke vitteeya chakr mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai. AP sangathan ko sampoorn dendaari prakriya ke prabhaav ke moolyaankan aur sudhaar hetu, vyavasthit aur anushaasit drushtikon ke jriye apne uddeshyon ko poora karne mein saksham banaata hai. paaramparik AP gatividhiyon ke alaava, jismein anya paksh ikaaiyon (aapoortikrta, vikreta, kar praadhikaari, aadi.) ki deyataaon ko sveekaara jaata hai aur company aur aapoortikrtaaon ke beech sahamat rin neetiyon ke aadhaar par bhugataan kiya jaata hai, vartamaan AP vibhaagon ne dhokhaadhadi nivaaran, laagat mein kami, kaaryapravaah pranaali samaadhaan, nakadi pravaah prabandhan, aantarik niyantran tatha vikreta (saplaai chen) vitt poshan samet aur bhi vyaapak bhoomikaaon ko grahan kiya hai .[3]
digital masheenein, pehli baar upayogi tab bani jab ek svich ke liye MTBF kuchh sau ghante se oopar ho gaya. fir bhi, inmein se kai masheenon mein jatiltaaen theen, achhi tarah se abhyaas ki jaane waali marammat prakriyaaen aur ek tube ke jal jaane ya ek keet ke ek rile mein fans jaane ke kaaran kai ghanton tak kaam naheen karateen thi. aadhunik traanjistar krut ekeekrut paripth laujik gate mein lagbhag ek treeliyn ghante ka MTBFs hai (1 × 1012)),[krupaya uddharan jodein] aur unki jaroorat hai kyonki unke paas bahut saare laujik gate hai.
yadi kisi taig yukt vastu ka bhugataan kredit card ya ek lauyalti card ke upayog ke saath sanyojan ke roop mein kiya jaata hai, to paroksh roop se us vastu ki duniya bhar mein adviteeya ID (RFID taig mein samaahit) ko padh kar kreta ki pehchaan ko nikaalna sambhav ho jaaega. aisa tabhi sambhav hai jab dekhne vaale vyakti ke paas agar lauyalti card deta aur kredit card data tak abhigm bhi ho aur upakaran wala vyakti yeh jaanta ho ki aap kahaan jaane vaale hain.

kai dhoomrapaan virodhi sangathanon ka daava hai ki kishor apne hamaumr ke saathiyon ke dabaav tatha doston ke pade saanskrutik prabhaav ke kaaran dhoomrapaan shuroo karte hain. haalaanki, ek adhyayan mein paaya gaya hai ki cigarette peene ka pratyaksh dabaav kishoraavastha mein dhoomrapaan mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika naheen nibhaata hai. is adhyayan mein yeh bhi report hai ki kishoraavastha mein cigarette peene ke nirdeshaatmak aur pratyaksh donon tarah ke dabaav kam hote hain.[62] aise hi ek adhyayan se pata chala hai ki koi vyakti dhoomrapaan mein usase adhik sakriya bhoomika nibha sakta hai jiski bhoomika pehle sveekaar ki gayi hai aur saathiyon ke dabaav ki tulana mein anya saamaajik prakriyaaon par bhi dhyaan diye jaane ki aavashyakta hai.[63] ek anya adhyayan ke parinaamon se pata chala hai ki saathiyon ke dabaav mein sabhi aayu aur ling ke dal ke dhoomrapaan vyavahaar mahatvapoorn dhang se jude the, lekin ve antaravaiyaktik kaarak kaafi adhik mahatvapoorn the jo 12-13 varsh ki ladkiyon ki tulana mein usi umr ke ladkon ke dhoomrapaan vyavahaar ko alag karta hai. 14-15 saal ke bheetar ke aayu samooh ke logon mein apne saathiyon ke dhoomrapaan ke dabaav ka prabhaav ladkon ki tulana mein ladkiyon par adhik padna ek mahatvapoorn kaarak ke roop mein ubhara.[64] aksar is baat par bahas hoti hai ki kya saathiyon ke dabaav ya swayam chayan kishoraavastha mein dhoomrapaan ka ek bada kaaran hai. yeh tark ka vishay hai ki saathiyon ke dabaav ka ulta bhi sach hai, jab saathiyon mein se jyaadaatar dhoomrapaan naheen karte hain aur jo aisa karne vaalon ko bahishkrut kar dete hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]hains aaiseink jaise manovaijnyaaanikon ne vishisht dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ke liye ek vyaktitv vikaas profaail kiya hai.
ek laujik gate ki "vishvasaneeyata", asafalata (MTBF) ke beech uske ausat samay ka varnan karti hai. digital masheenon mein aksar laakhon laujik gate hote hai. iske alaava, adhikaansh digital masheenon ko unki laagat ko kam karne ke liye "anukoolit" kiya jaata hai. nateeja saaf hota hai, ek ekal laujik gate ki vifalta, ek digital machine ke kaam band karne ka kaaran banegi.
purushon mein mahilaaon ki tulana mein dhoomrapaan ki lat paanch guna adhik hoti hain,[13] haalaanki chhote aayu varg mein is laingik antar mein giraavat aati hai.[14][15] viksit deshon mein purushon mein dhoomrapaan apne charam par pahunch chuka hai aur usamein giraavat aani shuroo ho gayi hai haalaanki mahilaaon ke maamale mein vruddhi barkaraar hai.[53]

1980 ke dashak mein mile vaigyaanik pramaan ke anusaar tambaakoo companiyaan ne daava kiya hai ki laaparavaahi baratne ka kaaran svaasthya par padne vaale pratikool prabhaav se pehle unka anajaan hona tha ya paryaapt vishvasaneeyata ka abhaav tha. svaasthya adhikaariyon ne 1998 tak in daavon ka saath diya jiske baad unhonne apni sthiti ulat di. tambaakoo pradhaan niptaan samjhauta (the tobaiko master saitalameint egreemeint) mool roop se chaar sabse badi tambaakoo companiyon aur 46 raajyon ke ameriki etorni general ke beech hua. tambaakoo ke kuchh khaas prakaar ke vijnyaaapanon par pratibandh laga diya gaya aur svaasthya muaavaje ke taur par bhugataan ko aavashyak kar diya gaya, jo baad mein sanyukt raajya America ke itihaas mein sabse bade naagrik niptaan ke roop saamane aaya.[36]

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