2002 ke baad se taaipei, taaivaan mein parivhan pranaali, kiraaya sangrah ke liye RFID sanchaalit card ka upayog karti hai. iji card ko sthaaneeya suvidha store aur metro stationon par chaarj kiya ja sakta hai aur metro, bason aur parking mein istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. upayog ko bhavishya mein taaivaan ke sampoorn taapoo mein laagoo karne ki yojana hai.
saare pareekshan ke baad, deta bits jagah par hain, dijaain ko "saamaanya mod" ke liye reekanfigr kiya jaata hai aur ek ya ek se adhik klauk pals ko laagoo kiya jaata hain, taaki dosh ka pata lag sake (jaise stak-ait lo ya stak-ait haai) aur pareekshan ke parinaam ka pragrahan scan shift rajistar mein flip-flop mein aur/ya leches mein kiya jaata hai. ant mein, pareekshan ke parinaam ko block seema mein sthaanaantarit kar diya jaata hai aur poorvaanumaan "gud machine" nateeje ke prati tulana ki jaati hai.

16 se 18 November 2005 ke beech, sanyukt raashtra ke world summit on the informeshan society (WSIS) ke dauraan free software movement ke sansthaapak richrd staulaman ne RFID suraksha card ke istemaal ka virodh kiya. pehli baithak ke dauraan yeh sahamati hui ki bhavishya ki baithakon mein RFID card ka upayog naheen kiya jaaega aur yeh jaankaar ki is aashvaasan ko toda gaya hai, unhonne apne card ko elyoomeeniym panni mein lapet liya aur ve ise keval suraksha stationon par hi kholeinge. yeh virodh suraksha karmiyon ki kaafi chinta ka kaaran bana, jahaan kuchh ne unhein sammelan kaksh se jismein ve mukhya vakta the baahar jaane se roka aur doosare sammelan kaksh mein jahaan unka bolna abhi baaki tha, pravesh karne naheen diya gaya.[76][77]
donon ke paas hi aankade seemit hain. rog niyantran aur rokathaam kendra (the seintars for dijeej control end prijrveshan) ne 2002 mein prakaashit apne anusandhaan mein daava kiya hai ki sanyukt raajya America mein beche gaye ek packet cigarette par chikitsa dekhbhaal aur utpaadak hraas par 7 dollar se adhik ki laagat aati hai.[70] laagat aur adhik ho sakti hai jabki ek anya adhyayan mein use prati packet par $ 41 ki laagat bataayi hai, jinmein se jyaadaatar vyaktigat aur usaki/ uske parivaar ko vahan karna padta hai.[71] is tarah se ek anya aur adhyayan ke lekhak doosaron ke liye bahut kam laagat bataate hue kehte hain: "sankhya ke kam hone ka kaaran niji peinshan, saamaajik suraksha aur chikitsa hai- kharch ki ganana mein sabse bada kaarak samaaj hai- dhoomrapaan vaastav mein paise bachaata hai. dhoomrapaan karne vaale kam umr mein mar jaate hain aur ve vah dhan naheen uthaate jo un pranaaliyon se unhein bhugataan kiye jaate.[71]
soochana ka bhandaaran enaalaug ki tulana mein digital pranaali mein aasaani se kar sakte hain. digital system ka shor pratirksha vightan ke bina deta ko sangraheet aur pun: praapt karne ki anumati deta hai. ek enaalaug system mein, puraane aur chheejan se shor sangruheet soochana ko nasht karta hai. ek digital pranaali mein jab tak kul shoragul ek nishchit star se neeche hai, jaankaari ko poori tarah se pun: praapt kiya ja sakta hai.
traiking item se sambandhit aankadon ke bhandaaran ko kai teraabaaits ki aavashyakta hogi. upayogi jaankaari banaane ke liye, RFID deta ko chhaanane aur vargeekrut karne ki jaroorat hai. aisi sambhaavana hai ki maal ko, RFID taig ka upayog karne vaale pailet se track kiya jaaega aur package star par yoonivrsal product code (UPC) ya anoothe baarakod dvaara EAN se.

