dendaari lekha ek aisa faail ya khaata hai, jismein vyakti ya company dvaara aapoortikrtaaon ko bakaaya, lekin ab tak adatt (karj ka ek roop) paisa hota hai. jab aapko beejak praapt hota hai, to aap use faail se jodte hain aur bhugataan karte samay use hataate hain. is prakaar, A/P rin ka ek aisa svaroop hai, jo aapoortikrta apne khreedaaron ko pesh karte hain, jiske jriye pehle se hi praapt kisi utpaad ya seva ke liye baad mein bhugataan anumat hota hai.
ek baar koi dijaain maujood hai aur satyaapit aur pareekshan yogya hai, to ise utpaadit yogya hone ke liye aksar sansaadhit karne ki aavashyakta hoti hai. aadhunik ekeekrut paripth mein, fotopratirodh ko ujaagar karne ke liye prayukt prakaash ki tarang dairdhya se chhoti visheshataaen hain. utpaadakata software, eksapojr maask mein mukt-paripth ko samaapt karne ke liye hastakshep paitarn jodte hain aur maask ke rijaulyooshan aur kantraast mein vruddhi karte hain.

iski tulana mein atulyakaalik system ka design bahut kathin hota hai kyonki sabhi sambhav samay mein bhi sambhaavit state ka vichaar kiya jaana chaahiye. nyoonatam aur adhiktam samay ke table ke nirmaan ke sabse saamaanya vidhi ke anusaar ismein saare state vidyamaan ho aur vaise state ke mineemaaij ke liye sarkit ko samaayojit kiya jaata hai aur jo iske sabhi hisson ke susangat state mein samay-samay par jaane ke liye sarkit ko baadhya kare. (ise "self-reesinkronaaijeshan" kaha jaata hai.) aise saavdhaan design ke bina sanyogavash atulyakaalik laujik ka utpaadan karna aasaan hai jo "asthir" hai aur vaastavik electronics hai jismein apratyaashit parinaam hote hain kyonki electronic upakaranon ke moolyon mein chhote badlaavon ki vajah se sanchit vilamb hota hai. kuchh sarkit (jaise sinkronaaijr-flip flop, svich debaaunsar aur jo baahari anasinkronaaijd ko atulyakaalik laujik sarkit mein pravesh karne ki anumati deta hai) sahaj roop se apne design mein antarnihit atulyakaalik rahe hain aur is tarah hi vishleshan kiya jaana chaahiye.
iski tulana mein atulyakaalik system ka design bahut kathin hota hai kyonki sabhi sambhav samay mein bhi sambhaavit state ka vichaar kiya jaana chaahiye. nyoonatam aur adhiktam samay ke table ke nirmaan ke sabse saamaanya vidhi ke anusaar ismein saare state vidyamaan ho aur vaise state ke mineemaaij ke liye sarkit ko samaayojit kiya jaata hai aur jo iske sabhi hisson ke susangat state mein samay-samay par jaane ke liye sarkit ko baadhya kare. (ise "self-reesinkronaaijeshan" kaha jaata hai.) aise saavdhaan design ke bina sanyogavash atulyakaalik laujik ka utpaadan karna aasaan hai jo "asthir" hai aur vaastavik electronics hai jismein apratyaashit parinaam hote hain kyonki electronic upakaranon ke moolyon mein chhote badlaavon ki vajah se sanchit vilamb hota hai. kuchh sarkit (jaise sinkronaaijr-flip flop, svich debaaunsar aur jo baahari anasinkronaaijd ko atulyakaalik laujik sarkit mein pravesh karne ki anumati deta hai) sahaj roop se apne design mein antarnihit atulyakaalik rahe hain aur is tarah hi vishleshan kiya jaana chaahiye.
pichhale paanch saalon se bada aankada ek bada vishay raha hai, jab usane surkhiyon mein ek bayaan diya tha. yah vichaar yah hai ki ikatthe kie gae aankadon ke bade paimaane par jinake paas ab tak pahunch hai- behatar vipanan abhiyaanon ko behatar tareeke se chalaane ke lie yojana banaane se lekar har cheej mein hamen madad kar sakata hai. lekin badee aankadon kee sabase badee shakti-isakee maatraatmak, sankhyaatmak neenv-bhee kamajoree hai. 2017 mein, mujhe ummeed hai ki ham deta ke adhik sanvedanasheel aur gunaatmak bits kee maang karate hue aur adhik drshy, sulabh tareeke se ise pesh karane ke lie bade deta ko maanaveey banaane kee pragati dekhenge.
