jab se digital sarkit enaalaug ghatakon se bana hain digital sarkit lo-prisishn se bhi dheere ganana karta hai jo ek samaan space aur shakti ka prayog karta hai. haalaanki digital sarkit iske uchch shor unmukti ke kaaran baar-baar aakalan kar paaega. doosari or, uchch parishuddhata domen mein (udaaharan ke liye jahaan parishuddhata ke liye 14 ya adhik bits ki aavashyakta hai) enaalaug sarkit ko adhik shakti aur digital samakaksh kshetr ki aavashyakta hai.
dhoomrapaan ke alaava dava ke roop mein bhi tambaakoo ka upayog hota hai. ek dard nivaarak ke taur par yeh kaan ke dard aur daant ke dard aur kabhi-kabhi ek pralep ke roop mein bhi istemaal kiya jaata hai. registaan mein rahane vaale bhaarateeya kehte hain ki dhoomrapaan karne se jukaam theek ho jaata hai, khaaskar yadi tambaakoo mein tejapaat ke chhote patte tejapaat ki dori ya bhaarateeya gulameinhadi ya khaansi mool Leptotaenia multifida mila diye jaayein, jo iske atirikt asthama aur tapedik ke liye vishesh roop se achha maana gaya.[20]
1980 ke dashak mein kuchh shodhakartaaon ne paaya ki lagbhag sabhi tulyakaalik rajistar-transfer masheenon ko first-in-first-out tulyakaalan laujik ka upayog karke atulyakaalik dijaainon mein parivrtit kiya ja sakta tha. is yojana mein digital machine, ek data pravaah ke ek set ke roop mein pahachaani jaati hai. pravaah ke har kadam mein, ek atulyakaalik "tulyakaalan sarkit" nirdhaarit karta hai jab us step ka aautaput thos aur ek prastut sanket deta hai ki un stejon ko "deta ko pakado" jismein un stejon ke input mein prayog hua hai. iske liye kuchh apekshaakrut saral tulyakaalan sarkit ki aavashyakta hai.
vyaya prashaasan aam taur par dendaari lekhon ke saath kreeb se juda hua hai aur kabhi-kabhi ek hi karmachaari dvaara ye kaarya kiye jaate hain. vyaya prashaasak yeh pushti karte hue karmachaari ke vyaya report ka satyaapan karta hai ki vimaan yaataayaat, bhoo-parivhan, bhojan aur manoranjan, teleefon, hotel tatha anya vyaya ke samarthan mein raseedein upalabdh hain. yeh pralekhan, kar uddeshyon ke liye aur anupayukt ya glat kharchon ki pratipoorti ki rokathaam ke liye aavashyak hai. vimaan yaataayaat kharch mein, shaayad sabse adhik dhokhaadhadi ki sambhaavana hai, kyonki havaai yaatra ki uchch laagat aur havaai yaatra sambandhi pralekhan ki bhraamak prakruti ki vajah se, jismein aarakshan, raseedein aur vaastavik tikton ka vinyaas shaamil hain.
Hassan Pakravan, son of Fathollah and Emineh, was born in Tehran on August 4, 1911 (13 Mordad 1290 AP). His father held many high government posts, including governor of Khorasan Province and ambassador to Italy. His mother, partly of European descent, was a professor at the University of Tehran. She was awarded the prestigious French Prix Rivarol, which the French government gives to foreign authors who write directly in French. She was related to the Habsburg rulers of the Austro-Hungarian empire.
agar system vaanchhit degree ki vishvastata ke pratinidhitv karne ke liye paryaapt digital deta ka bhandaaran karta hai to parimaaneekaran truti ko kam kiya ja sakta hai. ek nirdhaarit enaalaug sanket ko theek-theek prastut karne ke liye kitni digital data ki aavashyakta hoti hai usaki jaankaari naaikvist-shaannon namoona prameya ek mahatvapoorn nirdesh pradaan karta hai.
