In her memoirs, Mrs. Pakravan provides the following description of the arrest, imprisonment, and execution of her husband by the Islamic Revolutionary Court. She argues that General Pakravan was taken from his house to an unknown destination. When his son tried to contact him, he was told that the general was not arrested at all but that he was the guest of the Ayatollah. But in fact he was imprisoned shortly after his arrest.
dhoomrapaan ke alaava dava ke roop mein bhi tambaakoo ka upayog hota hai. ek dard nivaarak ke taur par yeh kaan ke dard aur daant ke dard aur kabhi-kabhi ek pralep ke roop mein bhi istemaal kiya jaata hai. registaan mein rahane vaale bhaarateeya kehte hain ki dhoomrapaan karne se jukaam theek ho jaata hai, khaaskar yadi tambaakoo mein tejapaat ke chhote patte tejapaat ki dori ya bhaarateeya gulameinhadi ya khaansi mool Leptotaenia multifida mila diye jaayein, jo iske atirikt asthama aur tapedik ke liye vishesh roop se achha maana gaya.[20]

October 2004 mein, FDA ne maanav mein pratyaaropit kiye ja sakane vaale amareeka ke pehle RFID chip ko manjoori di. vereechip corporation ke 134 kHz RFID chips mein vyaktigat chikitsa jaankaari rakhi ja sakti hai aur company ke anusaar, chikitsa upachaar mein trutiyon ke maamale mein jeevan raksha ho sakti hai aur choton ko seemit kiya ja sakta hai. FDA anumodan ko niveshakon ke saath ek sammelan ke dauraan bataaya gaya. anumodan ke sheegra hi baad, lekhak aur RFID-virodhi kaaryakarta Cathrine albrekt aur lij maikintaayar ne FDA ki or se ek chetaavani patra ki khoj ki jismein likha tha gambhir health risks associated with the VeriChip. FDA ke mutaabik, inmein shaamil hain "pratikool ootak pratikriya", "pratyaaropit traansapondar ka sthaan parivartan", "pratyaaropit traansapondar ki vifalta","bijli ke khatre" aur "maignetik rejoneins imejing [MRI] asangati."
January, 2005 mein, Wall-Mart ne apne sheersh 100 aapoortikrtaaon ke liye sabhi ladaan par RFID lebal lagaana jaroori kar diya. is aavashyakta ko poora karne ke liye, vikretaaon ne dabbon aur pailet par jismein Wall-Mart ke liye EPC taig ki aavashyakta thi, lebal lagaane ke liye RFID printar/inakodar ka upayog kiya. ye smart lebal, saamagri ke andar RFID inlej jad kar aur uske baad lebal ki satah par baar code aur dikhaai dene waali anya jaankaari mudrit kar ke nirmit kiye gaye hain.
adhikaashan dhaarmik neta un logon mein pramukh the jo yeh maanate the ki dhoomrapaan anaitik ya poori tarah se nindaneeya hai. 1634 mein Moscow ke paitriaark mein tambaakoo ki bikri nishiddh kar di gayi aur pratibandh ko todne vaale purushon aur mahilaaon ki naak kaatne ki saja sunaai gayi aur unki peeth par tab tak chaabuk maarane ki saja di gayi, jab tak chamadi na udhad jaaye. pashchimi church neta urban VII (saptam) ne isi tarah dhoomrapaan ki ninda ki aur Pope sambandhi 1642 ka aadesh sunaaya. kai thos prayaason ke baavajood pratirodh aur pratibandh lagbhag sarvatr najaraandaaj kar diye gaye. jab ek kattar dhoomrapaan virodhi aur A kaauntarablaast too tobaiko ke lekhak, England ke James I (pratham), ne 1604 mein tambaakoo par 4000% tak vruddhi kar nayi pravrutti par ankush lagaane ki koshish ki to use London ke lagbhag 7,000 tambaakoo vikretaaon ne asafal saabit kar diya. baad mein, hoshiyaar shaasakon ko dhoomrapaan pratibandh ki nirrthakata ka ehsaas hua aur tambaakoo ke vyaapaar aur kheti ko sarkaari aakarshak ekaadhikaar mein badal diya.[27][28]
