dhoomrapaan ki shurooaat jyaadaatar kishoraavastha ya kishoraavastha ke aarambhik daur mein hoti hai. dhoomrapaan mein jokhim ke tatv aur vidroh hota hai, jo ki aksar yuva logon ko aakarshit karta hai. uchch star ke model aur saathiyon ki upasthiti bhi dhoomrapaan karne ko protsaahit kar sakti hai. choonki kishor vayaskon ki tulana mein apne saathiyon se adhik prabhaavit hote hain isliye maata-pita, school tatha svaasthya peshevar in logon ke cigarette peene ke prayaas ko rokane mein aksar asafal hote hain.[58][59]

beedi patali hoti hai, aksar masaaledaar, dakshin Asiaee cigarette teindu patte mein lipte tambaakoo se bani hoti hai aur surakshit rakhane ke liye antim sire par ek rangeen dhaage se bandhi hoti hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] beedi peene se uchch star ka kaarban monoaaksaaid, nikoteen aur sanyukt raajya America mein vishisht cigarette se raal niklata hai.[40][41] saamaanya cigarette ki tulana mein beedi apekshaakrut kam keemat waali hoti hai, jo Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, kanbodiya aur Bhaarat mein gareebon ke beech lambe samay se lokapriya hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]


Germany mein dhoomrapaan virodhi samooh aksar sharaab virodhi samoohon ke saath jud gaye,[30] tambaakoo ke sevan ke khilaaf der taibakajejaner Der Tabakgegner (tambaakoo pratidvandvi) patrika mein 1912 aur 1932 mein prakaashit lekh mein pehli baar vakaalat ki gayi. san 1929 mein Germany ke dresaden ke fritj likint ne ek lekh prakaashit kiya jismein fefadon ke Cancer-tobaiko link ka aupachaarik saankhyikeeya saboot tha. edaulf hitlar ne ghanaghor avasaad ke dauraan dhoomrapaan karne ki lat ko paise ki barabaadi kehkar ninda ki thi aur baad mein usane drudh vaktavya diye.[31] yeh aandolan aage chalakar naaji prajanan neeti ke kaaran aur majboot hua jismein mahilaaon ke dhoomrapaan ko ek jarman parivaar mein patniyon aur maataaon ke liye anupayukt maana gaya.[32]
adviteeya pehchaan, RFID taig ke liye ek anivaarya aavashyakta hai, number yojana ki vishesh pasand ke baavajood. RFID taig deta kshamata itni badi hogi ki har vyaktigat taig mein ek adviteeya code hoga, jabki vartamaan baar code, kisi vishesh utpaad ke liye ek hi prakaar ke code ke liye seemit hain. RFID taig ki vishishtata ka matlab hai ki kisi utpaad ko ek sthaan se doosare sthaan par jaate samay track kiya ja sakega, jo antat: upabhokta ke haathon mein samaapt hoga. isse chori aur utpaad nuksaan ke anya roopon se nipatne mein madad milegi. utpaadon ka anurekhan ek mahatvapoorn visheshata hai jise taig ki ek anoothi pehchaan aur vastu ki kram sankhya vaale RFID taig se achhi tarah se samarthan milta hai. isse companiyon ko gunavatta ki kami aur parinaamasvaroop smruti abhiyaan se nipatne mein madad milegi aur saath hi bikri ke baad upabhoktaaon ki traiking aur rooparekha ke baare mein chinta bhi badhegi.
aam taur par dendaari lekhon ke karmiyon dvaara gban rokane ke liye, durupayog ke khilaaf vividh jaanch maujood hain. kartavyon ka pruthakkaran ek aam niyantran hai. lagbhag sabhi companiyon mein check ke sansaadhan aur mudran ke liye ek junior karmachaari aur check ke punareekshan aur us par hastaakshar karne ke liye ek varishth karmachaari hota hai. aksar, lekhaankan software pratyek karmachaari ko keval unhein saunpe gaye kaarya ko nishpaadit karne tak hi seemit karte hain, taaki aisa koi jriya maujood na ho, jisse koi karmachaari - niyantrak bhi - akele koi bhugataan kar paae.

