ek badi laujik machine mein (maan leejiye, sau se adhik laujik char waali) sambhav state ki ek khagoleeya sankhya ho sakti hai. jaahir hai, kaarkhaane mein, har state ka pareekshan avyaavahaarik hai agar har state ke pareekshan mein ek maaikrosekand lagta hai aur brahmaand ke shuroo hone se hi maaikrosekand ki sankhya se kaheen adhik state hain. durbhaagya se, yeh haasyaaspad lagne wala maamala vishisht hai.

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2002 mein rog niyantran aur rokathaam kendra ne kaha ki sanyukt raajya America mein beche gaye cigarette ke ek packet par dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki chikitsa aur utpaadakata mein kshati ke roop mein desh ke 7 $ (dollar) se adhik kharch hote hain, jo prativrsh dhoomrapaan karne vaale prati vyakti par prativrsh $ 2000 se adhik baithata hai.[70] svaasthya arthashaastriyon ke ek dal ne ek anya adhyayan mein paaya ki unke parivaaron aur samaaj dvaara sanyukt pradatt moolya cigarette ke prati packet par 41 dollar hai.[83]
1980 ke dashak mein mile vaigyaanik pramaan ke anusaar tambaakoo companiyaan ne daava kiya hai ki laaparavaahi baratne ka kaaran svaasthya par padne vaale pratikool prabhaav se pehle unka anajaan hona tha ya paryaapt vishvasaneeyata ka abhaav tha. svaasthya adhikaariyon ne 1998 tak in daavon ka saath diya jiske baad unhonne apni sthiti ulat di. tambaakoo pradhaan niptaan samjhauta (the tobaiko master saitalameint egreemeint) mool roop se chaar sabse badi tambaakoo companiyon aur 46 raajyon ke ameriki etorni general ke beech hua. tambaakoo ke kuchh khaas prakaar ke vijnyaaapanon par pratibandh laga diya gaya aur svaasthya muaavaje ke taur par bhugataan ko aavashyak kar diya gaya, jo baad mein sanyukt raajya America ke itihaas mein sabse bade naagrik niptaan ke roop saamane aaya.[36]
kredit card companiyaan ab kisi bhi mobile phone se gair-sampark bhugataan card jodne ke liye bhugataan samaadhaan talaash rahi hain. ek vaahak samaadhaan jo is udyog ki jaroorat ko poora kare ab upalabdh hai. 3mm se kam mota, yeh up-card 2 varshon tak apne paryaavaran ko jhel sakega aur ek baar daale jaane ke baad yeh tatvon se rakshit aur vaahak mein surakshit rahega.[10]
sanyukt raajya America mein cigarette kar alag-alag raajyon mein ek doosare se vyaapak roop se bhinn hai. udaaharan ke liye dakshin kairolina mein ek packet par keval 7 seint hai, jo desh ka nyoonatam hai, jabki road aailaind mein America ka uchchatam sitret tax prati packet $ 3.46 hai. Alabama mein, ilinois, misauri, New York shahar, Tennessee aur varjeeniya, kaauntiyon aur shaharon cigarette ki keemat par ek atirikt seemit kar laagoo hain.[87] uchch kar dar ke kaaran new jersey mein cigarette ke ek ausat packet ki keemat $ 6.45 hai,[88][89] jo abhi bhi cigarette ke ek packet ki anumaanit baahya laagat se bhi kam hai.
Shalini, an illegitimate daughter of Sukanya, but making Sukanya believe that kid is dead & married off to another person with whom she gives birth to 2 children. The emotional drama between daughter and mother when Shalini goes to Sukanya's house, both unaware of their relationship, Sukanya tortures her own daughter for the sake of her legal daughter, Anu, but Shalini supports Sukanya always. It is about negative shaded Anu ill-treating her sister, Shalini, even after knowing the relationship they both share.
ameriki raashtra ke kai mool nivaasi dhaarmik anushthaanon ke ek hisse ke roop mein ek pavitra pipe se tambaakoo ka aupachaarik dhoomrapaan kar praarthana karte hain. sema (Sema) tambaakoo ke anishinaabe (Anishinaabe) ka shabd hai, jo praarthana mein upayog ke dauraan param pavitra paudhe ke liye viksit hua kyonki aisa vishvaas hai ki usaka dhuaan praarthana ko svarg tak le jaata hai. jyaadaatar sabse pramukh dharmon mein tambaakoo ka sevan vishesh roop se varjit naheen hai, haalaanki ise ek anaitik aadat ke roop mein hatotsaahit kiya gaya. niyantrit adhyayan ke maadhyam se svaasthya jokhimon ki pehchaan kiye jaane ke pehle dhoomrapaan ko kuchh isaai prachaarakon aur samaaj sudhaarakon dvaara ek anaitik lat maana jaata tha. laitar de seint aandolan ke sansthaapak Joseph smith, junior ne darj kiya ki 27 fravari 1833 ko unhein ek rahasyodghaatan mila jo tambaakoo ke prayog ko hatotsaahit karne wala tha. yeh "gyaan ka shabd" baad mein ek aajnyaa ke roop mein sveekaar kar liya gaya aur vafaadaar laitar-de sannyaasiyon ne tambaakoo se poori tarah bachane ka maarg apnaaya.[80] jenova ke gavaahon ne dhoomrapaan ke khilaaf baaibil ke aadesh ko apna aadhaar banaaya "apne shareer ke har kalank ko saaf karo" korinthins (2 Corinthians 7:1). yahoodi dharmaguru yisrail meer kaagan (1838-1933) un pehle logon mein se tha, jinhonne yahoodi adhikaariyon se dhoomrapaan par baat ki. sikh dharm mein tambaakoo peene par sakht paabandi hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] bahaai panth mein haalaanki tambaakoo par paabandi naheen hai, lekin use hatotsaahit kiya jaata hai.[81]