bahirmukhata ek aisi visheshata hai jo jyaadaatar dhoomrapaan se judi hai aur dhoomrapaan karne vaale milnasaar, aavegi, jokhim uthaane vaale aur uttejana ki chaahate rakhane vaale vyakti hote hain.[65] haalaanki vyaktitv aur saamaajik kaarak logon ko dhoomrapaan ke liye prerit kar karte hain, vaastavik aadat prabhaav daalne ki anukoolata ki kriya hai. praarambhik charan ke dauraan dhoomrapaan sukhad anubhootiyaan pradaan karta hai (iske dopaamaain-dopamine pranaali par prabhaav ke kaaran) aur is tarah sakaaraatmak sudrudheekaran ke ek srot ke roop mein kaarya karta hai. ek vyakti dvaara kai varshon tak dhoomrapaan karne ke pashchaat parihaar ke lakshan aur nakaaraatmak sudrudheekaran pramukh utprerak ho jaate hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
The anti-reclamation stir launched by the Kerala State Karshaka Thozhilali Union (KSKTU) at Mankompu in 1996–97, under the leadership of Achuthanandan created much controversy. This stir was claimed to be highlighting the serious problem of the massive conversion of paddy fields into other type of land, affecting the food security of the Kerala. But this soon developed into a crop destruction drive. The protest got the sobriquet following the violent methods and crop destruction resorted to by the KSKTU cadre. The stir attracted lot of public attention and Achuthanandan was forced to express his disapproval of any destruction of crops. 15 Years later, in November 2011, a UDF Minister, who is politically opposed to Achuthanadan, justified this struggle.[36] JanataDal Socialist leader and minister for Agriculture, K.P. Mohananan, MM,said, such a struggle was necessary as Conversion of Paddy fields to other type of crops is a serious concern.
yeh vyavasaaya aniyamit hai, haalaanki antarraashtreeya maanak sthaapit karne vaale nikaaya maujood hain, jinka ek udaaharan hai sanyukt raajya America, Canada, Britain aur anya deshon mein 5,000 se adhik sadasyon ka ek sangh, antarraashtreeya dendaari lekhon ke peshevar (IAPP).[1] apni vyaavasaayik maanak sanrachana ke ansh ke roop mein,[2] IAPP ne dendaari lekhon ki ek nai paribhaasha sthaapit ki hai:
choonki ve ek aisi gatividhi mein lipt hote hain jiska svaasthya par nakaaraatmak prabhaav padta hai, at: aise log jo log dhoomrapaan karte hain, ve apne vyavahaar ko yuktisangat banaane ke liye prayatnashali rahate hain. doosare shabdon mein ve sveekaaryata viksit karte hain, jaroori naheen ki unke paas yeh taarkik kaaran ho ki unke liye dhoomrapaan ki sveekaaryata kyon hai. udaaharan ke liye, ek dhoomrapaan karne wala apne vyavahaar ka auchitya yeh kehkar saabit kar sakta hai ki har koi marata hai aur isliye vaastav mein cigarette kuchh bhi naheen badalti. ya ek vyakti auchitya saabit karne ke liye yeh vishvaas jata sakta hai ki dhoomrapaan tanaav se raahat ya anya laabh dilaata hai. is prakaar ki maanyataaenchinta se rokati hain aur log dhoomrapaan jaari rakhate hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
lo-freekveinsi (LF: 125-134.2 kHz aur 140-148.5 kHz) (LowFID) taig aur haai-freekveinsi (HF: 13.56 MHz) (HighFID) taig bina ek license ke vishv star par prayog kiya ja sakta. ultra haai-freekveinsi (UHF: 868-928 MHz) (Ultra-HighFID ya UHFID) taig ko duniya bhar mein istemaal naheen kiya ja sakta hai kyonki koi bhi vaishvik maanak naheen hai. uttari America mein, UHF ko 902-928& MHz (915 MHz center freekveinsi se ± 13 MHz) ke liye bina license ke istemaal kiya ja sakta hai, par paareshan adhikaar ke liye pratibandh maujood hain. Europe mein, RFID aur anya kam-kshamata vidyut radio anuprayog, ETSI ki sifaarishon EN 300 220 aur EN 302 208 aur ERO 70 03 sifaarish dvaara viniymit hain, jo RFID ko 865-868 megaahartaj ke kuchh jatil band pratibandhon ke saath sanchaalan ki anumati dete hain. paathakon ko prasaaran se pehle ek channel par najar rakhane ki jaroorat hoti hai ("lisen bifor tauk"); is aavashyakta se pradarshan par thoda pratibandh laga hai, jiska sankalp maujooda shodh ka vishay hai. uttar ameriki UHF maanak, France mein sveekaar naheen kiye jaate hain choonki ye uske sainya band ke saath hastakshep karte hain. cheen aur Japan ke liye, UHF ka upayog karne ke liye koi niyam naheen hai. in deshon mein har UHF ke aavedan ke liye ek site license ki jarurat hai, jiska aavedan sthaaneeya adhikaariyon ke paas kiya jaana chaahiye aur ise radd kiya ja sakta hai. Australia aur New Zealand ke liye 918-926 megaahartaj gair-license vaale hain, lekin sancharan adhikaar ke liye pratibandh maujood hain.