Parakala was appointed to the NSUI central committee as All India Vice President in 1984. It was almost like a token of appreciation by the Congress High Command of his performance as President of the JNU unit and his contribution to the establishment of the organisation in the citadel of left wing student politics. As an office bearer of the central committee of NSUI, he toured several states and universities to organise the activities of the students' wing of the Congress Party. He took up a massive campaign against drug abuse in the university campuses all over the country. With his departure for United Kingdom in October 1986 to pursue his higher studies at the London School of Economics (LSE), there was a break to his political activity. On his return to India in May 1991 he resumed political activity in his native place Narasapuram in West Godavari District. Tragic political events in the country resulted in dramatic political developments. Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, in the midst of the election campaign and P V Narasimha Rao was elected to lead the Congress Party. After the elections, Narasimha Rao became Prime Minister at the head of a minority government. Parakala family was closely associated with P V Narasimha Rao for a long time, Parakala Seshavataram, Prabhakar's father, being a close political associate of Rao. Narasimha Rao assigned the task of conceiving, designing and building a grand institution to perpetuate the memory of Rajiv Gandhi. He made Parakala as Officer on Special Duty to oversee the implementation of the project 'Rajiv Gandhi National Institute for Youth Development (RGNIYD). It is conceived as an institution to train the youth of India and impart to them skills that are necessary to them to play a vital role in building a modern nation in the 21st century, a theme that was dear to the heart of Rajiv Gandhi. Parakala went around the country to study various institutions, their constitutions, structures, course content etc., and designed the Institute which is functional now under the aegis of Ministry of Human Resource Development. Around this time Parakala was nominated by the Congress High Command to represent the Congress Party at the French Communist Party's Plenary in Paris.
In a gap of about two years he contested the by-election to Narsapuram Assembly constituency which arose as the sitting MLA got elected to Lok Sabha in the 1996 general elections. That by-election was a closely fought election and Parakala lost it narrowly. Inner party squabbles and bickerings led to Parakala's exit from Congress Party. He joined the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in late 1997. BJP hardly had a presence in the state and especially in West Godavari District. He contested the ensuing 1998 Lok Sabha election from Narasapur Lok Sabha constituency, and not surprisingly, lost. He played an active role in the party affairs, became a spokesperson of the state unit, and went on to become a member of the BJP's national economic cell that guided the party's economic policy. He was also made a member of a task force of the Planning Commission of India that formulated the Xth Fiver Year Plan.
Mrs. Pakravan confirms the well-known story that her husband saved Ayatollah Khomeini's life in 1963. He was condemned to death and General Pakravan was upset by that. Pakravan felt that Khomeini's execution would anger the common people of Iran. He knew that the population of the country is not its elite. He presented his argument to the shah. Once he had convinced the shah to allow him to find a way out, he called on Ayatollah Mohammad-Kazem Shariatmadari, one of the senior religious leaders of Iran, and asked for his help. Ayatollah Shariatmadari suggested that Khomeini be made a grand ayatollah. So, they made a religious decree which was taken by General Pakravan and Seyyed Jalal Tehrani to the Shah.
siyol, dakshin Korea aur aaspaas ke shaharon mein, ti-mani card ka prayog saarvajanik paaragaman ke bhugataan ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. dakshin Korea ke kuchh anya shaharon ne is pranaali ko apnaaya hai, jise kuchh dukaanon mein nakadi ke roop mein bhi istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. ti-mani ne yoopaas ki jagah li, jise 1996 mein MIFARE takaneek ka istemaal karte hue pehli baar parivhan bhugataan ke liye pesh kiya gaya tha.

Achuthanandan was heavily criticized for his allegedly insensitive comments in regards to the family of the late NSG commando Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan who was slain while defending the city of Mumbai during the 2008 terrorist attacks. Under public criticism for not visiting the mourning family, the CM finally decided to visit them. But allegedly agitated by the perceived insult and insensitivity in sending police dogs to check in a house in mourning as well as Achuthanandan's not offering condolences in a timely manner, Sandeep's father requested that the minister not visit. When Achuthanandan attempted to enter the house, he was evicted by the father on live TV.[32][33] Smarting from the snub, Achuthanandan stated during a TV interview that "Is there any rule that both the Karnataka Chief Minister and Kerala Chief Minister should go together to his (Sandeep's) home? If it were not that it was Sandeep's house, not even a dog would have gone there."(translated to English from his reply in Malayalam).[34] Faced by heavy public criticism and furor over this, Achuthanandan eventually offered a public apology, which was accepted by Sandeep's father, bringing an end to the controversy.[35]
RFID passport ke liye maanak antarraashtreeya naagar vimaanan sangathan (ICAO) dvaara nirdhaarit kiye jaate hain aur ye ICAO dastaavej 9303, bhaag 1, khand 1 aur 2 mein nihit hain (6 sanskaran, 2006). ICAO E-passport mein ISO/IEC 14443 RFID chip ko "kauntaiktales intigreted sarkit" ke roop mein sandarbhit karta hai. ICAO maanak, E-passport ko pahachaanane ke liye saamane ke aavaran par ek maanak E-passport logo upalabdh karaate hain.

