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saare pareekshan ke baad, deta bits jagah par hain, dijaain ko "saamaanya mod" ke liye reekanfigr kiya jaata hai aur ek ya ek se adhik klauk pals ko laagoo kiya jaata hain, taaki dosh ka pata lag sake (jaise stak-ait lo ya stak-ait haai) aur pareekshan ke parinaam ka pragrahan scan shift rajistar mein flip-flop mein aur/ya leches mein kiya jaata hai. ant mein, pareekshan ke parinaam ko block seema mein sthaanaantarit kar diya jaata hai aur poorvaanumaan "gud machine" nateeje ke prati tulana ki jaati hai. 

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RFID suraksha ko lekar ek praathamik chinta RFID taig ki avaidh traiking hai. taig, jo vaishvik roop se pathaneeya hain, ve niji sthaan gopaneeyata aur kaurporet/sainya suraksha, donon ke liye khatra paida kar rahe hain. is tarah ki chintaaen, ameriki raksha vibhaag dvaara haal mein aapoorti shrrunkhala prabandhan ke liye RFID taig ko apnaane se uthaai gayi hain.[63] aam taur par, gopaneeyata sangathanon ne electronic utpaad code (EPC) RFID taig ko upabhokta utpaadon mein sannihit karne ke chal rahe prayaason ke sandarbh mein chinta vyakt ki hai.
veparaaijr ek upakaran hai jiska upayog paudhe ki saamagri ke sakriya tatv ko parishuddh karne ke liye hota hai. vanaspati ko jalaane ke badle sambhaavit pareshaani paida karne vaale jahareele ya Cancer paida karne vaale up utpaad ko tambaakoo se door karne hetu veparaaijr, saamagri ko ek aanshik vaikyoom mein itna tapaata hai ki paudhe mein upasthit sakriya yaugik khaulakar bhaap ban jaayein. dhoomrapaan saamagri sambandhi chikitseeya prashaasan seedhe paudhe ki saamagri ko garm karne mein aksar is vidhi ka upayog karta hai.
dhoomrapaan ki shurooaat jyaadaatar kishoraavastha ya kishoraavastha ke aarambhik daur mein hoti hai. dhoomrapaan mein jokhim ke tatv aur vidroh hota hai, jo ki aksar yuva logon ko aakarshit karta hai. uchch star ke model aur saathiyon ki upasthiti bhi dhoomrapaan karne ko protsaahit kar sakti hai. choonki kishor vayaskon ki tulana mein apne saathiyon se adhik prabhaavit hote hain isliye maata-pita, school tatha svaasthya peshevar in logon ke cigarette peene ke prayaas ko rokane mein aksar asafal hote hain.[58][59]

dhoomrapaan karne vaale maata pita ke bachchon mein gair dhoomrapaan karne vaale maata-pita ke bachchon se dhoomrapaan karne ki sambhaavana adhik hoti hai. ek adhyayan mein paaya gaya hai ki maata pita ke dhoomrapaan chhodne ka sambandh kishoraavastha mein kam dhoomrapaan se hai, sivaaya tab jab doosare maata pita vartamaan mein dhoomrapaan karte hon.[60] ek maujooda adhyayan ke pareekshan mein paaya gaya hai ki dhoomrapaan ke niyman ke maamale mein kishoraavastha mein dhoomrapaan ka sambandh ghar mein vayaskon ko dhoomrapaan ki anumati se hai. parinaam bataate hain ki ghar mein dhoomrapaan sambandhi pratibandhaatmak neetiyaan maadhyamik aur uchch vidyaalaya ke chhaatron ke dhoomrapaan ki koshish ki kam sambhaavana ke saath jude hain.[61]
kisi sansthaan mein jama aisa vyaapaarik agrim jiske mad mein jamaakarta ko na to koi maal diya gaya ho aur na usaki koi vyaapaarik seva ki gayi ho us sansthaan ke liya deya dhan hai. yeh rakam sansthaan mein deya khaate mein ankit ki jaati hai. svaami, saajhedaaron, sanchaalakon tatha karmachaariyon dvaara sansthaan ko diya gaya rin is khaate mein pravishti naheen paata. vah ek alag deya rinakhaate mein ankit kiya jaata hai. deya khaata vyaapaarik agrim ka khaata hai. vah sansthaan ke liye deya to hai par vah rin naheen hai isliye iski svatantr sthiti hai. vyaapaar se sambaddh agrim jama raashi maatr ka ismein ankan hota hai. theek yahi sthiti sansthaan dvaara diye gaye vyaapaarik agrim ki hai. vah dhanaraashi jo agrim ke roop mein anya kisi vyaapaarik sansthaan ko di gayi ho aur uske mad mein na to koi maal aaya ho aur na anya vyaapaarik seva li gayi ho sansthaan ke praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai. jiske naam yeh raashi praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai vah sansthaan apne yahaaain is rakam ko deya khaate mein daalata hai.

