aam taur par teen prakaar ke RFID taig hote hain: sakriya RFID taig, jismein ek baitari hoti hai aur ye sanketon ko svatantr roop se sanchaarit kar sakte hain, nishkriya RFID taig, jismein baitari naheen hoti aur sanket sancharan prerit karne ke liye ek baahari srot ki jaroorat hoti hai aur baitari samarthit nishkriya (BAP) jise jaagane ke liye baahari srot ki aavashyakta hai lekin ismein mahatvapoorn uchch fauravard link kshamata hai jo atyadhik pathan seema pradaan karta hai.

pehla ardhachaalak laujik parivaar, rejistar-traanjistar laujik tha. yeh tube se hajaar guna adhik vishvasaneeya tha, aaraam se chalta tha aur kam bijli istemaal karta tha, lekin teenon mein se bahut nyoon fan-in tha. daayod-traanjistar laujik ne fainaaaut mein saat tak sudhaar kiya aur bijli mein kami ki. kuchh DTL dijaainon ne fainaaaut mein vruddhi ke liye NPN aur PNP traanjistaron ki paryaayakramik paraton ke saath do bijli-aapoorti ka upayog kiya.
ZDNet ke anusaar, aalochakon ka maanana hai ki is praudyogiki se kisi vyakti ki har gatividhi par nazar rakha jaaega aur yeh gopaneeyata par ek aakraman hoga. vivaad is baat par hai ki aalochak maanate hain ki sarkaar dvaara iska durupayog hoga. kuchh log aise bhavishya ki avadhaarana pesh karte hain jahaan har gatividhi par sarkaar ki nazar hogi.[86] Cathrine albrekt ke spaaichips: how major korporeshan end gavarnameint plaan tu track yor evri moov vith RFID, se ek vyakti ko "gair-nijta waali duniya ki kalpana" ke liye protsaahit kiya jaata hai. "jahaan aapki har khareed ki nigraani aur ek detaabes mein darj ki jaati hai aur aapki har cheej sankhyaabaddh hai. jiske tahat, kisi anya sudoor raajya ke ya shaayad kisi doosare desh ke vyakti ke paas aapki har khareed ka byaura hoga. aur kya, unka pata lagaaya ja sakta hai aur door se najar rakhi ja sakti hai."[87] seedhe shabdon mein kahein, shadayantrakaareeyon ka tark hai ki RFID chip ke saath sarkaar ek vyakti ko bhaan hue bina hi usaki gopaneeyata bhang kar sakti hai.
cigarette se utpann ek paroksh saarvajanik svaasthya samasya durghatanaavash lagne waali aag hai, jo aamtaur par sharaab ke sevan ke saath judi hai. cigarette ki kai dijaainein prastaavit hain, kuchh swayam tambaakoo companiyon, jo cigarette ke ek ya do minute tak istemaal na kiye jaane par bujhaane se judi hain, taaki aag lagne ka jokhim kam ho jaaye. ameriki tambaakoo companiyon ke alaava kuchh ne is vichaar ka virodh kiya hai, jabki anya ne ise apnaaya hai. aaraje renolds 1983 mein in sigreton ke prototaaip banaane ke netrutvakarta the[99] aur ameriki baajaar ke sabhi sigreton ko 2010 tak aag se surakshit bana diya jaayega.[100] Phillip mauris iske sakriya samarthan mein naheen hai.[101] desh ki teesari sabse badi tambaakoo company lorillaard (Lorillard) asamanjas mein lagti hai.[101]