donon ke paas hi aankade seemit hain. rog niyantran aur rokathaam kendra (the seintars for dijeej control end prijrveshan) ne 2002 mein prakaashit apne anusandhaan mein daava kiya hai ki sanyukt raajya America mein beche gaye ek packet cigarette par chikitsa dekhbhaal aur utpaadak hraas par 7 dollar se adhik ki laagat aati hai.[70] laagat aur adhik ho sakti hai jabki ek anya adhyayan mein use prati packet par $ 41 ki laagat bataayi hai, jinmein se jyaadaatar vyaktigat aur usaki/ uske parivaar ko vahan karna padta hai.[71] is tarah se ek anya aur adhyayan ke lekhak doosaron ke liye bahut kam laagat bataate hue kehte hain: "sankhya ke kam hone ka kaaran niji peinshan, saamaajik suraksha aur chikitsa hai- kharch ki ganana mein sabse bada kaarak samaaj hai- dhoomrapaan vaastav mein paise bachaata hai. dhoomrapaan karne vaale kam umr mein mar jaate hain aur ve vah dhan naheen uthaate jo un pranaaliyon se unhein bhugataan kiye jaate.[71]
Parakala took his Ph.D from renowned London School of Economics. He submitted a thesis "Security Doctrines and Foreign Policy Behaviour: A Study of Brazil, Ghana and Indonesia". He worked for his thesis in the International Relations Department under the supervision of Dr Christopher Coker. Before joining the LSE, he went to Jawaharlal Nehru University (School of International Studies) for his MA and MPhil degrees. He did his graduation from Andhra Loyola College in Vijayawada. First year of his Intermediate was from Hyderabad and for the second year of the course he went back to his native town Narasapuram. In Hyderabad he attended Nampally Junior College and in Narasapuram he went to Sri YN College. His schooling was also in two places. His primary and secondary education was in Narasapuram. He went to Lakshminarasamamba Municipal school for his primary education. He went to Mission High School for his High School. He did his tenth partly in Narasapuram and partly in Peoples' High School in Himayatnagar, Hyderabad.
INS Sarvekshak had previously visited Mauritius in February 2006 and March 2007 to undertake hydrographic surveys. The survey work by INS Sarvekshak was of immense help to Mauritius with regards to fishing, ecosystem preservation and management, establishment of artificial reefs, delimitation of the Continental Shelf of Mauritius and safe navigation of ships and crafts.[8] In 2007 the ship surveyed Port Mathurin, Rodrigues, which was last surveyed 133 years ago.[9] In 2011 the ship was also deployed in Seychelles to carry out hydrographic surveys off the atoll of Aldabra, Picard Island, Polyminie and part of Malabar Island and Grande-Terre island on the request of Government of Seychelles as the last survey of the area was done back in 1960s.[10] As part of goodwill tour 20 students from Jammu and Kashmir also toured the ship in 2011.[11]
khudara vikretaaon ke maadhyam se bikne vaale utpaadon ke nirmaata khudara vikreta ko beche gaye apne utpaadon ko badhaava dene ke liye ek seemit avadhi ke liye is ummeed ke saath chhoot deta hai, ki khudara vikreta bachat ko apne graahakon tak pahunchaaega. haalaanki, khudara vikreta aamtaur par forward baaing mein vyast ho jaate hain aur chhoot avadhi ke dauraan adhik utpaad khareedne lagte hain jitna ki ve prachaar avadhi ke dauraan bechne ka iraada naheen rakhate. kuchh khudara vikreta ek prakaar ke antarapanan mein sanlagn ho jaate hain aur riyaayati utpaad ko anya khudara vikretaaon ko bechne lag jaate hain, is abhyaas ko daaivarting ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. is abhyaas ka mukaabala karne ke liye, nirmaata, prachaarit maal par RFID taig ke prayog ki sambhaavanaaon ko talaash rahe hain taaki ve track kar sakein ki vaastav mein kaun sa utpaad poori tarah se riyaayati keematon par aapoorti shrrunkhala ke maadhyam se becha gaya hai.[27]
iske vipreet, kuchh gair-vaigyaanik adhyayan hain jismein se ekcheck ganaraajya ke Phillip mauris[72] dvaara aur doosra kaato Institute dvaara kiye gaye hain,[73] jo vipreet sthiti ka samarthan karte hain. adhyayan ki na to saathiyon dvaara sameeksha ki gayi aur na hi kisi vaigyaanik patrika mein prakaashit kiya gaya aur kaato Institute ko ateet mein tambaakoo companiyon se dhan praapt hua tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein] Phillip mauris ne spasht roop se apne poorv ke adhyayan ke liye yeh kehkar maafi maangi hai ki: "is adhyayan ke liye dhan aur saarvajanik vigyapti mein anya baaton ke alaava dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki samay se pehle hone waali mauton se check ganaraajya ki vistrut kathit laagat bachat ki baat ek ek bhayaanak nishkarsh hai, saath hi saath vah poorn roop se buniyaadi maanaveeya moolyon ki upeksha hai, jo asveekaarya hai. hamaari tambaakoo companiyon mein se ek ne is adhyayan ka kaaryabhaar diya tha, jo ek bhayaanak galati naheen thi, balki vah anuchit tha. Phillip mauris mein ham sabhi, yeh koi maayane naheen rakhata ki ham kahaan kaam karte hain, is kaarya ke liye kshamaapraarthi hain. vaastav mein dhoomrapaan se koi faayda naheen, uske kaaran gambhir aur mahatvapoorn rog hote hain."[72]

August, 2004 mein, ohiyo punarvaas aur sudhaar vibhaag (ODRC) ne alaanko teknolaujeej ke kaarmik-traiking takaneek ke moolyaankan ke liye $415,000 karaar ko manjoori di. kaidi, kalaai par ghadeenuma traansameetar pahaneinge jo hataane ke prayaas ko jaan sakega aur jail ke computeron ko chetaavani dega. yeh pariyojana ameriki jailon mein chips traiking ki pehli ghatna naheen hai. Michigan, California aur ilinois mein suvidhaaen, pehle se hi is praudyogiki ko apanaae hue hain.


