During the CPM state conference held in Kottayam, he was criticized strongly due to his style of functioning by a majority of Pinarayi Vijayan supporters (38/53) known as official faction and they demanded his ouster from Chief Minister. They warned that the party would lose seats if it goes for ahead parliamentary elections under his leadership.[30][31]
27 fravari 2005 ko hue tambaakoo niyantran par WHO ke rooparekha samjhaute ka prabhaav pada. FCTC duniya ki pehli saarvajanik svaasthya sandhi hai. jin deshon ne is par hastaakshar kiye ve is baat par sahamat the ki ve aam lakshyon ki sthaapana, tambaakoo niyantran neeti ke liye nyoonatam maanak aur cigarette ki seema-paar taskari jaisi chunautiyon se nipatne mein sahayog sthaapit kareinge. vartamaan mein WHO ne ghoshit kiya hai ki 4 billion log is sandhi ki paridhi mein aayeinge, jis par 168 logon ne hastaakshar kiye hain.[82] doosare charan mein hastaaksharakarta saath milkar kaanoon banaayeinge jismein kaaryasthalon ke andar, saarvajanik parivhan, inador saarvajanik sthaanon aur jahaan tak upayukt ho anya saarvajanik sthaanon par dhoomrapaan par rok lagaayi jaayegi.
Gen2 EPC inlej ki sabse kam laagat smaartakod dvaara 100 million ya adhik ke khand mein pratyek tukade ke liye $0.05 ki hai$[61]. fir bhi, aagaami roopaantaran (atirikt lebal stock ya inkaipsooleshan prasanskaran/pravishti aur ek suvidha ya DC ke liye maal dhulaai laagat sahit) aur upayogi RFID lebal mein inlej se aur maujooda Gen 2 protokaul maanak ka design, kul antim laagat mein badhotri karega, vishesh roop se RFID aapoorti shrrunkhala vastu-stareeya taiging ke liye atirikt suraksha upaayon ke vistaar ke saath.
baithakon aur sammelanon mein bhi upasthiti baij mein RFID praudyogiki laagoo ki ja rahi hai taaki sammelanon mein logon ko track kiya ja sake. isse jo aankada upalabdh hota hai usase pata chalta hai ki logon ne din ke samay kis kamre mein pravesh kiya aur baahar gaye.[51] yeh data aayojakon ko dikhaane ke liye upalabdh hota hai taaki sammelan ki saamagri aur dijaain mein sudhaar karne mein unki madad ki ja sake. pradarshaniyon mein pradarshakon ke liye netrutv bahaali prakriya mein sudhaar karne ke liye bhi RFID ka upayog kiya ja raha hai.
donon ke paas hi aankade seemit hain. rog niyantran aur rokathaam kendra (the seintars for dijeej control end prijrveshan) ne 2002 mein prakaashit apne anusandhaan mein daava kiya hai ki sanyukt raajya America mein beche gaye ek packet cigarette par chikitsa dekhbhaal aur utpaadak hraas par 7 dollar se adhik ki laagat aati hai.[70] laagat aur adhik ho sakti hai jabki ek anya adhyayan mein use prati packet par $ 41 ki laagat bataayi hai, jinmein se jyaadaatar vyaktigat aur usaki/ uske parivaar ko vahan karna padta hai.[71] is tarah se ek anya aur adhyayan ke lekhak doosaron ke liye bahut kam laagat bataate hue kehte hain: "sankhya ke kam hone ka kaaran niji peinshan, saamaajik suraksha aur chikitsa hai- kharch ki ganana mein sabse bada kaarak samaaj hai- dhoomrapaan vaastav mein paise bachaata hai. dhoomrapaan karne vaale kam umr mein mar jaate hain aur ve vah dhan naheen uthaate jo un pranaaliyon se unhein bhugataan kiye jaate.[71]
fraanseesi jeen nikot (jinke naam se nikoteen shabd vyutpann hua) ne 1560 mein France ko tambaakoo se parichit karaaya aur fir tambaakoo England mein fail gaya. kisi angrej ke dhoomrapaan ki pehli report 1556 me Bristol mein ek naavik ki hai, "usaki naak se dhuaan niklata dekha gaya".[3] chai, kaufi aur afeem ki tarah tambaakoo bhi abhi kai maadak dravyon mein se ek hai jo mool roop se dava ke roop mein istemaal kiya gaya tha.[25] French mein vyaapaariyon dvaara 1600 ke aaspaas tambaakoo ko vahaan parichit karaaya gaya jise aaj ke aadhunik samay mein jaambiya aur senegal kehte hain. usi samay morakko ke kaafile timbakatoo aur Portugal ke aaspaas ke kshetron mein tambaakoo le aaye aur yeh vastu (aur paudhe) dakshin Africa ko diye, jisse poore Africa mein 1650 ke dashak mein tambaakoo ki lokapriyta sthaapit ho gayi.

