dendaari lekhe ek saamarik, moolya-yojit lekha kaarya hai, jo ek sangathan mein praathamik bina vetan-chitthe ke vitran kaarya sampann karta hai. at: AP parichaalan, sangathan ke vitteeya chakr mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai. AP sangathan ko sampoorn dendaari prakriya ke prabhaav ke moolyaankan aur sudhaar hetu, vyavasthit aur anushaasit drushtikon ke jriye apne uddeshyon ko poora karne mein saksham banaata hai. paaramparik AP gatividhiyon ke alaava, jismein anya paksh ikaaiyon (aapoortikrta, vikreta, kar praadhikaari, aadi.) ki deyataaon ko sveekaara jaata hai aur company aur aapoortikrtaaon ke beech sahamat rin neetiyon ke aadhaar par bhugataan kiya jaata hai, vartamaan AP vibhaagon ne dhokhaadhadi nivaaran, laagat mein kami, kaaryapravaah pranaali samaadhaan, nakadi pravaah prabandhan, aantarik niyantran tatha vikreta (saplaai chen) vitt poshan samet aur bhi vyaapak bhoomikaaon ko grahan kiya hai .[3]
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kendreeya vidyut anusandhaan sansthaan (angreji : central power research Institute, laghu: si.pi.aar.I) jo aamtaur par si pi aar I ke naam se jaana jaata hai, sanprati vighut mantraalaya ke adheen ek svaayatt society hai. Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara 1960 mein iski sthaapana ki gayi tatha 1978 mein svaayatt society ke roop mein usaka punagarthan kiya gaya. sansthaan ka prabandh shaasi nikaaya karta hai jiske sadasya sarkaar, vidyut upayogitaaon, udyogon, shaikshink sansthaaon aadi ka pratinidhitv karte hain. sachiv vidyut mantraalaya, Bhaarat sarkaar shaasi pirshad ke adhyaksh hain. sansthaan ke mukhya adhishaasi mahaanideshak hain, jo shaasi parishd ke sadasya sachiv bhi hein.
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iske vipreet, kuchh gair-vaigyaanik adhyayan hain jismein se ekcheck ganaraajya ke Phillip mauris[72] dvaara aur doosra kaato Institute dvaara kiye gaye hain,[73] jo vipreet sthiti ka samarthan karte hain. adhyayan ki na to saathiyon dvaara sameeksha ki gayi aur na hi kisi vaigyaanik patrika mein prakaashit kiya gaya aur kaato Institute ko ateet mein tambaakoo companiyon se dhan praapt hua tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein] Phillip mauris ne spasht roop se apne poorv ke adhyayan ke liye yeh kehkar maafi maangi hai ki: "is adhyayan ke liye dhan aur saarvajanik vigyapti mein anya baaton ke alaava dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki samay se pehle hone waali mauton se check ganaraajya ki vistrut kathit laagat bachat ki baat ek ek bhayaanak nishkarsh hai, saath hi saath vah poorn roop se buniyaadi maanaveeya moolyon ki upeksha hai, jo asveekaarya hai. hamaari tambaakoo companiyon mein se ek ne is adhyayan ka kaaryabhaar diya tha, jo ek bhayaanak galati naheen thi, balki vah anuchit tha. Phillip mauris mein ham sabhi, yeh koi maayane naheen rakhata ki ham kahaan kaam karte hain, is kaarya ke liye kshamaapraarthi hain. vaastav mein dhoomrapaan se koi faayda naheen, uske kaaran gambhir aur mahatvapoorn rog hote hain."[72]


New York shahar mahanagar parivhan praadhikran ne ek RFID pareekshan kiya jismein maastarakaard dvaara pepaas ka upayog kiya gaya. yeh pareekshan mukhya roop se IRT leksingatan evenyoo line par kiya gaya jismein anya laainon ke kai vyast station bhi shaamil the. yeh pareekshan 31 May 2009 ko samaapt hua, lekin pepaas ke upayog ke vikalp ko vyaapak paimaane par baad ki taareekh mein pun: shuroo kiya ja sakta hai. MTA, New York shahar ke sabave aur bason par kiraaya bhugataan ke liye smaartalink (PATH dvaara shuroo) ko sveekaar karne aur antat: metrokaard ke ek pratisthaapan ke roop mein chalaane ki sambhaavana ka adhyayan kar raha hai.