baad mein, nirvaat tube ka istemaal kiya gaya. ye bahut tej the, lekin garmi utpann karte the aur filaameints ke jal jaane ke kaaran avishvasaneeya the. fainaaaut aam taur par paanch se saat the, jo tube ke vidyut se heeting dvaara seemit the. 1950 ke dashak mein, filaameint ke saath vishesh "computer tube" viksit kiye gaye jo silikaun ki tarah asthir tatvon ko nikaal dete the. ye kai hajaaron ghante tak chalte hain.
sanbhaar-tantr aur parivhan, RFID praudyogiki ke kaaryaanvayan ke pramukh kshetr hain. udaaharan ke liye, yaard prabandhan, shiping aur maal dhulaai aur vitran kendra, kuchh aisi jagahein hain RFID traiking praudyogiki ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. duniya bhar ki parivhan companiyaan, vyaapaar moolya aur kaaryakushalata par RFID praudyogiki ke prabhaav ke kaaran isko tavajjo deti hain.
In what can be considered as a near repeat of the 2006 pre-election build-up, the Politbureau of CPI-M impressed upon the state leadership to permit VS Achuthanandan to contest elections for the April 2011 Assembly election in Kerala.[16] VS Achuthanandan contested from the Malampuzha Constituency and won with a margin of around 25,000 votes. It was the VS factor that had created history in the 2011 elections with the Opposition front UDF winning the elections on the margin of 72-68 assembly seats. This is considered as loss for UDF as they were ahead in 100 constituencies during the 2009 Lok Sabha Election. After this election VS has been considered the man behind the Uprising of LDF after the 2009 Parliament and 2010 Municipal election loses.[17]
Parakala had a chequered public life and an unsuccessful electoral career. Born into a political family, he became familiar with electoral politics since his childhood. His debut as a political activist started when he was elected as the President of the Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi unit of the Congress Party affiliated students' organisation National Students' Union of India (NSUI). He contested the Students' Union Elections of JNU and lost to the CPI(M) affiliated organisation SFI candidate. However, it was for the fist time that NSUI polled a respectable number of votes for the central panel of candidates and could win a Councillor seat. Parakala's participation in May 1983 students' agitation on the campus agains the highhanded attitude of the university authorities lent political respectability to NSUI on the Campus. till then Congress affiliated NSUI was treated as political untouchable in the left dominated student politics of the university.
rajistar hastaantaran laujik mein dviaadhaari sankhya flip flop ke samoohon mein sangraheet hain jise rajistar kaha jaata tha. pratyek rajistar ka aautaput taaron ka bandal hai jise ek "bas" kaha jaata hai jo anya aakalan ke liye us number ko paas rakhata hai. yeh aakalan keval sanyojan laujik ka ek bhaag hai. pratyek aakalan ke paas ek bas aautaput hota hai aur ye kai input rajistaron se juda ho sakta hai. kabhi-kabhi ek rajistar ke paas inke input par bahusanketak hota hai jisse yeh kai bason mein se kisi ek se number ko store kar sakta hai. vaikalpik roop se kai cheejon ke aautaput ko bafars ke maadhyam se joda ja sakta hai jo ek ko chhodkar sabhi upakaranon ke aautaput ko band kar sakta hai. input se pratyek rajistar ke naye data ko sveekaar karne par anukramik state machine niyantran karta hai.