beedi patali hoti hai, aksar masaaledaar, dakshin Asiaee cigarette teindu patte mein lipte tambaakoo se bani hoti hai aur surakshit rakhane ke liye antim sire par ek rangeen dhaage se bandhi hoti hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] beedi peene se uchch star ka kaarban monoaaksaaid, nikoteen aur sanyukt raajya America mein vishisht cigarette se raal niklata hai.[40][41] saamaanya cigarette ki tulana mein beedi apekshaakrut kam keemat waali hoti hai, jo Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, kanbodiya aur Bhaarat mein gareebon ke beech lambe samay se lokapriya hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

purushon mein mahilaaon ki tulana mein dhoomrapaan ki lat paanch guna adhik hoti hain,[13] haalaanki chhote aayu varg mein is laingik antar mein giraavat aati hai.[14][15] viksit deshon mein purushon mein dhoomrapaan apne charam par pahunch chuka hai aur usamein giraavat aani shuroo ho gayi hai haalaanki mahilaaon ke maamale mein vruddhi barkaraar hai.[53]
NADRA ne RFID aadhaarit chaalak license viksit kiya hai jis par license dhaarak ki vyaktigat jaankaari aur yaataayaat ullanghan, jaari kiye gaye ticket aur bakaaya dand ke baare mein data sangrahit hote hain. license card is tarah se dijaain kiye gaye hain ki driving adhikaar ko gambhir ullanghan ke maamale mein electronic tareeke se radd kiya ja sake. [49]
design ke aadhaar par, EPCglobal Network bhi Dos hamlon ke prati kamzor hai. EPC deta anurodhon ko hal karne mein DNS ke saath aisi hi pranaali ka upayog mein, ONS root sarvar Dos hamle ke liye asurakshit ho jaate hain. EPCglobal Network ke saath shuruaat karne ki yojana bana raha koi bhi sangathan yeh gyaat hone par thithur jaaega ki EPCglobal Network ke buniyaadi dhaanche mein DNS ke samaan hi suraksha kamjoriyaan hain.

kuchh companiyaan nae vikretaaon ko jodne aur vaauchar pravisht karne ke kaarya ko bhi alag karti hain. isse kisi karmachaari ke liye asambhav ho jaata hai ki vah khud ko vikreta ke roop mein jode aur fir kisi anya karmachaari ke saath bina saanth-gaanth ke apne naam check kaatein. yeh faail master veindar faail ke roop mein nirdisht hai. yeh company ke aapoortikrtaaon ke baare mein sabhi mahatvapoorn jaankaari ka bhandaar hai. jahaan beejak ke bhugataan ka maamala hai, yeh dendaari lekhon ka sandarbh bindu hai.[5]

RFID ko vastu-stareeya khudara upayog ke liye apnaaya ja raha hai. kaaryakushalata aur utpaad upalabdhata laabh ke alaava, yeh pranaali electronic aartikl sarvilaans(EAS) ka ek behatareen roop pradaan karti hai aur upabhoktaaon ke liye ek behtar sv-jaanch prakriya. pehli vaanijyik, saarvajanik vastu-stareeya RFID khudara pranaali ki sthaapana maana jaata hai ki north kairolina, America mein freedom shoping ink dvaara May 2005 mein ki gayi.


