baajaar mein aise kai utpaad upalabdh hain jo RFID saksham card ya passport ke sambandhit vaahak ko apne deta ke parirkshan ki anumati deinge. balki ab to, sanyukt raajya America ki sarkaar ne apne nae karmachaari ID card ke liye ek anumodit parirkshan aasteen ya lifaafe ke saath use bhejana aavashyak kar diya hai.[68] is baat ko lekar virodhaabhaasi vichaar vyaapt hain ki kya elyoominiym RFID chip ke padhne ko rok sakta hai. kuchh logon ka daava hai ki elyoominiym parirkshan, jo moolat: ek fairaade pinjare ka nirmaan karta hai, bilkul kaam karta hai.[69] doosaron ka daava hai ki elyoomeeniym panni mein ek RFID card ko sirf lapetne se keval prasaaran mein aur adhik baadha aati hai, isliye poori tarah se ise rokane mein kaaragar naheen hai.[70]
keemat ke ghatne se RFID praudyogiki teji se prachalit ho rahi hai. January 2003 mein jilet ne ghoshana ki ki usane eliyn technology ko 500 million taig ka aadesh diya hai. jilet ke V.P. dik kaantavel, jo ab Cisco ke karmachaari hain, ka kehna hai ki company ne har taig ke liye "das seint ke andar" bhugataan kiya hai. Japani HIBIKI pahal, is keemat ko kam karke 5 yen (4 yooroseint) par laana chaahata hai. aur January 2009 mein envego ne 5.9 seint ke taig ki ghoshana ki.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
udaaharan ke liye, kuchh laujik parivaaron mein, NAND gate, nirmaan hone vaale saralatam digital gate hain. anya sabhi laujik waali kaarravaai NAND gate dvaara kaaryaanvit ki ja sakti hain. yadi ek sarkit ko pehle se hi ek NAND gate ki aavashyakta hai aur ek ekal chip aam taur par chaar NAND gate rakhata hai, to baaki ke gate ko anya laujik kaarravaaiyon ko jaise laujikl end laagoo karne ke liye prayog kiya ja sakta hai. yeh, un vibhinn prakaar ke gate se yukt chip ki aavashyakta ko samaapt kar sakta hai.
kredit card companiyaan ab kisi bhi mobile phone se gair-sampark bhugataan card jodne ke liye bhugataan samaadhaan talaash rahi hain. ek vaahak samaadhaan jo is udyog ki jaroorat ko poora kare ab upalabdh hai. 3mm se kam mota, yeh up-card 2 varshon tak apne paryaavaran ko jhel sakega aur ek baar daale jaane ke baad yeh tatvon se rakshit aur vaahak mein surakshit rahega.[10]

rajistar hastaantaran laujik mein dviaadhaari sankhya flip flop ke samoohon mein sangraheet hain jise rajistar kaha jaata tha. pratyek rajistar ka aautaput taaron ka bandal hai jise ek "bas" kaha jaata hai jo anya aakalan ke liye us number ko paas rakhata hai. yeh aakalan keval sanyojan laujik ka ek bhaag hai. pratyek aakalan ke paas ek bas aautaput hota hai aur ye kai input rajistaron se juda ho sakta hai. kabhi-kabhi ek rajistar ke paas inke input par bahusanketak hota hai jisse yeh kai bason mein se kisi ek se number ko store kar sakta hai. vaikalpik roop se kai cheejon ke aautaput ko bafars ke maadhyam se joda ja sakta hai jo ek ko chhodkar sabhi upakaranon ke aautaput ko band kar sakta hai. input se pratyek rajistar ke naye data ko sveekaar karne par anukramik state machine niyantran karta hai.