keyboard_arrow_right Budgeting keyboard_arrow_right Email Integration keyboard_arrow_right Financial Management keyboard_arrow_right Invoice keyboard_arrow_right Mobile Support keyboard_arrow_right Multiple Company keyboard_arrow_right Recurring invoice keyboard_arrow_right Accounts payable keyboard_arrow_right General Ledger keyboard_arrow_right Bills of Material keyboard_arrow_right Revenue Management keyboard_arrow_right Financial Accounting keyboard_arrow_right Service Tax keyboard_arrow_right Barcode Integration keyboard_arrow_right Customer Management keyboard_arrow_right Expense Tracking keyboard_arrow_right Inventory Management keyboard_arrow_right Manufacturing keyboard_arrow_right Multi User login & Roll based access keyboard_arrow_right POS invoicing keyboard_arrow_right Taxation Management keyboard_arrow_right Accounts Receivable keyboard_arrow_right Cash Management keyboard_arrow_right Billing & Invoicing keyboard_arrow_right Utilities keyboard_arrow_right VAT / CST / GST Reports keyboard_arrow_right Access your Data on the Go
अमेरिका की प्रबंधन पत्रिका हार्वर्ड बिजनस रिव्यू में कल प्रकाशित एक लेख में कहा गया है कि भारत में सरकार की अगुवाई में डिजिटल उठा-पटक की एक अनोखी कहानी कही जा रही है और वहां डिजिटल रूप से सशक्त समाज का निर्माण किया जा रहा है।‘कैसे भारत पहली डिजिटल अर्थव्यवस्था की ओर बढ़ रहा है’ शीर्षक से लिखे लेख में कहा गया है, “भारत ने इसकी चुनौतियों को कम करने के लिए डिजिटल प्रक्रिया को धीमा करने के बजाए विपरीत दृष्टिकोण अपनाया है और डिजिटल प्रक्रिया को तेज कर दिया है ताकि देश आर्थिक एवं सामाजिक क्षेत्र में समावेशी विकास हासिल करने की पूरी संभावनाओं का लाभ उठा सके।
laujik geton ke samakaksh set ke saath digital sarkit ka pratinidhitv shaastreeya tareeka hai. praay: kam se kam electronic ke saath electronic svichon ke samakaksh pranaali ka nirmaan ek doosra tareeka hai (aam taur par traanjistar karta hai). sirf ek trooth table se yukt smruti aasaan tareekon mein se ek hota hai. memori ke pate par input daale jaate hain aur memori ke data aaootput, aaootput ban jaate hain.
jab tambaakoo ka sevan kiya jaata hai, jyaadaatar nikoteen jhulas jaata hai. haalaanki, ek khuraak halki shaareerik nirbharata ke liye paryaapt hai aur ek majaboot manovaigyaanik nirbharata ko halka karne ke liye paryaapt rahati hai. vahaan tambaakoo ke dhuen mein maujood acetaldehyde se haaramon(ek MAO avarodhak) ka gathan bhi hota hai. aisa lagta hai ki nikoteen ke nashe mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibha raha hai- nikoteen ki uttejanaaon ke javaab ke roop mein ek javaabi kaarravaai ke taur par naabhik accumbens mein ek dopamine ki suvidha jaari ki gayi.[51] adhyayan ke liye choohe ka upayog karke yeh doharaaya gaya ki nikoteen ke upayog ke baad kam jimmedaar naabhik accumbens koshikaaen sudrudheekaran ke liye jimmedaar hain, jo aparaadh mein fansaane ki kai ghatnaaon, jismein keval nikoteen hi naheen isi tarah ki cheejein majabooti ko kam kar deti hain.[52]
pipe dhoomrapaan mein aamtaur par tambaakoo ke dahan ke liye ek chhota sa kaksh (katora) aur ek patali nalika (danda) shaamil hai, jo mukhapatr (thoda) mein samaapt hota hai. tambaakoo ke kase tukadon ko kaksh mein rakha aur prajvalit kar diya jaata hai. pipe mein dhoomrapaan ke liye tambaakoo aksar bahut dhyaan dekar istemaal kiya jaata hai aur svaad ki baareekiyon ki mishrit upalabdhata anya tambaakoo utpaadon mein upalabdh naheen hai.