fir bhi anya kootlekhit protokaul, anadhikrut paathakon ke khilaaf gopaneeyata haasil karne ke prayaas mein hain, haalaanki ye protokaul abhi anusandhaan charan mein hain. RFID taig ko surakshit karne mein ek badi chunauti, taig ke bheetar kampyooteshanal sansaadhanon ki kami hai. maanak kootalekhan takaneek mein adhikaansh kam keemat vaale RFID upakaranon mein upalabdh sansaadhanon ki tulana mein adhik ki aavashyakta hoti hai. RSA security ne ek prototaaip upakaran ko peteint karaaya hai jo sthaaneeya star par ek maanak takkar parihaar protokaul ke dakhal se RFID sanketon ko jaam kar deta hai, or prayokta ko agar vaanchhit ho to pehchaan rokane ki anumati deta hai.[64] vibhinn neetigat upaayon ka bhi prastaav kiya gaya hai, jaise ki RFID taig waali vastu ko ek udyog maanak lebal ke saath chihnit karna. RFID suraksha, kuchh varshon se ek bahut sakriya anusandhaan kshetr hai, jismein 2002 se lekar aaj tak 400 se adhik vaigyaanik pepar prakaashit kiye gaye hain. is kshetr mein sandarbh ki ek vyaapak soochi RFID Security and Privacy Lounge mein pai ja sakti hai.
dubai mein, (sanyukt arab ameeraat) shekh jaayad road aur garahaud brij se gujarane vaale driver RFID taig ka upayog karte hue tol bhugataan karte hain jise saleek (pathakar) kaha jaata hai. dubai ne ek saarvajanik parivhan card bhi shuroo kiya hai jiska naam Nol [9] hai (jiska arth arabi mein kiraaya hai) jise metro, bas aur vaatarabas mein istemaal kiya jaata hai, ise dubai metro ke sarkaari prakshepan ke 9 September 2009 ke din seva mein pesh kiya gaya tha.
tambaakoo dhoomrapaan ek aisa abhyaas hai jismein tambaakoo ko jalaaya jaata hai aur usaka dhuaan ya to chakha jaata hai ya fir use saans mein kheencha jaata hai. iska chalan 5000-3000 E.poo.ke praarambhik kaal mein shuroo hua.[1] kai sabhyataaon mein dhaarmik anushthaanon ke dauraan ise sugandh ke taur par jalaaya gaya, jise baad mein aanand praapt karne ke liye ya fir ek saamaajik upakaran ke roop mein apnaaya gaya.[2] puraani duniya mein tambaakoo 1500 ke dashak ke antim daur mein prachalit hua jahaan isne saajha vyaapaarik maarg ka anusaran kiya. haalaanki yeh padaarth aksar aalochna ka shikaar banta raha hai, lekin iske baavajood vah lokapriya ho gaya.[3] jarman vaigyaaniko ne aupachaarik roop se der se 1920 ke dashak ke ant mein dhoomrapaan aur fefade ke Cancer ke beech ke sambandhon ki pehchaan ki jisse aadhunik itihaas mein pehle dhoomrapaan virodhi abhiyaan ki shuruaat hui. aandolan tathaapi dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan dushmanon ki seema mein pahunchane mein naakaam raha aur uske baad jald hi alokapriya ho gaya.[4] 1950 mein svaasthya adhikaariyon ne fir se dhoomrapaan aur Cancer ke beech ke sambandh par charcha shuroo ki.[5] vaigyaanik pramaan 1980 ke dashak mein praapt hue, jisne is abhyaas ke khilaaf raajaneetik kaarravaai par jor diya. 1965 se viksit deshon mein khapat ya to ksheen hui ya fir usamein giraavat aayi.[6] haalaanki, vikaasasheel duniya mein badhat jaari hai.[7]

ek aadhunik svachaalit pehchaan praudyogiki jaise radio freekveinsi pehchaan (RFID) praudyogiki par aadhaarit auto-ID laibs pranaali mein vastusoochi pranaali ke liye mahatvapoorn upayog hai. vishesh roop se, yeh praudyogiki maujooda soochi ka sahi gyaan pradaan karti hai. Wall-Mart par kiye gaye ek academic adhyayan mein[22], 0.1 aur 15 ikaai ke beech bikne vaale utpaadon ke liye RFID ne out-of-stock mein 30 pratishat ki kami kar di. RFID upayog karne ke anya laabh mein shaamil hai shram laagat mein kami, vyaapaar prakriyaaon ka saraleekaran aur taalika trutiyon mein kami.
paanv ki daud mein, dhaavak nishkriya taig pahanate hain jo track ke donon chhoron ya track ke aar-paar bichhe Matt par rakhe enteena dvaara padha jaata hai. nyoon ya uchch freekveinsi antim peedhi taig ke bajaay UHF aadhaarit taig, vishesh roop se design kiye gaye entena ke dvaara sateek reeding pradaan karte hain. rash truti, laip kaaunt trutiyaan aur durghatanaaon se bacha ja sakta hai choonki bina ek batch mod mein rahe koi bhi kabhi bhi shuroo aur khatm kar sakta hai.
Wall-Mart ka ek aur prabhaag, saims club bhi is disha mein aage aaya hai. dinaank 7 January 2008 ko isne apne aapoortikrtaaon ko yeh bataate hue patra bheja ki 31 January 2008, se pratyek poorn ekal-vastu pailet, jise desoto, Texas, ke uske vitran kendron par ya us DC dvaara seva pradatt seedhe uske kisi store par bheja ja raha hai, us par ek EPC Gen 2 RFID taig hona zaroori hai. iska paalan karne mein naakaam rahane vaale aapoortikrta ko seva shulk dena hoga. [24]
Canadian Cattle Identification Agency ne baarakod taig ke liye ek sthaanaapann ke roop mein RFID taig ka prayog shuroo kiya. taig ki aavashyakta gojaateeya jhund ke mool ki pehchaan karne ke liye hoti hai aur iska prayog yeh pata lagaane ke liye kiya jaata hai kab ek paiking plant ek shav ko khaarij karta hai. vartamaan mein CCIA taig ka istemaal, ek svaichhik aadhaar par viskaunsin mein aur America ke kisaanon dvaara kiya ja raha hai. USDA vartamaan mein apna swayam ka kaaryakram viksit kar raha hai.
RFID praudyogiki ke kai upayogon mein se ek hai unka pustakaalayon mein prayog. is praudyogiki ne dheere-dheere pustakaalaya ki cheejon par (kitaabein, CD, DVD, aadi) paaramparik baarakod ki jagah lena shuroo kar diya hai. RFID taig mein pehchaan sambandhit jaankaari ho sakti hai jaise ek pustak ka sheershak ya saamagri prakaar, jiske tahat ek alag daataabes ki or ishaara karne ki aavashyakta naheen hogi (lekin yeh uttar America mein durlabh hai). yeh jaankaari ek RFID reedar dvaara padhi jaati hai, jo maanak baarakod reedar ko jo saamaanyat: ek pustakaalaya ki sanchalan mej par paaya jaata hai, pratisthaapit karta hai. pustakaalaya saamagri par paaya jaane wala RFID taig aamtaur par uttar America mein 50 mm X 50 mm aur Europe mein 50 mm x 75 mm ke naap ka hota hai. ise baarakod ki jagah ya usamein shaamil kiya ja sakta hai, jo staaf ko soochi prabandhan ka ek alag tareeka aur lene vaalon ko swayam seva pradaan karega. yeh ek suraksha upakaran ke roop mein bhi kaarya kar sakte hain aur paramparaagat vidyut chumbakeeya patti[28] ki jagah le sakte hain aur na keval kitaabein, balki sadasyata card mein bhi ek RFID taig lagaaya ja sakta hai.