kisi sansthaan mein jama aisa vyaapaarik agrim jiske mad mein jamaakarta ko na to koi maal diya gaya ho aur na usaki koi vyaapaarik seva ki gayi ho us sansthaan ke liya deya dhan hai. yeh rakam sansthaan mein deya khaate mein ankit ki jaati hai. svaami, saajhedaaron, sanchaalakon tatha karmachaariyon dvaara sansthaan ko diya gaya rin is khaate mein pravishti naheen paata. vah ek alag deya rinakhaate mein ankit kiya jaata hai. deya khaata vyaapaarik agrim ka khaata hai. vah sansthaan ke liye deya to hai par vah rin naheen hai isliye iski svatantr sthiti hai. vyaapaar se sambaddh agrim jama raashi maatr ka ismein ankan hota hai. theek yahi sthiti sansthaan dvaara diye gaye vyaapaarik agrim ki hai. vah dhanaraashi jo agrim ke roop mein anya kisi vyaapaarik sansthaan ko di gayi ho aur uske mad mein na to koi maal aaya ho aur na anya vyaapaarik seva li gayi ho sansthaan ke praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai. jiske naam yeh raashi praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai vah sansthaan apne yahaaain is rakam ko deya khaate mein daalata hai.
tambaakoo mein sakriya tatv, vishesh roop se cigarette mein patton ko jalaakar aur vaashpeekrut gas ko saans se kheenchakar praapt kiya jaata hai. yeh jald aur prabhaavi dhang se padaarthon ko khoon mein avashoshit kar fefadon mein koshikaaon ke jariye pahunchaaya jaata hai. fefadon mein lagbhag 300 million rakt koshikaaen hoti hai, jiske satah ka kshetrafal 70 m2 (ek tennis court ke aakaar ke baraabar) hota hai. yeh vidhi vifal hai kyonki poora dhuaan saans se naheen kheencha jaata hai aur sakriya padaarthon mein se kuchh maatra jalaaye jaane ki prakriya ke dauraan vaashpeekaran mein nasht ho jaati hai.[9] pipe aur sigaar ka dhuaan uchch kshaarayukt hone ke kaaran saans se naheen kheencha jaata jo shvaasanali aur fefadon ko haani pahuncha sakte hain. tathaapi, cigarette (pH 5.3) ke dhuen ki tulana mein iske uchch kshaarayukt (pH 8.5) hone ke kaaran sangathit nikoteen aur adhik aasaani se munh mein shleshm jhilli ke maadhyam se avashoshit kar leta hai.[45] sigaar aur pipe se nikoteen avashoshan baharahaal cigarette ke dhuen se bahut kam hota hai.[46]
tambaakoo mein sakriya tatv, vishesh roop se cigarette mein patton ko jalaakar aur vaashpeekrut gas ko saans se kheenchakar praapt kiya jaata hai. yeh jald aur prabhaavi dhang se padaarthon ko khoon mein avashoshit kar fefadon mein koshikaaon ke jariye pahunchaaya jaata hai. fefadon mein lagbhag 300 million rakt koshikaaen hoti hai, jiske satah ka kshetrafal 70 m2 (ek tennis court ke aakaar ke baraabar) hota hai. yeh vidhi vifal hai kyonki poora dhuaan saans se naheen kheencha jaata hai aur sakriya padaarthon mein se kuchh maatra jalaaye jaane ki prakriya ke dauraan vaashpeekaran mein nasht ho jaati hai.[9] pipe aur sigaar ka dhuaan uchch kshaarayukt hone ke kaaran saans se naheen kheencha jaata jo shvaasanali aur fefadon ko haani pahuncha sakte hain. tathaapi, cigarette (pH 5.3) ke dhuen ki tulana mein iske uchch kshaarayukt (pH 8.5) hone ke kaaran sangathit nikoteen aur adhik aasaani se munh mein shleshm jhilli ke maadhyam se avashoshit kar leta hai.[45] sigaar aur pipe se nikoteen avashoshan baharahaal cigarette ke dhuen se bahut kam hota hai.[46]