↑ Kulikoff, Allan (1986-08-01), Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, The University of North Carolina Press, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0807842249, http://books.google.com/books?id=NCvU9_bj-1QC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Tobacco+%26+Slaves:+The+Development+of+Southern+Cultures+in+the+Chesapeake, abhigman tithi: 2009-03-22


↑ "VeriChips Implanted at CityWatcher.com". Compliance and Privacy. http://www.complianceandprivacy.com/News-VeriChip-concern.asp. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-03. "No one I spoke with at Six Sigma Security or at CityWatcher knew that the VeriChip had been hacked. They were also surprised to hear of VeriChip's downsides as a medical device. It was clear they weren't aware of some of the controversy surrounding the implant. (Liz McIntyre)"
digital sarkit ka doosra roop lukaap table se nirmit hota hai ("prograamebal laujik divaais" ke roop mein anek beche ja chuka hain, haalaanki PLD ke anya prakaar vidyamaan hain). lukaap taalika, masheenon par aadhaarit laujik geton ki tarah hi kaarya kar sakti hain lekin aasaani se taaron ko badle bina hi reeprograam kar sakti hain. iska arth yeh hai ki designer, aksar taaron ki vyavastha ko badle bina hi design trutiyon ki marammat kar sakte hain. isliye chhoti maatra mein utpaad prograamebal laujik divaais aksar adhimaanya samaadhaan kar rahe hain. ve aam taur par injeeniyron dvaara electronic design svachaalan software ka upayog kar design kiya jaata hai (adhik jaankaari ke liye neeche dekhein).
kisi sansthaan mein jama aisa vyaapaarik agrim jiske mad mein jamaakarta ko na to koi maal diya gaya ho aur na usaki koi vyaapaarik seva ki gayi ho us sansthaan ke liya deya dhan hai. yeh rakam sansthaan mein deya khaate mein ankit ki jaati hai. svaami, saajhedaaron, sanchaalakon tatha karmachaariyon dvaara sansthaan ko diya gaya rin is khaate mein pravishti naheen paata. vah ek alag deya rinakhaate mein ankit kiya jaata hai. deya khaata vyaapaarik agrim ka khaata hai. vah sansthaan ke liye deya to hai par vah rin naheen hai isliye iski svatantr sthiti hai. vyaapaar se sambaddh agrim jama raashi maatr ka ismein ankan hota hai. theek yahi sthiti sansthaan dvaara diye gaye vyaapaarik agrim ki hai. vah dhanaraashi jo agrim ke roop mein anya kisi vyaapaarik sansthaan ko di gayi ho aur uske mad mein na to koi maal aaya ho aur na anya vyaapaarik seva li gayi ho sansthaan ke praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai. jiske naam yeh raashi praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai vah sansthaan apne yahaaain is rakam ko deya khaate mein daalata hai.
enbeded software design imyooniti aveyar prograaming ka prayog karta hai, jaise avarodh nirdesh ke saath aprayukt kaaryakram smruti ke roop mein bharne ka prayaas karta hai jo truti ke pun: praapti kaaryakram ki or sanket deta hai. is vifalta ke khilaaf raksha mein madad karta hai jo micro kantrolar anudesh soochak ko bigaad sakte hain, jo anyatha yaadruchhik code ke nishpaadit ka kaaran ban sakte hain.
cigarette se utpann ek paroksh saarvajanik svaasthya samasya durghatanaavash lagne waali aag hai, jo aamtaur par sharaab ke sevan ke saath judi hai. cigarette ki kai dijaainein prastaavit hain, kuchh swayam tambaakoo companiyon, jo cigarette ke ek ya do minute tak istemaal na kiye jaane par bujhaane se judi hain, taaki aag lagne ka jokhim kam ho jaaye. ameriki tambaakoo companiyon ke alaava kuchh ne is vichaar ka virodh kiya hai, jabki anya ne ise apnaaya hai. aaraje renolds 1983 mein in sigreton ke prototaaip banaane ke netrutvakarta the[99] aur ameriki baajaar ke sabhi sigreton ko 2010 tak aag se surakshit bana diya jaayega.[100] Phillip mauris iske sakriya samarthan mein naheen hai.[101] desh ki teesari sabse badi tambaakoo company lorillaard (Lorillard) asamanjas mein lagti hai.[101]

अमेरिका की प्रबंधन पत्रिका हार्वर्ड बिजनस रिव्यू में कल प्रकाशित एक लेख में कहा गया है कि भारत में सरकार की अगुवाई में डिजिटल उठा-पटक की एक अनोखी कहानी कही जा रही है और वहां डिजिटल रूप से सशक्त समाज का निर्माण किया जा रहा है।‘कैसे भारत पहली डिजिटल अर्थव्यवस्था की ओर बढ़ रहा है’ शीर्षक से लिखे लेख में कहा गया है, “भारत ने इसकी चुनौतियों को कम करने के लिए डिजिटल प्रक्रिया को धीमा करने के बजाए विपरीत दृष्टिकोण अपनाया है और डिजिटल प्रक्रिया को तेज कर दिया है ताकि देश आर्थिक एवं सामाजिक क्षेत्र में समावेशी विकास हासिल करने की पूरी संभावनाओं का लाभ उठा सके।
hamesha ki tarah ek tulyakaalik anukramik state machine ko ek sanyojan laujik mein vibhaajit karke laagoo karne ka vyaavahaarik tareeka hota hai aur flip flop ke set ko "state rajistar" kaha jaata hai. har baar ek ghadi tik tik ki signal deti hai aur state rajistar sanyojan laujik ke pichhle state se utpann pratikriya par kabja kar leti hai aur state machine ke sanyojan bhaag mein aparivrtineeya input ke roop mein fir se ise daal deti hai. sanyojan laujik mein samay ke khapat vaale adhikaansh laujik aakalan dvaara ghadi ki sabse tej dar set hoti hai.