vyaya prashaasan aam taur par dendaari lekhon ke saath kreeb se juda hua hai aur kabhi-kabhi ek hi karmachaari dvaara ye kaarya kiye jaate hain. vyaya prashaasak yeh pushti karte hue karmachaari ke vyaya report ka satyaapan karta hai ki vimaan yaataayaat, bhoo-parivhan, bhojan aur manoranjan, teleefon, hotel tatha anya vyaya ke samarthan mein raseedein upalabdh hain. yeh pralekhan, kar uddeshyon ke liye aur anupayukt ya glat kharchon ki pratipoorti ki rokathaam ke liye aavashyak hai. vimaan yaataayaat kharch mein, shaayad sabse adhik dhokhaadhadi ki sambhaavana hai, kyonki havaai yaatra ki uchch laagat aur havaai yaatra sambandhi pralekhan ki bhraamak prakruti ki vajah se, jismein aarakshan, raseedein aur vaastavik tikton ka vinyaas shaamil hain.
Indian Navy claimed that the 300-Watt panels will generate about 5.4 kW solar power system, and avoid around 165 kg of carbon a day, "So in its 25 years life the total carbon saved is around 15 lakhs kg and 5.75 lakh litres of diesel by this innovation" [14][15] Noting that the world is looking for clean, renewable sources of energy in order to protect and reduce the harm caused to the environment, the Navy said the deterioration of the environment is highly correlated to the production and usage of fossil-based fuels worldwide. The Navy said it has created a new mechanism to encourage the utilization and development of renewable energy resources.[16]
RFID ko vastu-stareeya khudara upayog ke liye apnaaya ja raha hai. kaaryakushalata aur utpaad upalabdhata laabh ke alaava, yeh pranaali electronic aartikl sarvilaans(EAS) ka ek behatareen roop pradaan karti hai aur upabhoktaaon ke liye ek behtar sv-jaanch prakriya. pehli vaanijyik, saarvajanik vastu-stareeya RFID khudara pranaali ki sthaapana maana jaata hai ki north kairolina, America mein freedom shoping ink dvaara May 2005 mein ki gayi.

adhikaashan dhaarmik neta un logon mein pramukh the jo yeh maanate the ki dhoomrapaan anaitik ya poori tarah se nindaneeya hai. 1634 mein Moscow ke paitriaark mein tambaakoo ki bikri nishiddh kar di gayi aur pratibandh ko todne vaale purushon aur mahilaaon ki naak kaatne ki saja sunaai gayi aur unki peeth par tab tak chaabuk maarane ki saja di gayi, jab tak chamadi na udhad jaaye. pashchimi church neta urban VII (saptam) ne isi tarah dhoomrapaan ki ninda ki aur Pope sambandhi 1642 ka aadesh sunaaya. kai thos prayaason ke baavajood pratirodh aur pratibandh lagbhag sarvatr najaraandaaj kar diye gaye. jab ek kattar dhoomrapaan virodhi aur A kaauntarablaast too tobaiko ke lekhak, England ke James I (pratham), ne 1604 mein tambaakoo par 4000% tak vruddhi kar nayi pravrutti par ankush lagaane ki koshish ki to use London ke lagbhag 7,000 tambaakoo vikretaaon ne asafal saabit kar diya. baad mein, hoshiyaar shaasakon ko dhoomrapaan pratibandh ki nirrthakata ka ehsaas hua aur tambaakoo ke vyaapaar aur kheti ko sarkaari aakarshak ekaadhikaar mein badal diya.[27][28]
haalaanki, is baat par bahas chal rahi hai ki kab aur kahaan pustakaalayon mein pratham baar RFID shuroo hua, ise pehli baar ek takaneek ke roop mein pustakaalaya seting mein kaaryapravaah mein vruddhi karne hetu 1990 ke dashak mein prastaavit kiya gaya. pustakaalayon mein sarvapratham RFID shuroo karne vaalon mein nishchit roop se Singapore hai aur New York mein raukafelar vishvavidyaalaya is takaneek ka upayog karne wala sanyukt raajya America mein pehla shaikshanik pustakaalaya hai, jabki Michigan mein Farmington Community Library is takaneek ka upayog karne waali pehli saarvajanik sanstha hai, donon ne 1999 mein RFID ka upayog shuroo kiya. Europe mein, RFID ka upayog karne wala pratham saarvajanik pustakaalaya Netherland mein hoogejand-saipemeer mein hai, jahaan 2001 mein lenevaalon ko ek vikalp diya gaya. unhein aashcharyachakit karte hue, bujurg logon sahit 70% ne RFID vikalp ka prayog kiya aur jaldi hi anukoolit ho gaye.