ek aadhunik svachaalit pehchaan praudyogiki jaise radio freekveinsi pehchaan (RFID) praudyogiki par aadhaarit auto-ID laibs pranaali mein vastusoochi pranaali ke liye mahatvapoorn upayog hai. vishesh roop se, yeh praudyogiki maujooda soochi ka sahi gyaan pradaan karti hai. Wall-Mart par kiye gaye ek academic adhyayan mein[22], 0.1 aur 15 ikaai ke beech bikne vaale utpaadon ke liye RFID ne out-of-stock mein 30 pratishat ki kami kar di. RFID upayog karne ke anya laabh mein shaamil hai shram laagat mein kami, vyaapaar prakriyaaon ka saraleekaran aur taalika trutiyon mein kami.
ek digital pranaali mein, ek adhik sateek sanket ke pratinidhitv ke liye adhik baainari ankon ka upayog kiya ja sakta hai. haalaanki is prakriya ke liye ismein adhik aankik paripth ki aavashyakta hoti hai, choonki pratyek ank ek hi prakaar ke haardaveyar dvaara sambhaala jaata hai nateejatan ek aasaan maapaneeya tantr ka nirmaan ho jaata hai| ek enaalaug system mein atirikt rejlushan raikhikta mein buniyaadi sudhaar aur sanket shrrunkhala ke pratyek charan ke shor ke abhilkshan mein buniyaadi sudhaar ki aavashyakta hoti hai.
Hongkong mein, jan paaragaman, RFID praudyogiki ke upayog ke maadhyam se lagbhag vishesh roop se bhugataan kiya jaata hai, jise oktopas card kaha jaata hai. moolat: ise sitmbar 1997 mein vishesh roop se paaragaman kiraaya vasooli ke liye shuroo kiya gaya tha, lekin yeh ek cash card ke samaan ho gaya hai aur ise abhi bhi vyaapaarik machine, fast food restaurant aur suparamaarket mein istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. is card ko aid-vailyoo masheenon ya dukaanon mein nakadi se reechaarj kiya ja sakta hai aur paathak se kai seinteemeetar door se padha ja sakta hai. Delhi metro, Bhaarat ki rajdhani nai Delhi mein raipid traanjit system mein bhi yahi laagoo hai.

donon ke paas hi aankade seemit hain. rog niyantran aur rokathaam kendra (the seintars for dijeej control end prijrveshan) ne 2002 mein prakaashit apne anusandhaan mein daava kiya hai ki sanyukt raajya America mein beche gaye ek packet cigarette par chikitsa dekhbhaal aur utpaadak hraas par 7 dollar se adhik ki laagat aati hai.[70] laagat aur adhik ho sakti hai jabki ek anya adhyayan mein use prati packet par $ 41 ki laagat bataayi hai, jinmein se jyaadaatar vyaktigat aur usaki/ uske parivaar ko vahan karna padta hai.[71] is tarah se ek anya aur adhyayan ke lekhak doosaron ke liye bahut kam laagat bataate hue kehte hain: "sankhya ke kam hone ka kaaran niji peinshan, saamaajik suraksha aur chikitsa hai- kharch ki ganana mein sabse bada kaarak samaaj hai- dhoomrapaan vaastav mein paise bachaata hai. dhoomrapaan karne vaale kam umr mein mar jaate hain aur ve vah dhan naheen uthaate jo un pranaaliyon se unhein bhugataan kiye jaate.[71]
Singapore mein, saarvajanik parivhan ki bason aur trainon mein nishkriya RFID ko laagoo kiya gaya hai jise EZ-Link card ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. bheed bhare shahar ke aatanrik kshetron mein yaataayaat ko char tol dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai jise stord vailyoo card (kaishakaard ke roop mein gyaat) ke upayog ko ek sakriya taiging pranaali ke saath upayog dvaara laagoo kiya jaata hai.
ek baar input deta ko sahi maanane ke baad, khud dijaain ko abhi bhi shuddhata ke liye satyaapit kiya jaana chaahiye. kuchh upakaran pravaah, pehle ek dijaain ke utpaadan dvaara design ki pushti karte hain aur fir upakaran pravaah ke liye sangat input deta ke utpaadan ke liye design ki skaining karte hain. yadi scan kiya hua deta, input deta ke saath mel khaata hai, to upakaran pravaah ne shaayad koi trutiyaan pesh naheen ki.