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He initiated the Munnar eviction mission. Massive portions of land allegedly grabbed over the years by resort owners and multinational companies like Tata Tea Limited. Later, the demolition team landed in the city of Kochi, and other cities in Kerala and recovered huge parts of land. Then the mission stalled when it caught CPI(M) and even the team which led it was orphaned. The District Collector Raju Narayana Swamy, Inspector General of Police and the Person in charge were replaced. As the opponents claim, this may cause to have lost some credibility of the government. Meanwhile, Achuthanandan said that the Munnar mission would continue vigorously and extended to other areas[25][26][27]

Germany mein dhoomrapaan virodhi samooh aksar sharaab virodhi samoohon ke saath jud gaye,[30] tambaakoo ke sevan ke khilaaf der taibakajejaner Der Tabakgegner (tambaakoo pratidvandvi) patrika mein 1912 aur 1932 mein prakaashit lekh mein pehli baar vakaalat ki gayi. san 1929 mein Germany ke dresaden ke fritj likint ne ek lekh prakaashit kiya jismein fefadon ke Cancer-tobaiko link ka aupachaarik saankhyikeeya saboot tha. edaulf hitlar ne ghanaghor avasaad ke dauraan dhoomrapaan karne ki lat ko paise ki barabaadi kehkar ninda ki thi aur baad mein usane drudh vaktavya diye.[31] yeh aandolan aage chalakar naaji prajanan neeti ke kaaran aur majboot hua jismein mahilaaon ke dhoomrapaan ko ek jarman parivaar mein patniyon aur maataaon ke liye anupayukt maana gaya.[32]


kisi sansthaan mein jama aisa vyaapaarik agrim jiske mad mein jamaakarta ko na to koi maal diya gaya ho aur na usaki koi vyaapaarik seva ki gayi ho us sansthaan ke liya deya dhan hai. yeh rakam sansthaan mein deya khaate mein ankit ki jaati hai. svaami, saajhedaaron, sanchaalakon tatha karmachaariyon dvaara sansthaan ko diya gaya rin is khaate mein pravishti naheen paata. vah ek alag deya rinakhaate mein ankit kiya jaata hai. deya khaata vyaapaarik agrim ka khaata hai. vah sansthaan ke liye deya to hai par vah rin naheen hai isliye iski svatantr sthiti hai. vyaapaar se sambaddh agrim jama raashi maatr ka ismein ankan hota hai. theek yahi sthiti sansthaan dvaara diye gaye vyaapaarik agrim ki hai. vah dhanaraashi jo agrim ke roop mein anya kisi vyaapaarik sansthaan ko di gayi ho aur uske mad mein na to koi maal aaya ho aur na anya vyaapaarik seva li gayi ho sansthaan ke praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai. jiske naam yeh raashi praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai vah sansthaan apne yahaaain is rakam ko deya khaate mein daalata hai.
gopaneeyata ke pairokaaron ne pratyaaropan yogya RFID chip ke khilaaf virodh kiya hai aur sambhaavit durupayog ki chetaavani dete hue is prakaar ke RFID upakaranon ko "jaasoosachips" kah kar iski ninda ki hai, saath hi sarkaar dvaara iske istemaal se naagrik adhikaaron ki haani ho sakti hai aur durupayog bhi aasaan ho jaaega. aise durupayog ka ek maamala traiking upakaran ke roop mein microchip ka dohara upayog hoga. is tarah ki chintaaen sanyukt raajya America mein uchit saabit hui jab pata chala ki CIA ke kaaryakram COINTELPRO ka upayog uchch profaail raajaneetik kaaryakartaaon aur asantusht vyaktiyon ki gatividhiyon par nazar rakhane ke liye kiya gaya. aisi bhi sambhaavana hai ki chip ki jaankaari, sarkaaron ke alaava niji vyavasaaya jaise anya logon ko upalabdh hogi, jiske kaaran niyokta ko karmachaariyon ki atyant vyaktigat jaankaari praapt ho jaayegi. iske alaava, gopaneeyata ke pairokaar yeh kehte hain ki is chip mein maujood jaankaari ko aasaani se churaaya ja sakta hai, isliye ismein kisi bhi prakaar ke niji bhandaaran se pehchaan ki chori ka jokhim rahega.