dubai mein, (sanyukt arab ameeraat) shekh jaayad road aur garahaud brij se gujarane vaale driver RFID taig ka upayog karte hue tol bhugataan karte hain jise saleek (pathakar) kaha jaata hai. dubai ne ek saarvajanik parivhan card bhi shuroo kiya hai jiska naam Nol [9] hai (jiska arth arabi mein kiraaya hai) jise metro, bas aur vaatarabas mein istemaal kiya jaata hai, ise dubai metro ke sarkaari prakshepan ke 9 September 2009 ke din seva mein pesh kiya gaya tha.
naaji Germany mein tambaakoo virodhi aandolan dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan shatru rekha ke paar naheen pahunch paaya, jiske kaaran dhoomrapaan virodhi samoohon ne jaldi hi apni lokapriyta kho di. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke ant tak ameriki cigarette nirmaata ne jaldi hi Germany ke kaala baajaar mein fir se pravesh kiya. tambaakoo ki avaidh taskari ka prachalan ho gaya[33] aur dhoomrapaan virodhi abhiyaan ke naaji neta khaamosh ho gaye.[34] maarshal yojana ke ek hisse ke roop mein sanyukt raajya America ne Germany ko 1948 mein 24,000 tan aur 1949 mein 69,000 tan tambaakoo muft mein bhej diya.[33] yuddh ke baad ke Germany mein prati vyakti vaarshik cigarette ki khapat 1950 mein 460 se badhkar 1963 mein 1,523 ho gayi.[4] 1900 ke dashak ke ant tak Germany mein dhoomrapaan virodhi abhiyaan 1939-41 mein naaji yug ke ant mein apni prabhaavasheelata badha paane mein asafal raha aur jarman tambaakoo svaasthya anusandhaan ki vyaakhya raabart N. prauktar dvaara ek "mandit" ke roop mein ki gayi.[4]
usi samay, nae ekeekrut paripth (ICs) eliyn, impinj aur NXP (poorv mein Philips) dvaara shuroo kiye gaye jisne behtar pradarshan dikhaaya aur IT parisanpatti nigraani anuprayog mein visfot hua. aaj ki taareekh mein isko bruhat paimaane par apnaane vaale bank of America aur vels faarago prateet hote hain - pratyek ki ek darjan se adhik deta kendron mein 100,000 se adhik parisanpatti hai.[16]
1612 mein jemsataaun ke avasthaapan ke chhah saal baad John raalf pehle adhivaasi hain jinhonne tambaakoo ki ek nakadi fasal ke roop mein safalataapoorvak kheti ki. tambaakoo ki maang mein teji se vruddhi hui, use "bhoora sona" kaha gaya, kyonki usane sone ke abhiyaan mein vifal varjeeniya ko share company mein punarjeevit kar diya.[21] puraani duniya ki maangon ko poora karne ke liye tambaakoo ki paidaavaar lagaataar ki gayi jiske parinaamasvaroop jameen ki urvara shakti sheegra hi kam ho gayi. isne pashchim ko ek agyaat mahaadveep mein basane ke liye prerak ka kaarya kiya aur isi tarah tambaakoo utpaadan ka ek vistaar hua.[22] bekan vidroh ke pehle tak anubandhit daasata hi praathamik shram bal ka aadhaar thi jiske kaaran das pratha par dhyaan kendrit hua.[23] yeh pravrutti ameriki kraanti ke baad kam hui aur daasapratha laabhaheen maani gayi. haalaanki yeh pratha 1794 mein punarjeevit ho gayi jab kapaas ki charkhi ka aavishkaar hua.[24][page needed]