maariyo kaardullo ka saaaincha:US Patent 1973 mein aadhunik RFID ka pehla sachcha poorvaj tha; smruti wala ek nishkriya radio traansapondar. praarambhik upakaran nishkriya tha, jo poochh-taachh sanket ke dvaara sanchaalit hota tha aur 1971 mein New York port athauriti aur anya sambhaavit prayoktaaon ke liye iska pradarshan kiya gaya aur yeh ek tol upakaran ke roop mein istemaal ke liye 16 bit smruti ke saath ek traansapondar se bana tha. buniyaadi kaardullo peteint sanchaaran media ke roop mein RF, dhvani aur prakaash ke istemaal ko aavrut karta hai. 1969 mein, niveshakon ke saamane prastut mool vyaapaar yojana ne parivhan (otomotiv vaahan pehchaan, svachaalit tol pranaali, electronic license plate, electronic maalasoochi, vaahan maarg, vaahan pradarshan nigraani), banking (electronic check book, electronic kredit card), suraksha (karmiyon ki pehchaan, svachaalit dwaar, nigraani) aur chikitsa (pehchaan, rogi itihaas) mein iska istemaal dikhaaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
pichhale paanch saalon se bada aankada ek bada vishay raha hai, jab usane surkhiyon mein ek bayaan diya tha. yah vichaar yah hai ki ikatthe kie gae aankadon ke bade paimaane par jinake paas ab tak pahunch hai- behatar vipanan abhiyaanon ko behatar tareeke se chalaane ke lie yojana banaane se lekar har cheej mein hamen madad kar sakata hai. lekin badee aankadon kee sabase badee shakti-isakee maatraatmak, sankhyaatmak neenv-bhee kamajoree hai. 2017 mein, mujhe ummeed hai ki ham deta ke adhik sanvedanasheel aur gunaatmak bits kee maang karate hue aur adhik drshy, sulabh tareeke se ise pesh karane ke lie bade deta ko maanaveey banaane kee pragati dekhenge.
sooparakandaktiviti ki khoj, raipid ekal flaks kvaantam (RSFQ) ke vikaas sarkit praudyogiki ko sambhav kar pai hai joki traanjistar ke bajaay josefasan jankshan ka upayog karta hai. haal hi mein, aise shuddh optikl kanpyooting pranaali ko banaane ka prayaas kiya gaya, joki naunaleeneear optikl tatvon ka prayog karke digital soochana sansaadhit karne mein saksham hai.
dendaari lekhe ek saamarik, moolya-yojit lekha kaarya hai, jo ek sangathan mein praathamik bina vetan-chitthe ke vitran kaarya sampann karta hai. at: AP parichaalan, sangathan ke vitteeya chakr mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai. AP sangathan ko sampoorn dendaari prakriya ke prabhaav ke moolyaankan aur sudhaar hetu, vyavasthit aur anushaasit drushtikon ke jriye apne uddeshyon ko poora karne mein saksham banaata hai. paaramparik AP gatividhiyon ke alaava, jismein anya paksh ikaaiyon (aapoortikrta, vikreta, kar praadhikaari, aadi.) ki deyataaon ko sveekaara jaata hai aur company aur aapoortikrtaaon ke beech sahamat rin neetiyon ke aadhaar par bhugataan kiya jaata hai, vartamaan AP vibhaagon ne dhokhaadhadi nivaaran, laagat mein kami, kaaryapravaah pranaali samaadhaan, nakadi pravaah prabandhan, aantarik niyantran tatha vikreta (saplaai chen) vitt poshan samet aur bhi vyaapak bhoomikaaon ko grahan kiya hai .[3]
kuchh companiyaan nae vikretaaon ko jodne aur vaauchar pravisht karne ke kaarya ko bhi alag karti hain. isse kisi karmachaari ke liye asambhav ho jaata hai ki vah khud ko vikreta ke roop mein jode aur fir kisi anya karmachaari ke saath bina saanth-gaanth ke apne naam check kaatein. yeh faail master veindar faail ke roop mein nirdisht hai. yeh company ke aapoortikrtaaon ke baare mein sabhi mahatvapoorn jaankaari ka bhandaar hai. jahaan beejak ke bhugataan ka maamala hai, yeh dendaari lekhon ka sandarbh bindu hai.[5]
lekin, January 2009 mein saims club ne paalan na karne par lagne vaale jurmaane ko kaafi kam kar diya, jise usane prati pailet $2 se ghataakar sirf 12 seint prati pailet kar diya. Wall-Mart ka anumaan hai ki saims ke liye khud taiging karne par prati pailet 12 seint ka kharcha aaega. saims ne yeh bhi ghoshana ki ki pailet-stareeya taiging ko 2010 mein poori shrrunkhala bhar mein shuroo kiye jaane ki ummeed hai, jabki vyaktigat vastu par taiging ki samay seema "vichaaraadheen" hai.
san 2000 mein 1.22 log dhoomrapaan karte the. prachalan mein parivartan ka koi anumaan na lagaate hue yeh bhavishyavaani ki gayi hai ki 2010 mein 1.45 billion log aur 2025 mein 1.5 se 1.9 billion log dhoomrapaan kareinge. maan lein ki prasaar ek saal mein 1% kam hota hai aur aay mein 2% ki maamooli vruddhi hoti hai to dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki sankhya 2010 aur 2025 mein anumaanit 1.3 billion hogi.[13]
Place 2 cups of Basmati Rice, 3/4 cup of hulled Mung Beans (Dal), 1/2 teaspoon Turmeric powder, 1/2 teaspoon Cumin seeds and salt in a pot, covered with three times the amount of water. Allow to simmer until it is tender. Mix in 1 dessert spoon of butter or clarified butter per serve. This food has the effect of providing a protective film on the intestinal tract and for this reason, as much as possible should be eaten. Do not drink for 2 hours after eating this meal.