In the 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, the Left Democratic Front (LDF) secured a huge win with a total of 91 seats in 140 assembly constituencies. At the age of 92, VS travelled across the state campaigning for the party with much vigour. V S Achuthanandan also contested this election from Malampuzha constituency, where he won by a margin of 27,142 votes. Being the face and most recognizable leader of the front, he staked his claim to be the next Chief Minister. However, the State and Central leadership appointed Pinarayi Vijayan as Chief Minister instead.
RFID praudyogikiyon ko ab antim-upayokta anuprayogon mein sangrahaalayon mein bhi laagoo kiya ja raha hai. sen Francisco, California mein ek vigyaan sangrahaalaya, eksaploretoriam mein custom-dijaaind anuprayog "eXsport" iska ek udaaharan hai. sangrahaalaya mein pravesh karne vaale aagantuk ko ek RF taig diya jaata hai jise ek card ya haar mein lagaaya ja sakta hai. eXspot pranaali, aagantuk ko pradarshan ke baare mein jaankaari praapt karne mein aur giftashaup par ekatr ki jaane waali tasveerein lene mein saksham banaati hai. baad mein ve apne niji web prushth par ja sakte hain, jis par vishesh jaankaari jaise ki yaatra ki taareekh, dekhi gayi pradarshaniyaan aur li gayi tasveeron ko dekha ja sakta hai.[40]
isi tarah, 7-Eleven, ek nae sampark-mukt bhugataan pranaali ko badhaava dene ke liye MasterCard ke saath kaam kar raha hai. pareekshan mein shaamil hone vaalon ko ek maanaarth nokiya 3220 selafon diya jaata hai - sakriykaran ke baad, ise ek RFID saksham maastarkaard kredit card ke roop mein, duniya bhar ki 7-Eleven ki kisi bhi shrrunkhala mein istemaal kiya ja sakta hai.[12]
Parakala was appointed to the NSUI central committee as All India Vice President in 1984. It was almost like a token of appreciation by the Congress High Command of his performance as President of the JNU unit and his contribution to the establishment of the organisation in the citadel of left wing student politics. As an office bearer of the central committee of NSUI, he toured several states and universities to organise the activities of the students' wing of the Congress Party. He took up a massive campaign against drug abuse in the university campuses all over the country. With his departure for United Kingdom in October 1986 to pursue his higher studies at the London School of Economics (LSE), there was a break to his political activity. On his return to India in May 1991 he resumed political activity in his native place Narasapuram in West Godavari District. Tragic political events in the country resulted in dramatic political developments. Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, in the midst of the election campaign and P V Narasimha Rao was elected to lead the Congress Party. After the elections, Narasimha Rao became Prime Minister at the head of a minority government. Parakala family was closely associated with P V Narasimha Rao for a long time, Parakala Seshavataram, Prabhakar's father, being a close political associate of Rao. Narasimha Rao assigned the task of conceiving, designing and building a grand institution to perpetuate the memory of Rajiv Gandhi. He made Parakala as Officer on Special Duty to oversee the implementation of the project 'Rajiv Gandhi National Institute for Youth Development (RGNIYD). It is conceived as an institution to train the youth of India and impart to them skills that are necessary to them to play a vital role in building a modern nation in the 21st century, a theme that was dear to the heart of Rajiv Gandhi. Parakala went around the country to study various institutions, their constitutions, structures, course content etc., and designed the Institute which is functional now under the aegis of Ministry of Human Resource Development. Around this time Parakala was nominated by the Congress High Command to represent the Congress Party at the French Communist Party's Plenary in Paris.