vipanak (adhikatar) yah jaanakar prasann honge ki sampoorn maanav-vishisht kaaryon ke svachaalan ko saksham karane vaalee unnat takaneek ke saath 2017 mein svachaalan ek bada aadhaar ban jaega. hamaare paas kuchh varshon ke lie prachalan mein robot patrakaar the, aur mujhe ummeed hai ki ve adhik vyaavahaarik prakaar ke lekhon mein ek aur chhalaang lagaane se pahale lambe samay tak nahin rahenge. aisa hone kee sambhaavana hai ki ham kaee prakaar kee shvet-kolar prakaar kee naukariyon mein utpaadakata badhana shuroo kar denge- aur ham kuchh naukariyon ko pooree tarah se gaayab hone se dekhana shuroo karenge. jab otomeshan masheen seekhane ke saath joda jaata hai, to sab kuchh bhee tez ho sakata hai, isalie 2017 mein vaastav mein ek meel ka patthar varsh hone kee sambhaavana hai.
donon ke paas hi aankade seemit hain. rog niyantran aur rokathaam kendra (the seintars for dijeej control end prijrveshan) ne 2002 mein prakaashit apne anusandhaan mein daava kiya hai ki sanyukt raajya America mein beche gaye ek packet cigarette par chikitsa dekhbhaal aur utpaadak hraas par 7 dollar se adhik ki laagat aati hai.[70] laagat aur adhik ho sakti hai jabki ek anya adhyayan mein use prati packet par $ 41 ki laagat bataayi hai, jinmein se jyaadaatar vyaktigat aur usaki/ uske parivaar ko vahan karna padta hai.[71] is tarah se ek anya aur adhyayan ke lekhak doosaron ke liye bahut kam laagat bataate hue kehte hain: "sankhya ke kam hone ka kaaran niji peinshan, saamaajik suraksha aur chikitsa hai- kharch ki ganana mein sabse bada kaarak samaaj hai- dhoomrapaan vaastav mein paise bachaata hai. dhoomrapaan karne vaale kam umr mein mar jaate hain aur ve vah dhan naheen uthaate jo un pranaaliyon se unhein bhugataan kiye jaate.[71]
poorvi uttar ameriki janajaatiyaan vyaapaar ke ek sahaj sveekaar taiyaar mad ke roop mein tambaakoo ke paauch ka badi maatra mein apne paas rakhate hain aur aksar pipe se dhoomrapaan karte hain, chaahe vah paribhaashit samaaroh ho jise pavitra maana jaata hai ya saude ko pakka karne ke liye[17] aur ve ise jeevan ke sabhi charanon sabhi avsaron par peete hain, yahaan tak ki bachapan mein bhi.[18][page needed] aisi maanyata hai ki tambaakoo is jagat ke nirmaata se mila ek ek upahaar tha aur tambaakoo ke kash se nikla dhuaan us vyakti vishesh ke vichaaron aur praarthanaaon ko svarg tak le ja paane mein saksham hai.[19]
Categories: 1923 birthsChief Ministers of KeralaCommunist Party of India (Marxist) politicians from KeralaIndian atheistsLiving peopleMalayali politiciansKerala politiciansIndian independence activists from KeralaTrade unionists from KeralaLeaders of the Opposition in KeralaChief ministers from Communist Party of India (Marxist)People from Alappuzha districtKerala MLAs 1967–70Kerala MLAs 1970–77Kerala MLAs 1991–96Kerala MLAs 2001–06Kerala MLAs 2006–11Kerala MLAs 2011–16 
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