apratyaksh dhoomrapaan tambaakoo ke dhuen ka anaichhik sevan hai. second hand dhoomrapaan (SHS) vah khapat hai jahaan sulagane ka sira maujood hota, paryaavaran tambaakoo dhoomrapaan (ETS) ya thard hand dhoomrapaan vah dhoomrapaan hai jiska upabhog jalne vaale sire ke baad bhi hota rahata hai. iske nakaaraatmak prabhaav ke kaaran upabhog ke is svaroop ne tambaakoo utpaadon ke viniyman mein ek keindreeya bhoomika nibhaai.
kaaryaatmak satyaapan data, aam taur par "pareekshan vektar" kahalaate hain. kaaryaatmak pareekshan vektar ko sanrakshit kiya ja sakta hai aur kaarkhaane mein yeh pareekshan karne ke liye istemaal kiya ja sakta hai ki navanirmit laujik sahi dhang se kaam karta hai ya naheen. haalaanki, kaaryaatmak pareekshan paitarn, aam nirmaan galatiyon ki khoj naheen karte. utpaadan pareekshan, aksar software upakaran dvaara design kiye jaate hain jinhein "test paitarn generator" kaha jaata hai. laujik ki sanrachana ki jaanch aur vyavasthit dhang se vishesh dosh ke liye test janit kar, ye pareekshan vektar ko utpann karte hain. is tarah fault coverage kareeb 100% tak pahunch sakta hai, basharte dijaain ko theek tarah se pareekshan yogya banaaya gaya ho (agale anubhaag ko dekhein).

New York shahar mahanagar parivhan praadhikran ne ek RFID pareekshan kiya jismein maastarakaard dvaara pepaas ka upayog kiya gaya. yeh pareekshan mukhya roop se IRT leksingatan evenyoo line par kiya gaya jismein anya laainon ke kai vyast station bhi shaamil the. yeh pareekshan 31 May 2009 ko samaapt hua, lekin pepaas ke upayog ke vikalp ko vyaapak paimaane par baad ki taareekh mein pun: shuroo kiya ja sakta hai. MTA, New York shahar ke sabave aur bason par kiraaya bhugataan ke liye smaartalink (PATH dvaara shuroo) ko sveekaar karne aur antat: metrokaard ke ek pratisthaapan ke roop mein chalaane ki sambhaavana ka adhyayan kar raha hai.
"sviching gati" yeh bataati hai ki ek inavartar prati sekand kitni baar troo se faals aur vaapas mein badal sakta hai ("laujikl naheen" prakriya ki ek electronic prastuti). tej laujik kam samay mein adhik kaarya ko poora kar sakte hain. digital laujik pehli baar tab upayogi ban gaye jab svichn gati pachaas hartj se oopar ho gayi, kyonki vah yaantrik kailakuletar ka sanchaalan kar rahe manushyon ke ek dal se tej thi. aadhunik electronic digital laujik niyamit roop se paanch geegaahartj (5 × 109 hartj) par parivrtit hote hain aur kuchh prayogashaala pranaali ek teraahartj (1 × 1012 hartj) se adhik par parivrtit hoti hai.
RFID traansapondar chips ko golf geind mein pratyaaropit kiya gaya hai jisse unhein track kiya ja sake. aise traiking ka upayog homing upakaran ka upayog kar, khoi hui geind ko khojane mein aur kampyootareekrut driving range praaroop mein kiya ja sakta hai jo ek khilaadi dvaara maare gaye shot ko track karta hai aur doori aur sateekata par pratikriya deta hai.
jyaadaatar maamalon mein sanketo ki avastha ki sankhya do hoti hai aur in do avasthaaon ko do voltej staron dvaara darshaaya jaata hai: prayog mein aapoorti voltej ke aadhaar par ek va doosra (aamtaur par "jameeni" ya shoonya volt ke roop mein kaha jaata hai)| 1 uchch star par hota hai va 0 nimn star par. aksar ye donon star "lo" aur "haai" ke roop mein pratinidhitv karte hain.