dhoomrapaan karne vaale kai kishoraavastha mein ya aarambhik yuvaavastha ke dauraan shuroo karte hain. aam taur par praarambhik avastha mein dhoomrapaan sukhad anubhootiyaan pradaan karta hai, sakaaraatmak sudrudheekaran ke ek srot ke roop mein kaarya karta hai. ek vyakti mein kai varshon ke dhoomrapaan ke baad parihaar ke lakshan aur nakaaraatmak sudrudheekaran use jaari rakhane ka pramukh utprerak ban jaata hai.
bahirmukhata ek aisi visheshata hai jo jyaadaatar dhoomrapaan se judi hai aur dhoomrapaan karne vaale milnasaar, aavegi, jokhim uthaane vaale aur uttejana ki chaahate rakhane vaale vyakti hote hain.[65] haalaanki vyaktitv aur saamaajik kaarak logon ko dhoomrapaan ke liye prerit kar karte hain, vaastavik aadat prabhaav daalne ki anukoolata ki kriya hai. praarambhik charan ke dauraan dhoomrapaan sukhad anubhootiyaan pradaan karta hai (iske dopaamaain-dopamine pranaali par prabhaav ke kaaran) aur is tarah sakaaraatmak sudrudheekaran ke ek srot ke roop mein kaarya karta hai. ek vyakti dvaara kai varshon tak dhoomrapaan karne ke pashchaat parihaar ke lakshan aur nakaaraatmak sudrudheekaran pramukh utprerak ho jaate hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
The primary task of INS Sarvekshak includes Hydrographic Surveys, Nautical Chart preparation & Cartography & Training. The ship is also equipped with ROV, AUV & USV.[5] As part of protocol the ship also took part in International Defence Exhibition 2009 held at Abu Dhabi [6] In 2015 Sarvekshak, was deployed in Mauritius for 5 weeks to help in Survey Operations.[7] INS Sarvekshak was also deployed in 2011 to Mauritius as part of survey operations to execute the following tasks in 3 phases.
jis tarah se main ise dekhata hoon, vahaan 2017 mein ham saat pramukh takaneek pravrttiyon kee dukaan mein hain. yadi aap ek sektar mein najar rakh rahe hain jisamen koee vyavasaay shuroo karane ke lie, inamen se koee ek bahut achchha shart hai yadi aap pahale se hee ek udyamee hain, to is baare mein sochen ki aap apane lakshit darshakon tak nae tareeke se pahunchane ke lie in praudyogikiyon ka laabh kaise utha sakate hain.

2009 ki garmiyon ke baad se, do kredit card companiyaan vishesh maaicroSD card ke vikaas ke liye dalaas, Texas aadhaarit divaaisafideliti ke saath kaam kar rahi hain. jab ise ek mobile phone mein daala jaaega to yeh microSD card, ek nishkriya taig aur ek RFID reedar, donon ho sakta hai.[11] microSD daalne ke baad, ek upayogakarta ka phone bank khaate se jud jaaega aur usaka upayog mobile bhugataan mein kiya jaaega.
saan Diego, California, metropolitan traanjit system (MTS), north County traanjit distrikt (NCTD) aur the sain Diego asosiyeshan of gavarmeint (SANDAG) ek ri-raaitebal RFID smart card ka upayog karti hai jise sthaaneeya taur par kampaas card ke roop mein nirdisht kiya jaata hai aur bason aur railgaadiyon ki yaatra aasaan banaane ke liye dainik, saaptaahik ya maasik paas ya nakad moolya ke roop mein upayog kiya ja sakta hai.