gair electronic digital tantr nirmaan sambhav hai. siddhaant roop mein, asatat state ka pratinidhitv aur laujik kaaryon ka pratinidhitv karne mein saksham kisi bhi takaneek ka istemaal yaantrik laujik banaane ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. MIT ke chhaatron, erleen gi, Edward haardabek, daini hilis (the kanekshan machine ke sah-lekhak), maargaret minsaki aur bairi aur Brian silvaraman bhaai, ne tinkar khilaune, string, ek int aur ek teevr peinsil se do computer ka nirmaan kiya.[3] tinkaratauya computer, Boston vigyaan sangrahaalaya mein hai.


antararaashtreeya maanakon se tulya nishpaadan gunataayukt si pi aar I saare Bhaarat mein vyaapt apni saat prayogashaalaaon mein svichgiyr, fayoojagiyr, parinaamitr, kebil, sandhaaritr jaise vibhinn vidyut upaskar, vidyut rodhak saamagriyaaain aur pranaaliyaaain, sancharan line tower, drav paraavaidyuton tatha apaaranparik oorja yuktiyon ke nishpaadan, moolyaankan aur pramaaneekaran par vishisht sevaaeain upalabdh karaata hai.

pichhale paanch saalon se bada aankada ek bada vishay raha hai, jab usane surkhiyon mein ek bayaan diya tha. yah vichaar yah hai ki ikatthe kie gae aankadon ke bade paimaane par jinake paas ab tak pahunch hai- behatar vipanan abhiyaanon ko behatar tareeke se chalaane ke lie yojana banaane se lekar har cheej mein hamen madad kar sakata hai. lekin badee aankadon kee sabase badee shakti-isakee maatraatmak, sankhyaatmak neenv-bhee kamajoree hai. 2017 mein, mujhe ummeed hai ki ham deta ke adhik sanvedanasheel aur gunaatmak bits kee maang karate hue aur adhik drshy, sulabh tareeke se ise pesh karane ke lie bade deta ko maanaveey banaane kee pragati dekhenge.
usi samay, nae ekeekrut paripth (ICs) eliyn, impinj aur NXP (poorv mein Philips) dvaara shuroo kiye gaye jisne behtar pradarshan dikhaaya aur IT parisanpatti nigraani anuprayog mein visfot hua. aaj ki taareekh mein isko bruhat paimaane par apnaane vaale bank of America aur vels faarago prateet hote hain - pratyek ki ek darjan se adhik deta kendron mein 100,000 se adhik parisanpatti hai.[16]
Europeeya sangh mein 1991 se television without frantiyrs direktiv (1989)[93] ke tahat sabhi tambaakoo vigyaapan aur television par praayojan pratibandhit kar diya, is pratibandh ko television vigyaapan nideshaalaya dvaara vistaarit kiya gaya jo July 2005 ko amal mein aaya jismein media ke anya roopon ko bhi shaamil kar liya gaya jaise Internet, print media aur radio. yeh nirdesh cinemagharon mein vigyaapan, hording ya bikri ke prayog par - ya saanskrutik aayojanon, khel ki pratiyogitaaon par laagoo naheen hota, jo poori tarah sthaaneeya hote hain, jiske sahabhaagiyon mein keval ek sadasya raajya hota hai,[94] kyonki yeh sab Europeeya aayog ke kshetraadhikaar se baahar aata hai. tathaapi, adhikaansh sadasya nirdesh ko apne desh ke kaanoon ke anusaar sthaanaantarit kar dete hain unke kshetr ko vyaapak kar dete hain aur sthaaneeya vigyaapan lete karte hain. Europeeya aayog ki 2008 ki ek report ne nishkarsh nikaala ki nirdesh ka sabhi Europeeya sangh ke sadasya raajyon mein safalataapoorvak raashtreeya kaanoon mein sthaanaantaran ho gaya hai aurain kaanoonon ko achhi tarah se laagoo kiya gaya.[95]
2009 ki garmiyon ke baad se, do kredit card companiyaan vishesh maaicroSD card ke vikaas ke liye dalaas, Texas aadhaarit divaaisafideliti ke saath kaam kar rahi hain. jab ise ek mobile phone mein daala jaaega to yeh microSD card, ek nishkriya taig aur ek RFID reedar, donon ho sakta hai.[11] microSD daalne ke baad, ek upayogakarta ka phone bank khaate se jud jaaega aur usaka upayog mobile bhugataan mein kiya jaaega.
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