dendaari lekhon ke karmiyon dvaara frji beejakon par nazar rakhani chaahiye. khareed aadesh pranaali ke abhaav mein, raksha ki pehli pankti hai anumodit karne wala prabandhak. fir bhi, A/P stauf ko kuchh saamaanya samasyaaon ke saath parichit hona chaahiye, jaise "yallo pejas" dhokhaadhadiyaan, jismein kapati prachaalak vigyaapan dete hain. chalne waali ungaliyon ke logo ko kabhi tredamaark naheen banaaya gaya hai aur yallo pejas shaili ki kai nirdeshikaaen upalabdh hain, jinka bahut kam vitran hota hai. sheetakaaleen 2000 ameriki perol association ke empalauyar praiktiss ke ek lekh ke anusaar, "vikreta aise dastaavej bhej sakte hain jo dekhne mein beejak ke samaan lage, lekin jin par chhote aksharon mein mudrit hota hai "yeh bill naheen hai". ye nirdeshika soocheekaran ya vigyaapan ke liye shulk ho sakte hain. haal hi mein, kuchh companiyon ne jo check bhejane shuroo kiye hain, ve dekhne mein to chhoot ya vaapasi ki prateet hoti hain; vaastav mein, yeh sakriya sevaaon ke liye panjeekaran hai, jab dastaavej hastaakshar ke saath lautaae jaate hain."

ek badi laujik machine mein (maan leejiye, sau se adhik laujik char waali) sambhav state ki ek khagoleeya sankhya ho sakti hai. jaahir hai, kaarkhaane mein, har state ka pareekshan avyaavahaarik hai agar har state ke pareekshan mein ek maaikrosekand lagta hai aur brahmaand ke shuroo hone se hi maaikrosekand ki sankhya se kaheen adhik state hain. durbhaagya se, yeh haasyaaspad lagne wala maamala vishisht hai.

2004 mein, boing ne Boeing 787 dreemalaainar par rakharakhaav aur vastusoochi laagat ko kam karne ke liye RFID praudyogiki ke upayog ko shaamil kiya. vimaan ke kal-purjon ki uchch laagat ke maamale mein, RFID praudyogiki ne Boeing ko anoothe aakaar, svarup aur paryaavaran sambandhi chintaaon ke baavajood vastusoochi ki traiking karne ki anumati di. apanaae jaane ke baad ke chhah maheenon ke dauraan, company, sirf shram ke maamale mein $29,000 bachaane mein saksham rahi.[23]
sitmbar 2008 ko, Alcatel-Lucent demo faul 2008 par pehli upabhokta RFID seva pesh ki: touchatag. yeh USB ke maadhyam se PC (Windows ya Mac) se judta hai aur jab yeh ek RFID taig se lais vastu ka pata lagaata hai, to malteemeediya ke tamaam prakaar ke anuprayog prakshepit karta hai. unke paas ek anuprayog vikaas kaaryakram aur vyaapaar samaadhaan bhi hai (udaaharan, pingaping-Belgium ke saath sahayog aur Accor Services ke liye ek vaanijyik pilot.[54]
October 2004 mein, FDA ne maanav mein pratyaaropit kiye ja sakane vaale amareeka ke pehle RFID chip ko manjoori di. vereechip corporation ke 134 kHz RFID chips mein vyaktigat chikitsa jaankaari rakhi ja sakti hai aur company ke anusaar, chikitsa upachaar mein trutiyon ke maamale mein jeevan raksha ho sakti hai aur choton ko seemit kiya ja sakta hai. FDA anumodan ko niveshakon ke saath ek sammelan ke dauraan bataaya gaya. anumodan ke sheegra hi baad, lekhak aur RFID-virodhi kaaryakarta Cathrine albrekt aur lij maikintaayar ne FDA ki or se ek chetaavani patra ki khoj ki jismein likha tha gambhir health risks associated with the VeriChip. FDA ke mutaabik, inmein shaamil hain "pratikool ootak pratikriya", "pratyaaropit traansapondar ka sthaan parivartan", "pratyaaropit traansapondar ki vifalta","bijli ke khatre" aur "maignetik rejoneins imejing [MRI] asangati."