poorvi uttar ameriki janajaatiyaan vyaapaar ke ek sahaj sveekaar taiyaar mad ke roop mein tambaakoo ke paauch ka badi maatra mein apne paas rakhate hain aur aksar pipe se dhoomrapaan karte hain, chaahe vah paribhaashit samaaroh ho jise pavitra maana jaata hai ya saude ko pakka karne ke liye[17] aur ve ise jeevan ke sabhi charanon sabhi avsaron par peete hain, yahaan tak ki bachapan mein bhi.[18][page needed] aisi maanyata hai ki tambaakoo is jagat ke nirmaata se mila ek ek upahaar tha aur tambaakoo ke kash se nikla dhuaan us vyakti vishesh ke vichaaron aur praarthanaaon ko svarg tak le ja paane mein saksham hai.[19]


si pi aar I vaidyut shikt injeeniyri mein anuprayukt anusandhaan ke liye kein ke roop mein kaam karne ke alaava vidyut upaskar ke pareekshan aur pramaaneekaran ko sampann karne ke liye ek pradhaan nikaaya ke roop mein kaayarrat hai. sansthaan sthit maaneetaran evam kshetr nidaan, oorja pareekshan tatha vitran pranaali prabandhan ke alaava utpaad abhiklp tatha vikaas (design evam development) ke liye paraamarsh sevaaeain pradaan karta hai aur saath hi desh ke donon taap tatha jal vidyut sanyantron ke liye shesh aayu nirdhaaran/naveekaran evam aadhuneenakeekaran adhyayan tatha aayu vistaran adhyayan sampann karta hai.
RFID taig, aksar UPC ya EAN baarakod ke liye ek pratisthaapan hain, jiske puraane baarakod praudyogiki ki tulana mein kai mahatvapoorn laabh hain. ho sakta hai ve kabhi bhi poori tarah se baarakod ki jagah na lein, kuchh unki laagat ke kaaran aur ek hi vastu par ekaadhik deta sroton ka laabh. kai anya yojanaaon ke saath, nai EPC, uchit keemat par vyaapak roop se upalabdh hai.
kai adhyayanon ne yeh sthaapana ki hai ki cigarette ki bikri aur dhoomrapaan ke upayog ke samay sambandhi dhaanche alag hain. udaaharan ke liye, sanyukt raajya America mein cigarette ki bikri ka dhaancha kaafi had tak mausam se juda hua hai, garmi ke maheene mein iski bikri kaafi badh jaati hai, jabki sardiyon mein iski khapat kam ho jaati hai.[68]
↑ Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus; Reichel, William Cornelius (June 1971) [1876] (PDF), History, manners, and customs of the Indian nations who once inhabited Pennsylvania and the neighbouring states, The Historical society of Pennsylvania, pa॰ 149, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0405028533, http://books.google.com/books?id=qPCuo4LkrIwC&printsec=frontcover, abhigman tithi: 2009-03-22
digital masheenein, pehli baar upayogi tab bani jab ek svich ke liye MTBF kuchh sau ghante se oopar ho gaya. fir bhi, inmein se kai masheenon mein jatiltaaen theen, achhi tarah se abhyaas ki jaane waali marammat prakriyaaen aur ek tube ke jal jaane ya ek keet ke ek rile mein fans jaane ke kaaran kai ghanton tak kaam naheen karateen thi. aadhunik traanjistar krut ekeekrut paripth laujik gate mein lagbhag ek treeliyn ghante ka MTBFs hai (1 × 1012)),[krupaya uddharan jodein] aur unki jaroorat hai kyonki unke paas bahut saare laujik gate hai.
digital bhangasheelata ko ek digital pranaali ke roopaankan dvaara majabooti ke liye kam kiya ja sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye ek pairiti bit ya anya truti prabandhan paddhati ko signal path mein daala ja sakta hai. yeh paddhati system ko, truti ka pata lagaane mein madad karti hai aur ya to trutiyon ko sahi karti hai ya fir kam se kam deta ki ek nai pratilipi ke liye poochhati hai. ek state machine mein state traanjishn laujik ka aprayukt state ko pakadne aur ek reeset anukram trigr ya anya niyamit truti vasooli ke liye design kiya ja sakta hai.
sanvedya jagat enalaug ke hain aur is jagat se sanket enalaug maatraaen hain. udaaharan ke liye prakaash, taapamaan, dhvani, vidyut chaalakata, vidyut aur chunbakeeya aadhaar enaalaug hain. sabse upayogi digital system nirantar enaalaug sanketon se digital sanketon ko alag karne ke liye badalna hoga. yeh parimaaneekaran trutiyon ka kaaran banta hai.