ek laujik gate ki "vishvasaneeyata", asafalata (MTBF) ke beech uske ausat samay ka varnan karti hai. digital masheenon mein aksar laakhon laujik gate hote hai. iske alaava, adhikaansh digital masheenon ko unki laagat ko kam karne ke liye "anukoolit" kiya jaata hai. nateeja saaf hota hai, ek ekal laujik gate ki vifalta, ek digital machine ke kaam band karne ka kaaran banegi.
san 2000 mein 1.22 log dhoomrapaan karte the. prachalan mein parivartan ka koi anumaan na lagaate hue yeh bhavishyavaani ki gayi hai ki 2010 mein 1.45 billion log aur 2025 mein 1.5 se 1.9 billion log dhoomrapaan kareinge. maan lein ki prasaar ek saal mein 1% kam hota hai aur aay mein 2% ki maamooli vruddhi hoti hai to dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki sankhya 2010 aur 2025 mein anumaanit 1.3 billion hogi.[13]

saare pareekshan ke baad, deta bits jagah par hain, dijaain ko "saamaanya mod" ke liye reekanfigr kiya jaata hai aur ek ya ek se adhik klauk pals ko laagoo kiya jaata hain, taaki dosh ka pata lag sake (jaise stak-ait lo ya stak-ait haai) aur pareekshan ke parinaam ka pragrahan scan shift rajistar mein flip-flop mein aur/ya leches mein kiya jaata hai. ant mein, pareekshan ke parinaam ko block seema mein sthaanaantarit kar diya jaata hai aur poorvaanumaan "gud machine" nateeje ke prati tulana ki jaati hai.
uparokt dvaara uthaai gayi chintaaon ko klipd taig ke prayog dvaara aanshik roop se khtm kiya ja sakta hai. klipd taig, ek RFID taig hai jise upabhokta gopaneeyata ko badhaane ke liye dijaain kiya gaya hai. klipd taig ka sujhaav IBM shodhakartaaon, paul moskovitj aur guentar karjoth dvaara diya gaya hai. bikri ke baad, upabhokta taig ke ek hisse ko ukhaad sakta hai. isse ek lambi doori ke taig ko ek najadeeki taig mein parivartan ki anumati milti hai jise ab bhi padha ja sakta hai, lekin sirf kam doori par - kuchh inch ya seinteemeetar se bhi kam mein. taig ke is sanshodhan ki aaainkhon se dekhkar pushti ki ja sakti hai. is taig ka upayog baad mein vaapasi, yaad dilaane, ya risaaikiling ke liye kiya ja sakta hai.
agar system vaanchhit degree ki vishvastata ke pratinidhitv karne ke liye paryaapt digital deta ka bhandaaran karta hai to parimaaneekaran truti ko kam kiya ja sakta hai. ek nirdhaarit enaalaug sanket ko theek-theek prastut karne ke liye kitni digital data ki aavashyakta hoti hai usaki jaankaari naaikvist-shaannon namoona prameya ek mahatvapoorn nirdesh pradaan karta hai.

"sviching gati" yeh bataati hai ki ek inavartar prati sekand kitni baar troo se faals aur vaapas mein badal sakta hai ("laujikl naheen" prakriya ki ek electronic prastuti). tej laujik kam samay mein adhik kaarya ko poora kar sakte hain. digital laujik pehli baar tab upayogi ban gaye jab svichn gati pachaas hartj se oopar ho gayi, kyonki vah yaantrik kailakuletar ka sanchaalan kar rahe manushyon ke ek dal se tej thi. aadhunik electronic digital laujik niyamit roop se paanch geegaahartj (5 × 109 hartj) par parivrtit hote hain aur kuchh prayogashaala pranaali ek teraahartj (1 × 1012 hartj) se adhik par parivrtit hoti hai.