ek audio deta mein singal-bit truti seedhe leeniyr pals code modyuleshan (jaise ek CD-ROM par) ke roop mein store ho jaane se ek singal klik se varst ho jaata hai. iske bajaay bahut se log storej space aur daaunalod samay ko surakshit karne ke liye audio kampreshan ka upayog karte hain kyonki ek ekal bit truti bhi poore gaane ko karapt kar sakta hai.
digital sarkit ka doosra roop lukaap table se nirmit hota hai ("prograamebal laujik divaais" ke roop mein anek beche ja chuka hain, haalaanki PLD ke anya prakaar vidyamaan hain). lukaap taalika, masheenon par aadhaarit laujik geton ki tarah hi kaarya kar sakti hain lekin aasaani se taaron ko badle bina hi reeprograam kar sakti hain. iska arth yeh hai ki designer, aksar taaron ki vyavastha ko badle bina hi design trutiyon ki marammat kar sakte hain. isliye chhoti maatra mein utpaad prograamebal laujik divaais aksar adhimaanya samaadhaan kar rahe hain. ve aam taur par injeeniyron dvaara electronic design svachaalan software ka upayog kar design kiya jaata hai (adhik jaankaari ke liye neeche dekhein).
isi tarah, 7-Eleven, ek nae sampark-mukt bhugataan pranaali ko badhaava dene ke liye MasterCard ke saath kaam kar raha hai. pareekshan mein shaamil hone vaalon ko ek maanaarth nokiya 3220 selafon diya jaata hai - sakriykaran ke baad, ise ek RFID saksham maastarkaard kredit card ke roop mein, duniya bhar ki 7-Eleven ki kisi bhi shrrunkhala mein istemaal kiya ja sakta hai.[12]
haai-freekveinsi RFID ya HFID/HighFID taig pustakaalaya ki pustakon ya kitaabon ki dukaan ki traiking, gahanon ki traiking, pailet traiking, abhigm niyantran nirmaan, airline saamaan traiking aur paridhaan aur davaaon ki traiking. haai-freekveinsi taig, vyaapak roop se pehchaan baij mein prayukt hote hain jinhonne pehle ke maignetik-straaip card ka sthaan liya. dhaarak ko pramaanit karne ke liye in baij ko reedar se ek nishchit doori ke bheetar rakhana hota hai. American express blue kredit card mein ab ek HighFID taig shaamil hai. fravari 2008 mein, ameeraat airline ne London aur dubai havaai addon par RFID saamaan traiking ka pareekshan shuroo kiya.
fraanseesi jeen nikot (jinke naam se nikoteen shabd vyutpann hua) ne 1560 mein France ko tambaakoo se parichit karaaya aur fir tambaakoo England mein fail gaya. kisi angrej ke dhoomrapaan ki pehli report 1556 me Bristol mein ek naavik ki hai, "usaki naak se dhuaan niklata dekha gaya".[3] chai, kaufi aur afeem ki tarah tambaakoo bhi abhi kai maadak dravyon mein se ek hai jo mool roop se dava ke roop mein istemaal kiya gaya tha.[25] French mein vyaapaariyon dvaara 1600 ke aaspaas tambaakoo ko vahaan parichit karaaya gaya jise aaj ke aadhunik samay mein jaambiya aur senegal kehte hain. usi samay morakko ke kaafile timbakatoo aur Portugal ke aaspaas ke kshetron mein tambaakoo le aaye aur yeh vastu (aur paudhe) dakshin Africa ko diye, jisse poore Africa mein 1650 ke dashak mein tambaakoo ki lokapriyta sthaapit ho gayi.
sooparakandaktiviti ki khoj, raipid ekal flaks kvaantam (RSFQ) ke vikaas sarkit praudyogiki ko sambhav kar pai hai joki traanjistar ke bajaay josefasan jankshan ka upayog karta hai. haal hi mein, aise shuddh optikl kanpyooting pranaali ko banaane ka prayaas kiya gaya, joki naunaleeneear optikl tatvon ka prayog karke digital soochana sansaadhit karne mein saksham hai.
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