pichhale paanch saalon se bada aankada ek bada vishay raha hai, jab usane surkhiyon mein ek bayaan diya tha. yah vichaar yah hai ki ikatthe kie gae aankadon ke bade paimaane par jinake paas ab tak pahunch hai- behatar vipanan abhiyaanon ko behatar tareeke se chalaane ke lie yojana banaane se lekar har cheej mein hamen madad kar sakata hai. lekin badee aankadon kee sabase badee shakti-isakee maatraatmak, sankhyaatmak neenv-bhee kamajoree hai. 2017 mein, mujhe ummeed hai ki ham deta ke adhik sanvedanasheel aur gunaatmak bits kee maang karate hue aur adhik drshy, sulabh tareeke se ise pesh karane ke lie bade deta ko maanaveey banaane kee pragati dekhenge.


tambaakoo dhoomrapaan ek aisa abhyaas hai jismein tambaakoo ko jalaaya jaata hai aur usaka dhuaan ya to chakha jaata hai ya fir use saans mein kheencha jaata hai. iska chalan 5000-3000 E.poo.ke praarambhik kaal mein shuroo hua.[1] kai sabhyataaon mein dhaarmik anushthaanon ke dauraan ise sugandh ke taur par jalaaya gaya, jise baad mein aanand praapt karne ke liye ya fir ek saamaajik upakaran ke roop mein apnaaya gaya.[2] puraani duniya mein tambaakoo 1500 ke dashak ke antim daur mein prachalit hua jahaan isne saajha vyaapaarik maarg ka anusaran kiya. haalaanki yeh padaarth aksar aalochna ka shikaar banta raha hai, lekin iske baavajood vah lokapriya ho gaya.[3] jarman vaigyaaniko ne aupachaarik roop se der se 1920 ke dashak ke ant mein dhoomrapaan aur fefade ke Cancer ke beech ke sambandhon ki pehchaan ki jisse aadhunik itihaas mein pehle dhoomrapaan virodhi abhiyaan ki shuruaat hui. aandolan tathaapi dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan dushmanon ki seema mein pahunchane mein naakaam raha aur uske baad jald hi alokapriya ho gaya.[4] 1950 mein svaasthya adhikaariyon ne fir se dhoomrapaan aur Cancer ke beech ke sambandh par charcha shuroo ki.[5] vaigyaanik pramaan 1980 ke dashak mein praapt hue, jisne is abhyaas ke khilaaf raajaneetik kaarravaai par jor diya. 1965 se viksit deshon mein khapat ya to ksheen hui ya fir usamein giraavat aayi.[6] haalaanki, vikaasasheel duniya mein badhat jaari hai.[7]


anukramik system iske atirikt do upashreniyon mein vibhaajit hota hai. jab ek "klauk" signal state ko parivrtit karta hai tab "tulyakaalik" anukramik pranaali ek hi baar mein state ko badal deta hai. jab bhi input badalate hain "atulyakaalik" anukramik pranaali parivartan ko prasaarit karta hai. tulyakaalik anukramik system atulyakaalik sarkit ki visheshata se bana hota hai jaise flip flop, jo klauk jab parivartan karta hai tabhi ye parivartan karta hai aur jismein timing margin ko dhyaan se design kiya jaata hai.