vipanak (adhikatar) yah jaanakar prasann honge ki sampoorn maanav-vishisht kaaryon ke svachaalan ko saksham karane vaalee unnat takaneek ke saath 2017 mein svachaalan ek bada aadhaar ban jaega. hamaare paas kuchh varshon ke lie prachalan mein robot patrakaar the, aur mujhe ummeed hai ki ve adhik vyaavahaarik prakaar ke lekhon mein ek aur chhalaang lagaane se pahale lambe samay tak nahin rahenge. aisa hone kee sambhaavana hai ki ham kaee prakaar kee shvet-kolar prakaar kee naukariyon mein utpaadakata badhana shuroo kar denge- aur ham kuchh naukariyon ko pooree tarah se gaayab hone se dekhana shuroo karenge. jab otomeshan masheen seekhane ke saath joda jaata hai, to sab kuchh bhee tez ho sakata hai, isalie 2017 mein vaastav mein ek meel ka patthar varsh hone kee sambhaavana hai.
kai deshon mein dhoomrapaan ki umr nirdhaarit hai, sanyukt raajya America sahit kai deshon, Europeeya sangh ke adhikaansh sadasya raajyon, New Zealand, Canada, dakshin Africa, isaraail, Bhaarat, Brazil, chili, kosta rika aur Australia mein tambaakoo utpaadon ko naabaaligon ko bechana avaidh hai aur Netherland, ostriya, Belgium, Denmark aur dakshin Africa mein 16 se kam aayu ke logon ko tambaakoo utpaad bechana avaidh hai. 1 sitmbar 2007 ko Germany mein tambaakoo utpaadon ko khareedne ki nyoonatam aayu badhaakar 16 se 18 kar di gayi aur usi ke saath saath great Britain mein bhi 1 October 2007 se yeh seema 16 se 18 kar di gayi.[98] sanyukt raajya America ke 50 mein se 46 raajyon mein nyoonatam aayu 18 varsh hai, Alabama, alaaska, new jersey ke alaava, yoota aur jahaan kaanooni umr 19 varsh hai (New York ke uttari raajya onondaga County ke saath hi saath New York ke lambe aaisalaind ki County sufafolk aur nassoo mein bhi).[krupaya uddharan jodein] kuchh deshon mein tambaakoo utpaadon ko (arthaat khareedne par) bachchon ko dene aur yahaan tak ki dhoomrapaan karne ke kaarya mein sanlagn bachchon ke khilaaf bhi kaanoon hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] aise kaanoonon ki antarnihit dhaarana hai ki log tambaakoo ke istemaal ke jokhim ke baare mein jaankaar hi upayog ke sambandh mein nirnaya lein. in kaanoonon mein kuchh deshon aur raajyon ne ek dheela pravartan kiya hai. anya kshetron mein cigarette abhi bhi bachchon ko bech rahe hain kyonki ullanghan ke liye jurmaana kam hain ya tulanaatmak roop se bachchon ko bechana laabhakaarak hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] haalaanki cheen, Turkey aur kai anya deshon mein aam taur par ek bachche ko tambaakoo utpaadon ko khareedne mein kam mushkil ka saamana karna padta hai kyonki aksar unase apne maata-pita ke liye tambaakoo khareedne ke liye dukaan jaane ko kaha jaata hai.
sanyukt raajya America mein, Chicago traanjit praadhikran ne poori pranaali mein 2002 ke baad se rel bhugataanon ke liye Chicago card aur Chicago card plas ki peshakash ki aur 2005 ke baad se bas bhugataanon ke liye. MBTA ne RFID saksham chaarleekaard ko 2006 mein Boston ke sampoorn metro, streetakaar aur bas pranaali mein laagoo kiya aur dashakon puraane tokan aadhaarit kiraaya sangrah pranaali ko pratisthaapit kiya.
paanv ki daud mein, dhaavak nishkriya taig pahanate hain jo track ke donon chhoron ya track ke aar-paar bichhe Matt par rakhe enteena dvaara padha jaata hai. nyoon ya uchch freekveinsi antim peedhi taig ke bajaay UHF aadhaarit taig, vishesh roop se design kiye gaye entena ke dvaara sateek reeding pradaan karte hain. rash truti, laip kaaunt trutiyaan aur durghatanaaon se bacha ja sakta hai choonki bina ek batch mod mein rahe koi bhi kabhi bhi shuroo aur khatm kar sakta hai.
January, 2005 mein, Wall-Mart ne apne sheersh 100 aapoortikrtaaon ke liye sabhi ladaan par RFID lebal lagaana jaroori kar diya. is aavashyakta ko poora karne ke liye, vikretaaon ne dabbon aur pailet par jismein Wall-Mart ke liye EPC taig ki aavashyakta thi, lebal lagaane ke liye RFID printar/inakodar ka upayog kiya. ye smart lebal, saamagri ke andar RFID inlej jad kar aur uske baad lebal ki satah par baar code aur dikhaai dene waali anya jaankaari mudrit kar ke nirmit kiye gaye hain.
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