Macreel Vyapar systems provide a single database along with the centralized framework for providing integration and complete automation to all business processes of an organization with the aim of increasing operational efficiency, economic growth and improving the accessibility and flow of information across all the departments .Macreel Vyapar system is a vast field comprising of a series of functions related to Customer Relationship Management (CRM), CRM Solutions, Knowledge Management, Maintenance Management, E-commerce solutions, B2B & B2C integration and various other solutions pertaining to E-business. It provides real-time information about business process management, financial planning management, order management like purchase-order management, sales-order management, inventory control system, software configuration management, software quality assurance, accounting, employee management and many more Macreel Vyapar software, E-commerce solutions and much more. With Web Based Macreel Vyapar Solution, you can accelerate business cycles, improve productivity and reliability, and provide higher levels of service to customers, suppliers and partners. Macreel Vyapar solutions includes inventory control system, warehouse management system, manufacturing software, invoice tracking software, production planning, sales and inventory software, inventory management and analysis, barcode reading and printing software, logistics software, customer relationship management, HR, supply chain management, purchase-order management, accounting software, etc. Web Macreel Vyapar systems brings all the single details of the functions of an enterprise into a centralized database. Scientific planning and management is possible because of scientific collection of data. It increases productivity, as a result increases the profit of the company resulting in a better economic growth of the company. Read More


haalaanki, is baat par bahas chal rahi hai ki kab aur kahaan pustakaalayon mein pratham baar RFID shuroo hua, ise pehli baar ek takaneek ke roop mein pustakaalaya seting mein kaaryapravaah mein vruddhi karne hetu 1990 ke dashak mein prastaavit kiya gaya. pustakaalayon mein sarvapratham RFID shuroo karne vaalon mein nishchit roop se Singapore hai aur New York mein raukafelar vishvavidyaalaya is takaneek ka upayog karne wala sanyukt raajya America mein pehla shaikshanik pustakaalaya hai, jabki Michigan mein Farmington Community Library is takaneek ka upayog karne waali pehli saarvajanik sanstha hai, donon ne 1999 mein RFID ka upayog shuroo kiya. Europe mein, RFID ka upayog karne wala pratham saarvajanik pustakaalaya Netherland mein hoogejand-saipemeer mein hai, jahaan 2001 mein lenevaalon ko ek vikalp diya gaya. unhein aashcharyachakit karte hue, bujurg logon sahit 70% ne RFID vikalp ka prayog kiya aur jaldi hi anukoolit ho gaye.
1980 ke dashak mein kuchh shodhakartaaon ne paaya ki lagbhag sabhi tulyakaalik rajistar-transfer masheenon ko first-in-first-out tulyakaalan laujik ka upayog karke atulyakaalik dijaainon mein parivrtit kiya ja sakta tha. is yojana mein digital machine, ek data pravaah ke ek set ke roop mein pahachaani jaati hai. pravaah ke har kadam mein, ek atulyakaalik "tulyakaalan sarkit" nirdhaarit karta hai jab us step ka aautaput thos aur ek prastut sanket deta hai ki un stejon ko "deta ko pakado" jismein un stejon ke input mein prayog hua hai. iske liye kuchh apekshaakrut saral tulyakaalan sarkit ki aavashyakta hai.