New York shahar mahanagar parivhan praadhikran ne ek RFID pareekshan kiya jismein maastarakaard dvaara pepaas ka upayog kiya gaya. yeh pareekshan mukhya roop se IRT leksingatan evenyoo line par kiya gaya jismein anya laainon ke kai vyast station bhi shaamil the. yeh pareekshan 31 May 2009 ko samaapt hua, lekin pepaas ke upayog ke vikalp ko vyaapak paimaane par baad ki taareekh mein pun: shuroo kiya ja sakta hai. MTA, New York shahar ke sabave aur bason par kiraaya bhugataan ke liye smaartalink (PATH dvaara shuroo) ko sveekaar karne aur antat: metrokaard ke ek pratisthaapan ke roop mein chalaane ki sambhaavana ka adhyayan kar raha hai.
16 se 18 November 2005 ke beech, sanyukt raashtra ke world summit on the informeshan society (WSIS) ke dauraan free software movement ke sansthaapak richrd staulaman ne RFID suraksha card ke istemaal ka virodh kiya. pehli baithak ke dauraan yeh sahamati hui ki bhavishya ki baithakon mein RFID card ka upayog naheen kiya jaaega aur yeh jaankaar ki is aashvaasan ko toda gaya hai, unhonne apne card ko elyoomeeniym panni mein lapet liya aur ve ise keval suraksha stationon par hi kholeinge. yeh virodh suraksha karmiyon ki kaafi chinta ka kaaran bana, jahaan kuchh ne unhein sammelan kaksh se jismein ve mukhya vakta the baahar jaane se roka aur doosare sammelan kaksh mein jahaan unka bolna abhi baaki tha, pravesh karne naheen diya gaya.[76][77]
is gatividhi ke liye dhoomrapaan karne vaalon dvaara diye gaye kaaran ko mote taur par is prakaar vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai: dhoomrapaan ke nashe ki lat, maje ke liye dhoomrapaan, tanaav mein kami/vishraam, saamaajikta ke kaaran dhoomrapaan, uttejana, aadat/svachaalan aur prabandhan . in vajahon mein se kitni vajahein jimmedaar hain yeh lingabhed par nirbhar hai, tanaav mein kami/vishraam, uttejana aur saamaajikta ke kaaran dhoomrapaan ke maamale mahilaaon mein purushon se adhik hone ki sambhaavana ka havaala diya gaya hai.[66]
FDA ke anusaar, RFID chip ka pratyaaropan se chikitsa sambandhit sambhaavit khatre bhi hain. bijli ke khatre, MRI asangati, pratikool ootak pratikriya aur pratyaaropit traansapondar ka pravaas, kuchh sambhaavit khatre hain jo vereechip ID pratyaaropan upakaran se jude hain, khaadya evam aushadhi prashaasan (FDA) dvaara jaari ek 12 October 2004 ke patra ke anusaar.[47]
suraksha visheshagya Bruce shneyar ne sujhaav diya hai ki ek havaai adde ke nikat sanchaalan karta ek lutera ameer deshon se aane vaalon ko shikaar bana sakta hai, ya ek aatankvaadi ek taatkaalik visfotak upakaran design kar sakta hai jo tab kaarya karega jab kisi vishesh desh ke vyakti dvaara sampark kiya jaae yadi yaatri apna card apne shareer ke najadeek (uchch taral aur khaari saamagri) ya ek fauyal-laaind batue mein naheen rakhate.
anya desh jo passport mein RFID lagaate hain, unamein shaamil hain Norway (2005)[34], Japan (1 March 2006), Spain Ireland aur Britain sahit Europeeya sangh ke adhikaansh desh (2006 ke aaspaas), Australia aur sanyukt raajya America (2007), Serbia (July 2008), Korea (August 2008), taaivaan (December 2008), albaaniya (January 2009), fileepeens (August 2009).