sansthaan ki ye sahaayak khaata bahiyaaain hai. deya khaata bahi mein sansthaan ke sabhi deya khaate tatha praapya khaata bahi mein uske sabhi praapya khaate ankit rahate hain. yadi khaaton ki sankhya adhik hui to ek se adhik khaata bahiyaaain varnaanukram ya bhaugolik aadhaar par suvidhaanusaar bhi ye bahiyaaain rakhi jaati hai. sansthaan ke samaanya khaate mein bhi deya tatha praapya dhan ka aalekh rahata hai. in khaata bahiyon ki alag vyavastha shramavibhaajan ke sahaj laabh ke kaaran ki jaati hai kyonki iske dvaara vitt vibhaag ko baaaint kar tatha alag svatantr roop se bhi kaam karne mein sahaayata milti hai. saath hi shram aur samay ki bachat hoti hai. hisaab kitaab ke Milan mein bhi isse sahaayata milti hai kyonki sansthaan ke saamaanya khaate se in bahiyon ke khaate ka santulan samay samay par hota rahata hai jisse bhool chook ki chhaanabeen bhi aasaani se ho jaati hai. bade vyaapaarik sansthaanon mein in sahaayak bahiyon ka upayog vyaapak paimaane par kiya jaata hai.
jyaadaatar maamalon mein sanketo ki avastha ki sankhya do hoti hai aur in do avasthaaon ko do voltej staron dvaara darshaaya jaata hai: prayog mein aapoorti voltej ke aadhaar par ek va doosra (aamtaur par "jameeni" ya shoonya volt ke roop mein kaha jaata hai)| 1 uchch star par hota hai va 0 nimn star par. aksar ye donon star "lo" aur "haai" ke roop mein pratinidhitv karte hain.
Categories: 1923 birthsChief Ministers of KeralaCommunist Party of India (Marxist) politicians from KeralaIndian atheistsLiving peopleMalayali politiciansKerala politiciansIndian independence activists from KeralaTrade unionists from KeralaLeaders of the Opposition in KeralaChief ministers from Communist Party of India (Marxist)People from Alappuzha districtKerala MLAs 1967–70Kerala MLAs 1970–77Kerala MLAs 1991–96Kerala MLAs 2001–06Kerala MLAs 2006–11Kerala MLAs 2011–16
In the 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, the Left Democratic Front (LDF) secured a huge win with a total of 91 seats in 140 assembly constituencies. At the age of 92, VS travelled across the state campaigning for the party with much vigour. V S Achuthanandan also contested this election from Malampuzha constituency, where he won by a margin of 27,142 votes. Being the face and most recognizable leader of the front, he staked his claim to be the next Chief Minister. However, the State and Central leadership appointed Pinarayi Vijayan as Chief Minister instead.
In her memoirs, Mrs. Pakravan provides the following description of the arrest, imprisonment, and execution of her husband by the Islamic Revolutionary Court. She argues that General Pakravan was taken from his house to an unknown destination. When his son tried to contact him, he was told that the general was not arrested at all but that he was the guest of the Ayatollah. But in fact he was imprisoned shortly after his arrest.

2005 ke roop mein lagbhag sabhi digital masheenein tulyakaalik design hote hain kyonki tulyakaalik design ko banaana aur satyaapit karna bahut aasaan hai-vartamaan mein digital masheenon ki nakl karne vaale sauftaver, atulyakaalik design ko naheen sanbhaalate. tathaapi, atulyakaalik tark ko behtar samjha jaata hai, yadi usase kaam nikaala ja sake to, kyonki usaki gati ghadi dvaara manamaane dhang se gati seemit naheen hai, bajaay, yeh un laujik geton dvaara anumat gati par saamaanya roop se chalti hai, jinse inka nirmaan kiya gaya hai. tej bhaagon ke upayog dvaara ek atulyakaalik sarkit nirmaan, apratyaksh roop se sarkit ko teji se "daudaati" hai.
↑ a aa The World Health Organization, and the Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health (2001). "Women and the Tobacco Epidemic: Challenges for the 21st Century" (PDF). World Health Organization. pp. 5–6. Archived from the original on 2003-11-28. http://web.archive.org/20031128122821/www.who.int/tobacco/media/en/WomenMonograph.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-02.

During the CPM state conference held in Kottayam, he was criticized strongly due to his style of functioning by a majority of Pinarayi Vijayan supporters (38/53) known as official faction and they demanded his ouster from Chief Minister. They warned that the party would lose seats if it goes for ahead parliamentary elections under his leadership.[30][31]