RFID praudyogikiyon ko ab antim-upayokta anuprayogon mein sangrahaalayon mein bhi laagoo kiya ja raha hai. sen Francisco, California mein ek vigyaan sangrahaalaya, eksaploretoriam mein custom-dijaaind anuprayog "eXsport" iska ek udaaharan hai. sangrahaalaya mein pravesh karne vaale aagantuk ko ek RF taig diya jaata hai jise ek card ya haar mein lagaaya ja sakta hai. eXspot pranaali, aagantuk ko pradarshan ke baare mein jaankaari praapt karne mein aur giftashaup par ekatr ki jaane waali tasveerein lene mein saksham banaati hai. baad mein ve apne niji web prushth par ja sakte hain, jis par vishesh jaankaari jaise ki yaatra ki taareekh, dekhi gayi pradarshaniyaan aur li gayi tasveeron ko dekha ja sakta hai.[40]


maariyo kaardullo ka saaaincha:US Patent 1973 mein aadhunik RFID ka pehla sachcha poorvaj tha; smruti wala ek nishkriya radio traansapondar. praarambhik upakaran nishkriya tha, jo poochh-taachh sanket ke dvaara sanchaalit hota tha aur 1971 mein New York port athauriti aur anya sambhaavit prayoktaaon ke liye iska pradarshan kiya gaya aur yeh ek tol upakaran ke roop mein istemaal ke liye 16 bit smruti ke saath ek traansapondar se bana tha. buniyaadi kaardullo peteint sanchaaran media ke roop mein RF, dhvani aur prakaash ke istemaal ko aavrut karta hai. 1969 mein, niveshakon ke saamane prastut mool vyaapaar yojana ne parivhan (otomotiv vaahan pehchaan, svachaalit tol pranaali, electronic license plate, electronic maalasoochi, vaahan maarg, vaahan pradarshan nigraani), banking (electronic check book, electronic kredit card), suraksha (karmiyon ki pehchaan, svachaalit dwaar, nigraani) aur chikitsa (pehchaan, rogi itihaas) mein iska istemaal dikhaaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]


tambaakoo dhoomrapaan ek aisa abhyaas hai jismein tambaakoo ko jalaaya jaata hai aur usaka dhuaan ya to chakha jaata hai ya fir use saans mein kheencha jaata hai. iska chalan 5000-3000 E.poo.ke praarambhik kaal mein shuroo hua.[1] kai sabhyataaon mein dhaarmik anushthaanon ke dauraan ise sugandh ke taur par jalaaya gaya, jise baad mein aanand praapt karne ke liye ya fir ek saamaajik upakaran ke roop mein apnaaya gaya.[2] puraani duniya mein tambaakoo 1500 ke dashak ke antim daur mein prachalit hua jahaan isne saajha vyaapaarik maarg ka anusaran kiya. haalaanki yeh padaarth aksar aalochna ka shikaar banta raha hai, lekin iske baavajood vah lokapriya ho gaya.[3] jarman vaigyaaniko ne aupachaarik roop se der se 1920 ke dashak ke ant mein dhoomrapaan aur fefade ke Cancer ke beech ke sambandhon ki pehchaan ki jisse aadhunik itihaas mein pehle dhoomrapaan virodhi abhiyaan ki shuruaat hui. aandolan tathaapi dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan dushmanon ki seema mein pahunchane mein naakaam raha aur uske baad jald hi alokapriya ho gaya.[4] 1950 mein svaasthya adhikaariyon ne fir se dhoomrapaan aur Cancer ke beech ke sambandh par charcha shuroo ki.[5] vaigyaanik pramaan 1980 ke dashak mein praapt hue, jisne is abhyaas ke khilaaf raajaneetik kaarravaai par jor diya. 1965 se viksit deshon mein khapat ya to ksheen hui ya fir usamein giraavat aayi.[6] haalaanki, vikaasasheel duniya mein badhat jaari hai.[7]
theem park (jaise United Kingdom mein eltan taavars) RFID ka upayog karte hain taaki unhein raaid ke upayogakarta ki pehchaan karne aur park mein unke bitaaye samay ki ek DVD banaane mein madad ho. din ke ant mein fir ise upayogakartaaon ke liye khareedne ke liye upalabdh karaaya jaata hai. yeh upayogakartaaon ke liye svaichhik hai jo park mein unhein diye jaane vaale kalaai band ko pahan kar aisa kar sakte hain.
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