EPCglobal ke abhiyaanon mein se ek tha 1990 ke dashak mein RFID duniya mein prachalit protokaul ke kolaahal ko saral karna. do taig air intarafes (ek taig aur ek reedar ke beech soochana ka aadaan-pradaan karne ke liye protokaul) ko EPCglobal dvaara 2003 se pehle paribhaashit (lekin pushti naheen) kiya gaya. in protokaul ka, jinhein saamaanyat: class 0 tatha class 1 ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, 2002-2005 mein mahatvapoorn vyaavasaayik kaaryaanvayan hua.


ek digital pranaali mein, ek adhik sateek sanket ke pratinidhitv ke liye adhik baainari ankon ka upayog kiya ja sakta hai. haalaanki is prakriya ke liye ismein adhik aankik paripth ki aavashyakta hoti hai, choonki pratyek ank ek hi prakaar ke haardaveyar dvaara sambhaala jaata hai nateejatan ek aasaan maapaneeya tantr ka nirmaan ho jaata hai| ek enaalaug system mein atirikt rejlushan raikhikta mein buniyaadi sudhaar aur sanket shrrunkhala ke pratyek charan ke shor ke abhilkshan mein buniyaadi sudhaar ki aavashyakta hoti hai.


rekheeya paripth ki tulana mein aankik paripth ko istemaal karne ki vajah iska ek laabh yeh hai ki shor[2] ke kaaran sanketo ka vightan naheen hota hai va unhein aasaani se bheja aur darshaaya ja sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye, 1 aur 0 ke kram mein banaaye huye lambe aavaaj ke ek sanket ko truti ke bina pun:nirmaan kiya ja sakta hai basharte sanket banaane ke dauraan paida hua shor itna na ho ki usaki vajah se 1 va 0 ko pahachaana hi na ja sake. seedi mein ek ghante ke sangeet ko kareeb 60 lakh dviaadhaari ankon (baainari dijits) ke roop mein sangraheet kiya ja sakta hai.
dendaari lekha ek aisa faail ya khaata hai, jismein vyakti ya company dvaara aapoortikrtaaon ko bakaaya, lekin ab tak adatt (karj ka ek roop) paisa hota hai. jab aapko beejak praapt hota hai, to aap use faail se jodte hain aur bhugataan karte samay use hataate hain. is prakaar, A/P rin ka ek aisa svaroop hai, jo aapoortikrta apne khreedaaron ko pesh karte hain, jiske jriye pehle se hi praapt kisi utpaad ya seva ke liye baad mein bhugataan anumat hota hai.
ek digital pranaali mein, ek adhik sateek sanket ke pratinidhitv ke liye adhik baainari ankon ka upayog kiya ja sakta hai. haalaanki is prakriya ke liye ismein adhik aankik paripth ki aavashyakta hoti hai, choonki pratyek ank ek hi prakaar ke haardaveyar dvaara sambhaala jaata hai nateejatan ek aasaan maapaneeya tantr ka nirmaan ho jaata hai| ek enaalaug system mein atirikt rejlushan raikhikta mein buniyaadi sudhaar aur sanket shrrunkhala ke pratyek charan ke shor ke abhilkshan mein buniyaadi sudhaar ki aavashyakta hoti hai.
saare pareekshan ke baad, deta bits jagah par hain, dijaain ko "saamaanya mod" ke liye reekanfigr kiya jaata hai aur ek ya ek se adhik klauk pals ko laagoo kiya jaata hain, taaki dosh ka pata lag sake (jaise stak-ait lo ya stak-ait haai) aur pareekshan ke parinaam ka pragrahan scan shift rajistar mein flip-flop mein aur/ya leches mein kiya jaata hai. ant mein, pareekshan ke parinaam ko block seema mein sthaanaantarit kar diya jaata hai aur poorvaanumaan "gud machine" nateeje ke prati tulana ki jaati hai.

2009 ki garmiyon ke baad se, do kredit card companiyaan vishesh maaicroSD card ke vikaas ke liye dalaas, Texas aadhaarit divaaisafideliti ke saath kaam kar rahi hain. jab ise ek mobile phone mein daala jaaega to yeh microSD card, ek nishkriya taig aur ek RFID reedar, donon ho sakta hai.[11] microSD daalne ke baad, ek upayogakarta ka phone bank khaate se jud jaaega aur usaka upayog mobile bhugataan mein kiya jaaega.

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