2004 mein, boing ne Boeing 787 dreemalaainar par rakharakhaav aur vastusoochi laagat ko kam karne ke liye RFID praudyogiki ke upayog ko shaamil kiya. vimaan ke kal-purjon ki uchch laagat ke maamale mein, RFID praudyogiki ne Boeing ko anoothe aakaar, svarup aur paryaavaran sambandhi chintaaon ke baavajood vastusoochi ki traiking karne ki anumati di. apanaae jaane ke baad ke chhah maheenon ke dauraan, company, sirf shram ke maamale mein $29,000 bachaane mein saksham rahi.[23]

choonki ve ek aisi gatividhi mein lipt hote hain jiska svaasthya par nakaaraatmak prabhaav padta hai, at: aise log jo log dhoomrapaan karte hain, ve apne vyavahaar ko yuktisangat banaane ke liye prayatnashali rahate hain. doosare shabdon mein ve sveekaaryata viksit karte hain, jaroori naheen ki unke paas yeh taarkik kaaran ho ki unke liye dhoomrapaan ki sveekaaryata kyon hai. udaaharan ke liye, ek dhoomrapaan karne wala apne vyavahaar ka auchitya yeh kehkar saabit kar sakta hai ki har koi marata hai aur isliye vaastav mein cigarette kuchh bhi naheen badalti. ya ek vyakti auchitya saabit karne ke liye yeh vishvaas jata sakta hai ki dhoomrapaan tanaav se raahat ya anya laabh dilaata hai. is prakaar ki maanyataaenchinta se rokati hain aur log dhoomrapaan jaari rakhate hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

lo-freekveinsi (LF: 125-134.2 kHz aur 140-148.5 kHz) (LowFID) taig aur haai-freekveinsi (HF: 13.56 MHz) (HighFID) taig bina ek license ke vishv star par prayog kiya ja sakta. ultra haai-freekveinsi (UHF: 868-928 MHz) (Ultra-HighFID ya UHFID) taig ko duniya bhar mein istemaal naheen kiya ja sakta hai kyonki koi bhi vaishvik maanak naheen hai. uttari America mein, UHF ko 902-928& MHz (915 MHz center freekveinsi se ± 13 MHz) ke liye bina license ke istemaal kiya ja sakta hai, par paareshan adhikaar ke liye pratibandh maujood hain. Europe mein, RFID aur anya kam-kshamata vidyut radio anuprayog, ETSI ki sifaarishon EN 300 220 aur EN 302 208 aur ERO 70 03 sifaarish dvaara viniymit hain, jo RFID ko 865-868 megaahartaj ke kuchh jatil band pratibandhon ke saath sanchaalan ki anumati dete hain. paathakon ko prasaaran se pehle ek channel par najar rakhane ki jaroorat hoti hai ("lisen bifor tauk"); is aavashyakta se pradarshan par thoda pratibandh laga hai, jiska sankalp maujooda shodh ka vishay hai. uttar ameriki UHF maanak, France mein sveekaar naheen kiye jaate hain choonki ye uske sainya band ke saath hastakshep karte hain. cheen aur Japan ke liye, UHF ka upayog karne ke liye koi niyam naheen hai. in deshon mein har UHF ke aavedan ke liye ek site license ki jarurat hai, jiska aavedan sthaaneeya adhikaariyon ke paas kiya jaana chaahiye aur ise radd kiya ja sakta hai. Australia aur New Zealand ke liye 918-926 megaahartaj gair-license vaale hain, lekin sancharan adhikaar ke liye pratibandh maujood hain.
sanbhaar-tantr aur parivhan, RFID praudyogiki ke kaaryaanvayan ke pramukh kshetr hain. udaaharan ke liye, yaard prabandhan, shiping aur maal dhulaai aur vitran kendra, kuchh aisi jagahein hain RFID traiking praudyogiki ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. duniya bhar ki parivhan companiyaan, vyaapaar moolya aur kaaryakushalata par RFID praudyogiki ke prabhaav ke kaaran isko tavajjo deti hain.
enbeded software design imyooniti aveyar prograaming ka prayog karta hai, jaise avarodh nirdesh ke saath aprayukt kaaryakram smruti ke roop mein bharne ka prayaas karta hai jo truti ke pun: praapti kaaryakram ki or sanket deta hai. is vifalta ke khilaaf raksha mein madad karta hai jo micro kantrolar anudesh soochak ko bigaad sakte hain, jo anyatha yaadruchhik code ke nishpaadit ka kaaran ban sakte hain.
suraksha visheshagya Bruce shneyar ne sujhaav diya hai ki ek havaai adde ke nikat sanchaalan karta ek lutera ameer deshon se aane vaalon ko shikaar bana sakta hai, ya ek aatankvaadi ek taatkaalik visfotak upakaran design kar sakta hai jo tab kaarya karega jab kisi vishesh desh ke vyakti dvaara sampark kiya jaae yadi yaatri apna card apne shareer ke najadeek (uchch taral aur khaari saamagri) ya ek fauyal-laaind batue mein naheen rakhate.