Singapore mein, saarvajanik parivhan ki bason aur trainon mein nishkriya RFID ko laagoo kiya gaya hai jise EZ-Link card ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. bheed bhare shahar ke aatanrik kshetron mein yaataayaat ko char tol dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai jise stord vailyoo card (kaishakaard ke roop mein gyaat) ke upayog ko ek sakriya taiging pranaali ke saath upayog dvaara laagoo kiya jaata hai.
jin deshon mein ek saarvajanik svaasthya pranaali hai, vahaan dhoomrapaan karne vaale beemaar logon ki samaajik chikitsa dekhbhaal ki laagat karon mein vruddhi ke maadhyam se vahan ki jaati hai. is morche par do tark maujood hain, "dhoomrapaan samarthakon" ka tark hai ki bhaari dhoomrapaan karne vaale aam taur par lamba jeevan naheen jeete jisse budhaape ko prabhaavit karne waali kharcheeli aur puraani beemaari naheen hoti aur yeh samaaj mein svaasthya seva ke bojh ko kam karta hai. "dhoomrapaan virodhi" tark ke anusaar svaasthya chikitsa ka bojh badhta hai kyonki dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki saamaanya aabaadi ki tulana mein kam umr mein lambi beemaari dar adhik hai.

Germany mein dhoomrapaan virodhi samooh aksar sharaab virodhi samoohon ke saath jud gaye,[30] tambaakoo ke sevan ke khilaaf der taibakajejaner Der Tabakgegner (tambaakoo pratidvandvi) patrika mein 1912 aur 1932 mein prakaashit lekh mein pehli baar vakaalat ki gayi. san 1929 mein Germany ke dresaden ke fritj likint ne ek lekh prakaashit kiya jismein fefadon ke Cancer-tobaiko link ka aupachaarik saankhyikeeya saboot tha. edaulf hitlar ne ghanaghor avasaad ke dauraan dhoomrapaan karne ki lat ko paise ki barabaadi kehkar ninda ki thi aur baad mein usane drudh vaktavya diye.[31] yeh aandolan aage chalakar naaji prajanan neeti ke kaaran aur majboot hua jismein mahilaaon ke dhoomrapaan ko ek jarman parivaar mein patniyon aur maataaon ke liye anupayukt maana gaya.[32]
khudara vikretaaon ke maadhyam se bikne vaale utpaadon ke nirmaata khudara vikreta ko beche gaye apne utpaadon ko badhaava dene ke liye ek seemit avadhi ke liye is ummeed ke saath chhoot deta hai, ki khudara vikreta bachat ko apne graahakon tak pahunchaaega. haalaanki, khudara vikreta aamtaur par forward baaing mein vyast ho jaate hain aur chhoot avadhi ke dauraan adhik utpaad khareedne lagte hain jitna ki ve prachaar avadhi ke dauraan bechne ka iraada naheen rakhate. kuchh khudara vikreta ek prakaar ke antarapanan mein sanlagn ho jaate hain aur riyaayati utpaad ko anya khudara vikretaaon ko bechne lag jaate hain, is abhyaas ko daaivarting ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. is abhyaas ka mukaabala karne ke liye, nirmaata, prachaarit maal par RFID taig ke prayog ki sambhaavanaaon ko talaash rahe hain taaki ve track kar sakein ki vaastav mein kaun sa utpaad poori tarah se riyaayati keematon par aapoorti shrrunkhala ke maadhyam se becha gaya hai.[27]
electronic cigarette tambaakoo ke dhoomrapaan ka ek vaikalpik tareeka hai, haalaanki ismein tambaakoo ka sevan ekdam naheen kiya jaata. yeh ek baitari se chalne wala upakaran hai jo vaashpeekrut propilen glaaikol (propylene glycol)/ nikoteen ghol se nikoteen ki khuraak saans se andar bhejata hai. kaanooni aur saarvajanik svaasthya ki jaanch ke kai maamale vartamaan mein kai deshon mein lambit pade hain, jo iske kaaran apekshaakrut haal mein ubhare hain.
Singapore mein, saarvajanik parivhan ki bason aur trainon mein nishkriya RFID ko laagoo kiya gaya hai jise EZ-Link card ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. bheed bhare shahar ke aatanrik kshetron mein yaataayaat ko char tol dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai jise stord vailyoo card (kaishakaard ke roop mein gyaat) ke upayog ko ek sakriya taiging pranaali ke saath upayog dvaara laagoo kiya jaata hai.
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