NADRA ne RFID aadhaarit chaalak license viksit kiya hai jis par license dhaarak ki vyaktigat jaankaari aur yaataayaat ullanghan, jaari kiye gaye ticket aur bakaaya dand ke baare mein data sangrahit hote hain. license card is tarah se dijaain kiye gaye hain ki driving adhikaar ko gambhir ullanghan ke maamale mein electronic tareeke se radd kiya ja sake. [49]

maariyo kaardullo ka saaaincha:US Patent 1973 mein aadhunik RFID ka pehla sachcha poorvaj tha; smruti wala ek nishkriya radio traansapondar. praarambhik upakaran nishkriya tha, jo poochh-taachh sanket ke dvaara sanchaalit hota tha aur 1971 mein New York port athauriti aur anya sambhaavit prayoktaaon ke liye iska pradarshan kiya gaya aur yeh ek tol upakaran ke roop mein istemaal ke liye 16 bit smruti ke saath ek traansapondar se bana tha. buniyaadi kaardullo peteint sanchaaran media ke roop mein RF, dhvani aur prakaash ke istemaal ko aavrut karta hai. 1969 mein, niveshakon ke saamane prastut mool vyaapaar yojana ne parivhan (otomotiv vaahan pehchaan, svachaalit tol pranaali, electronic license plate, electronic maalasoochi, vaahan maarg, vaahan pradarshan nigraani), banking (electronic check book, electronic kredit card), suraksha (karmiyon ki pehchaan, svachaalit dwaar, nigraani) aur chikitsa (pehchaan, rogi itihaas) mein iska istemaal dikhaaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]


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RFID suraksha ko lekar ek praathamik chinta RFID taig ki avaidh traiking hai. taig, jo vaishvik roop se pathaneeya hain, ve niji sthaan gopaneeyata aur kaurporet/sainya suraksha, donon ke liye khatra paida kar rahe hain. is tarah ki chintaaen, ameriki raksha vibhaag dvaara haal mein aapoorti shrrunkhala prabandhan ke liye RFID taig ko apnaane se uthaai gayi hain.[63] aam taur par, gopaneeyata sangathanon ne electronic utpaad code (EPC) RFID taig ko upabhokta utpaadon mein sannihit karne ke chal rahe prayaason ke sandarbh mein chinta vyakt ki hai.
gopaneeyata ke pairokaaron ne pratyaaropan yogya RFID chip ke khilaaf virodh kiya hai aur sambhaavit durupayog ki chetaavani dete hue is prakaar ke RFID upakaranon ko "jaasoosachips" kah kar iski ninda ki hai, saath hi sarkaar dvaara iske istemaal se naagrik adhikaaron ki haani ho sakti hai aur durupayog bhi aasaan ho jaaega. aise durupayog ka ek maamala traiking upakaran ke roop mein microchip ka dohara upayog hoga. is tarah ki chintaaen sanyukt raajya America mein uchit saabit hui jab pata chala ki CIA ke kaaryakram COINTELPRO ka upayog uchch profaail raajaneetik kaaryakartaaon aur asantusht vyaktiyon ki gatividhiyon par nazar rakhane ke liye kiya gaya. aisi bhi sambhaavana hai ki chip ki jaankaari, sarkaaron ke alaava niji vyavasaaya jaise anya logon ko upalabdh hogi, jiske kaaran niyokta ko karmachaariyon ki atyant vyaktigat jaankaari praapt ho jaayegi. iske alaava, gopaneeyata ke pairokaar yeh kehte hain ki is chip mein maujood jaankaari ko aasaani se churaaya ja sakta hai, isliye ismein kisi bhi prakaar ke niji bhandaaran se pehchaan ki chori ka jokhim rahega.

udaaharan ke liye baitari sanchaalit selyular telephone aksar ek kam shakti ke enaalaug agrasira ke istemaal se base station se radio signal badhaane aur sangati bithaane ke liye karti hai. haalaanki ek base station ke paas grid ki shakti hoti hai aur apekshit vidyut ka prayog kar sakti hai, lekin bahut lacheele software radio mein. is tarah ke base stationon ke liye aasaani se nae selular maanakon mein prayukt sanket prakriya ko aasaani se riprograam kiya ja sakta hai.