Gen2 EPC inlej ki sabse kam laagat smaartakod dvaara 100 million ya adhik ke khand mein pratyek tukade ke liye $0.05 ki hai$[61]. fir bhi, aagaami roopaantaran (atirikt lebal stock ya inkaipsooleshan prasanskaran/pravishti aur ek suvidha ya DC ke liye maal dhulaai laagat sahit) aur upayogi RFID lebal mein inlej se aur maujooda Gen 2 protokaul maanak ka design, kul antim laagat mein badhotri karega, vishesh roop se RFID aapoorti shrrunkhala vastu-stareeya taiging ke liye atirikt suraksha upaayon ke vistaar ke saath.

sigaar sookhe aur kinvit tambaakoo ko kas kar bandal kar banaaya jaata hai jisse tambaakoo ko prajvalit kar uske dhuen ko munh tak kheencha ja sakta hai. aam taur par dhuen ka uchch kshaareeya tatv saans ke jariye andar naheen kheencha jaata kyonki vah jald hi shvaasanali aur fefadon ke liye pareshaani ka sabab ho sakta hai. iske bajaay aam taur par ve munh mein lete hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] sigaar peene ka prachalan sthaan, aitihaasik kaal, sarvekshan ka aadhaar banaayi gayi aabaadi aur sarvekshan ke aakalan ki apanaayi gayi paddhati par nirbhar karta hai. sanyukt raajya America ab tak sheersh upabhokta desh hai, uske baad Germany aur United Kingdom hai, duniya bhar mein sigaar ki bikri ka yogadaan 75% America aur pashchimi Europe mein hai.[42] 2005 mein 4.3% purush aur 0.3% mahilaaon ke sigaar peene ka anumaan hai.[43]
parirkshan, fir ek prayukt ki ja rahi freekveinsi ka kaarya hai. lo frikvesnsi LowFID taig, jaise jo manushya aur paalatoo jaanvaron ke liye pratyaaropan yogya upakaranon mein istemaal hote hain, parirkshan ke prati apekshaakrut pratirodhi hain, haalaanki mote dhaatu ki panni adhikaansh pathan ko rokegi. haai freekveinsi HighFID taig (13.56 MHz - smart card aur abhigm baij) parirkshan ke prati samvedansheel hain aur jab ye kisi dhaatu ki satah ke kuchh seinteemeetar ke andar hote hain to inhein padhna mushkil hota hai. UHF Ultra-HighFID taig (pailet aur dibbe) ko padhna kathin hai jab unhein kisi dhaatu ki satah ke kuchh meeleemeetar ke bheetar rakha jaae, haalaanki unki pathan seema vaastav mein badh jaati hai jab unhein kisi dhaatu se 2–4 cm par rakha jaata hai aur iska kaaran hai taig par pratibinbit tarang aur insideint tarang ka sakaaraatmak sudrudheekaran. UHFID taig ko sthaitik-virodhi plastic bag ke andar rakh kar adhikaansh pathan se safalataapoorvak parirkshit kiya ja sakta hai.[sandigdh – charcha karein]
jyaadaatar maamalon mein sanketo ki avastha ki sankhya do hoti hai aur in do avasthaaon ko do voltej staron dvaara darshaaya jaata hai: prayog mein aapoorti voltej ke aadhaar par ek va doosra (aamtaur par "jameeni" ya shoonya volt ke roop mein kaha jaata hai)| 1 uchch star par hota hai va 0 nimn star par. aksar ye donon star "lo" aur "haai" ke roop mein pratinidhitv karte hain.