In her memoirs, Mrs. Pakravan provides the following description of the arrest, imprisonment, and execution of her husband by the Islamic Revolutionary Court. She argues that General Pakravan was taken from his house to an unknown destination. When his son tried to contact him, he was told that the general was not arrested at all but that he was the guest of the Ayatollah. But in fact he was imprisoned shortly after his arrest.
lekha-pareekshak aksar kaate gaye chekon ke samarthan mein anumodit beejakon, vyaya riporton aur anya samarthak pralekhanon ki maujoodagi par dhyaan keindrit karte hain. aapoortikrta se pushtikran ya bayaan ka hona, khaate ke astitv ka samuchit pramaan hai. yeh asaamaanya naheen hai ki lekha-pareeksha ke chaaloo hone tak, inmein se kuchh pralekhan kho jaaen ya glat faailon mein rakhe jaaen. aisi sthitiyon mein lekha-pareekshak namoone ke aakaar ko badhaane ka faisala kar sakte hain.
baithakon aur sammelanon mein bhi upasthiti baij mein RFID praudyogiki laagoo ki ja rahi hai taaki sammelanon mein logon ko track kiya ja sake. isse jo aankada upalabdh hota hai usase pata chalta hai ki logon ne din ke samay kis kamre mein pravesh kiya aur baahar gaye.[51] yeh data aayojakon ko dikhaane ke liye upalabdh hota hai taaki sammelan ki saamagri aur dijaain mein sudhaar karne mein unki madad ki ja sake. pradarshaniyon mein pradarshakon ke liye netrutv bahaali prakriya mein sudhaar karne ke liye bhi RFID ka upayog kiya ja raha hai.
sanyukt raajya America mein cigarette kar alag-alag raajyon mein ek doosare se vyaapak roop se bhinn hai. udaaharan ke liye dakshin kairolina mein ek packet par keval 7 seint hai, jo desh ka nyoonatam hai, jabki road aailaind mein America ka uchchatam sitret tax prati packet $ 3.46 hai. Alabama mein, ilinois, misauri, New York shahar, Tennessee aur varjeeniya, kaauntiyon aur shaharon cigarette ki keemat par ek atirikt seemit kar laagoo hain.[87] uchch kar dar ke kaaran new jersey mein cigarette ke ek ausat packet ki keemat $ 6.45 hai,[88][89] jo abhi bhi cigarette ke ek packet ki anumaanit baahya laagat se bhi kam hai.
Japani shahar osaaka mein school prashaasan ab ek praathamik school mein bachchon ke kapde, back paik aur chhaatr ID mein chip laga raha hai.[38] donkaastar, England mein ek school, chhaatron ki vardi mein radio chips traiking karke ek nigraani pranaali ka parikshan kar raha hai taaki vidyaarthiyon par najar rakhi ja sake. [39] vest London, England, mein sitmbar, 2008 mein shuroo seint Charles siksth firm college mukhya dwaar se baahar jaane aur andar aane ke liye ek RFID card pranaali ka prayog kar raha hai, taaki upasthiti ka khaaka aur anaadhikrut pravesh ko roka ja sake. jaisa ki klekaheetan England, mein vhitklif mount school mein hai jo RFID ka upayog karte hue ek vishesh prakaar se dijaain kiye gaye card ke jariye imaarat ke baahar aur andar maujood vidyaarthiyon aur karmachaariyon ko track karta hai. fileepeens mein, kuchh schoolon mein pustak lene ke liye pehle se hi ID mein RFID ka upayog kiya jaata hai aur us vishesh school mein dwaar par RFID ID skainars lage hain. ye school hain kvijon city ka klairat school, Colegio de San Juan de Letran aur anya niji school.
donon ke paas hi aankade seemit hain. rog niyantran aur rokathaam kendra (the seintars for dijeej control end prijrveshan) ne 2002 mein prakaashit apne anusandhaan mein daava kiya hai ki sanyukt raajya America mein beche gaye ek packet cigarette par chikitsa dekhbhaal aur utpaadak hraas par 7 dollar se adhik ki laagat aati hai.[70] laagat aur adhik ho sakti hai jabki ek anya adhyayan mein use prati packet par $ 41 ki laagat bataayi hai, jinmein se jyaadaatar vyaktigat aur usaki/ uske parivaar ko vahan karna padta hai.[71] is tarah se ek anya aur adhyayan ke lekhak doosaron ke liye bahut kam laagat bataate hue kehte hain: "sankhya ke kam hone ka kaaran niji peinshan, saamaajik suraksha aur chikitsa hai- kharch ki ganana mein sabse bada kaarak samaaj hai- dhoomrapaan vaastav mein paise bachaata hai. dhoomrapaan karne vaale kam umr mein mar jaate hain aur ve vah dhan naheen uthaate jo un pranaaliyon se unhein bhugataan kiye jaate.[71]
V.S started his early political life by organising the agricultural workers in Kuttanadu. He was a well dedicated organizer of coir factory workers at the age of 16 under A.K. Gopalan and A.V. Kunjambu. Even though V.S. Achuthanandan lacked formal education, he was noted for his simplicity, dedication and deep reading. He was initiated into the political movement by P. Krishna Pillai. Later he participated in the freedom movement and the Communist Movement. V.S was in the forefront of the Punnapra-Vayalar uprising and Freedom Struggle against the policies for C.P Ramaswamy Iyer, Divan of Travancore who wanted to establish an American model government in Travancore. He was arrested on 28 October 1946 and was taken to Poonjar police station. He was beaten up severely in the lock – up. Policemen pierced his sole in both legs with bayonet. V.S spent five and half years in jails and four years underground during his political life.
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