ek badi laujik machine mein (maan leejiye, sau se adhik laujik char waali) sambhav state ki ek khagoleeya sankhya ho sakti hai. jaahir hai, kaarkhaane mein, har state ka pareekshan avyaavahaarik hai agar har state ke pareekshan mein ek maaikrosekand lagta hai aur brahmaand ke shuroo hone se hi maaikrosekand ki sankhya se kaheen adhik state hain. durbhaagya se, yeh haasyaaspad lagne wala maamala vishisht hai.
hamesha ki tarah ek tulyakaalik anukramik state machine ko ek sanyojan laujik mein vibhaajit karke laagoo karne ka vyaavahaarik tareeka hota hai aur flip flop ke set ko "state rajistar" kaha jaata hai. har baar ek ghadi tik tik ki signal deti hai aur state rajistar sanyojan laujik ke pichhle state se utpann pratikriya par kabja kar leti hai aur state machine ke sanyojan bhaag mein aparivrtineeya input ke roop mein fir se ise daal deti hai. sanyojan laujik mein samay ke khapat vaale adhikaansh laujik aakalan dvaara ghadi ki sabse tej dar set hoti hai.
RFID ko vastu-stareeya khudara upayog ke liye apnaaya ja raha hai. kaaryakushalata aur utpaad upalabdhata laabh ke alaava, yeh pranaali electronic aartikl sarvilaans(EAS) ka ek behatareen roop pradaan karti hai aur upabhoktaaon ke liye ek behtar sv-jaanch prakriya. pehli vaanijyik, saarvajanik vastu-stareeya RFID khudara pranaali ki sthaapana maana jaata hai ki north kairolina, America mein freedom shoping ink dvaara May 2005 mein ki gayi.
gair electronic digital tantr nirmaan sambhav hai. siddhaant roop mein, asatat state ka pratinidhitv aur laujik kaaryon ka pratinidhitv karne mein saksham kisi bhi takaneek ka istemaal yaantrik laujik banaane ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. MIT ke chhaatron, erleen gi, Edward haardabek, daini hilis (the kanekshan machine ke sah-lekhak), maargaret minsaki aur bairi aur Brian silvaraman bhaai, ne tinkar khilaune, string, ek int aur ek teevr peinsil se do computer ka nirmaan kiya.[3] tinkaratauya computer, Boston vigyaan sangrahaalaya mein hai.

August, 2004 mein, ohiyo punarvaas aur sudhaar vibhaag (ODRC) ne alaanko teknolaujeej ke kaarmik-traiking takaneek ke moolyaankan ke liye $415,000 karaar ko manjoori di. kaidi, kalaai par ghadeenuma traansameetar pahaneinge jo hataane ke prayaas ko jaan sakega aur jail ke computeron ko chetaavani dega. yeh pariyojana ameriki jailon mein chips traiking ki pehli ghatna naheen hai. Michigan, California aur ilinois mein suvidhaaen, pehle se hi is praudyogiki ko apanaae hue hain.
anya desh jo passport mein RFID lagaate hain, unamein shaamil hain Norway (2005)[34], Japan (1 March 2006), Spain Ireland aur Britain sahit Europeeya sangh ke adhikaansh desh (2006 ke aaspaas), Australia aur sanyukt raajya America (2007), Serbia (July 2008), Korea (August 2008), taaivaan (December 2008), albaaniya (January 2009), fileepeens (August 2009).
vishv svaasthya sangathan (WHO) ka kehna hai ki "tambaakoo ke kaaran paida hui beemaariyon aur usase hui maut ke maamalon ke jyaadaatar shikaar gareeb log hote hain. 1.22 billion dhoomrapaan karne vaalon mein se 1 billion vikaasasheel ya sankramanakaaleen arthavyavasthaaon mein rahate hain. dhoomrapaan ki darein viksit duniya mein ya to khatm ho gayi hain ya unamein giraavat I hai.[54] haalaanki vikaasasheel duniya mein tambaakoo sevan prati varsh 3.4% ki dar se badh rahi hai, jitni 2002 mein thi.[7]

saare pareekshan ke baad, deta bits jagah par hain, dijaain ko "saamaanya mod" ke liye reekanfigr kiya jaata hai aur ek ya ek se adhik klauk pals ko laagoo kiya jaata hain, taaki dosh ka pata lag sake (jaise stak-ait lo ya stak-ait haai) aur pareekshan ke parinaam ka pragrahan scan shift rajistar mein flip-flop mein aur/ya leches mein kiya jaata hai. ant mein, pareekshan ke parinaam ko block seema mein sthaanaantarit kar diya jaata hai aur poorvaanumaan "gud machine" nateeje ke prati tulana ki jaati hai.
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