1995 se 1970 ke beech gareeb vikaasasheel deshon mein prati vyakti cigarette ki khapat mein 67 pratishat ki vruddhi hui hai, jabki usamein ameer viksit duniya mein 10 pratishat giraavat aayi hai. dhoomrapaan karne vaalon mein se assi pratishat ab kam viksit deshon mein rahate hain. 2030 tak vishv svaasthya sangathan (WHO) ki bhavishyavaani hai ki 10 million logon ki maut prativrsh dhoomrapaan se sambandhit beemaariyon se hogi jo duniya bhar mein maut ka ek sabse bada kaaran hoga, mahilaaon mein iski sabse badi vruddhi hogi. WHO ki bhavishyavaani hai ki 20 veen sadi mein dhoomrapaan se hui mauton ki daron mein 21 veen sadi mein das guna vruddhi hogi. ("Washington"(Washingtonian) patrika, December 2007).
vyaya prashaasan aam taur par dendaari lekhon ke saath kreeb se juda hua hai aur kabhi-kabhi ek hi karmachaari dvaara ye kaarya kiye jaate hain. vyaya prashaasak yeh pushti karte hue karmachaari ke vyaya report ka satyaapan karta hai ki vimaan yaataayaat, bhoo-parivhan, bhojan aur manoranjan, teleefon, hotel tatha anya vyaya ke samarthan mein raseedein upalabdh hain. yeh pralekhan, kar uddeshyon ke liye aur anupayukt ya glat kharchon ki pratipoorti ki rokathaam ke liye aavashyak hai. vimaan yaataayaat kharch mein, shaayad sabse adhik dhokhaadhadi ki sambhaavana hai, kyonki havaai yaatra ki uchch laagat aur havaai yaatra sambandhi pralekhan ki bhraamak prakruti ki vajah se, jismein aarakshan, raseedein aur vaastavik tikton ka vinyaas shaamil hain.
digital bhangasheelata ko ek digital pranaali ke roopaankan dvaara majabooti ke liye kam kiya ja sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye ek pairiti bit ya anya truti prabandhan paddhati ko signal path mein daala ja sakta hai. yeh paddhati system ko, truti ka pata lagaane mein madad karti hai aur ya to trutiyon ko sahi karti hai ya fir kam se kam deta ki ek nai pratilipi ke liye poochhati hai. ek state machine mein state traanjishn laujik ka aprayukt state ko pakadne aur ek reeset anukram trigr ya anya niyamit truti vasooli ke liye design kiya ja sakta hai.
June 1967 mein sangheeya sanchaar aayog ne nirnaya liya ki TV station par dhoomrapaan aur svaasthya charcha ka prasaaran aparyaapt hai aur vah bhugataan kiye jaane vaale un vijnyaaapanon ki kami poori naheen kar paate jo paanch se das minute roj prasaarit hote hain. April 1970 mein Congress ne television aur radio par cigarette ke vigyaapan par pratibandh lagaane vaale jan svaasthya cigarette dhoomrapaan adhiniyam ko paarit kar diya, jo 2 January 1971 ko laagoo hua.[92]
1612 mein jemsataaun ke avasthaapan ke chhah saal baad John raalf pehle adhivaasi hain jinhonne tambaakoo ki ek nakadi fasal ke roop mein safalataapoorvak kheti ki. tambaakoo ki maang mein teji se vruddhi hui, use "bhoora sona" kaha gaya, kyonki usane sone ke abhiyaan mein vifal varjeeniya ko share company mein punarjeevit kar diya.[21] puraani duniya ki maangon ko poora karne ke liye tambaakoo ki paidaavaar lagaataar ki gayi jiske parinaamasvaroop jameen ki urvara shakti sheegra hi kam ho gayi. isne pashchim ko ek agyaat mahaadveep mein basane ke liye prerak ka kaarya kiya aur isi tarah tambaakoo utpaadan ka ek vistaar hua.[22] bekan vidroh ke pehle tak anubandhit daasata hi praathamik shram bal ka aadhaar thi jiske kaaran das pratha par dhyaan kendrit hua.[23] yeh pravrutti ameriki kraanti ke baad kam hui aur daasapratha laabhaheen maani gayi. haalaanki yeh pratha 1794 mein punarjeevit ho gayi jab kapaas ki charkhi ka aavishkaar hua.[24][page needed] 
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