hamane pahale se hee sanvardhit vaastavikata (eaar) aur aabhaasee vaastavikata (veeaar) praudyogikee ke lie 2016 mein kuchh pramukh kadamon ko dekha hai. okulas ripht ko sakaaraatmak risepshan ke lie jaaree kiya gaya tha, aur hajaaron veeaar aips aur gems ka paalan kiya gaya tha. hamane piksamon go bhee dekha, eaar gem, 100 miliyan se adhik daunalod ke saath visphot kiya. baajaar eaar aur veeaar ke lie taiyaar hai, aur in epleekeshans ke lie hamaare paas pahale se shuruaatee stareey upakaran aur tek mil chuke hain, lekin isase pahale ki ham cheejen sachamuch le jaenge, agale saal hone ja rahe hain. ek baar ve karate hain, aapako vyaavahaarik roop se har cheej ke eaar aur veeaar sanskaranon ke lie taiyaar rahana hoga- aur paalan karane ke lie paryaapt vipanan avasaron ka paalan karana hoga.
passport ko adhik surakshit banaane ke prayaas mein kai deshon ne passport mein RFID laagoo kiya hai. baharahaal, Britain ke chips par enkripshan ko 48 ghante ke andar tod diya gaya tha.[66] us ghatna ke baad se aur adhik prayaas ne shodhakartaaon ko, jab passport ko uske maalik ke paas bheja ja raha ho us vakt passport deta ko klon karne ki anumati di. jahaan ek aparaadhi ko chupake se lifaafe ko kholana aur fir band karne ki jaroorat thi, ab yeh pata lage bina kiya ja sakta hai, jisse passport pranaali mein kuchh asuraksha badh gayi hai.[67]
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RFID praudyogiki ke upayog ne kaafi vivaad ko janm diya aur yahaan tak ki upabhokta gopaneeyata pairokaaron dvaara utpaad bahishkaar bhi hua. CASPIAN (kanjyoomar ageinst suparamaarket praaivesi invejn end nambaring) ki sah-sansthaapak Cathrine albrekt aur lij maikintaayar is praudyogiki ki do pramukh aalochak hain jo RFID taig ka ullekh "spaaichips" ke roop mein karti hain. RFID sambandhit do mukhya gopaneeyata chintaaen hain:
web aadhaarit prabandhan upakaran, sangathanon ko apni sampatti ki nigraani ki anumati dete hue duniya mein kaheen se bhi prabandhan ke faisale karne mein saksham karte hain. web aadhaarit anuprayog ka ab matlab hai ki, teesara paksh, jaise vinirmaata aur thekedaar ko parisanpatti deta ko adyatan karne ke liye pahunch di ja sakti hai, udaaharan ke liye jismein shaamil hai, nireekshan itihaas aur online pralekhan hastaantaran jo yeh sunishchit karta hai ki antim upayogakarta ke paas hamesha sahi, rial-time data ho. sangathan, pehle se hi mobile parisanpatti prabandhan samaadhaan ke saath RFID taig ko sanyojit karke apni sampatti ko darj karne aur uske sthaan par najar rakhane, usaki vartamaan sthiti aur unka rakh-rakhaav kiya gaya hai ya naheen, yeh jaanane ke liye prayog kar rahe hain.
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electronic cigarette tambaakoo ke dhoomrapaan ka ek vaikalpik tareeka hai, haalaanki ismein tambaakoo ka sevan ekdam naheen kiya jaata. yeh ek baitari se chalne wala upakaran hai jo vaashpeekrut propilen glaaikol (propylene glycol)/ nikoteen ghol se nikoteen ki khuraak saans se andar bhejata hai. kaanooni aur saarvajanik svaasthya ki jaanch ke kai maamale vartamaan mein kai deshon mein lambit pade hain, jo iske kaaran apekshaakrut haal mein ubhare hain.
lekha-pareekshak aksar kaate gaye chekon ke samarthan mein anumodit beejakon, vyaya riporton aur anya samarthak pralekhanon ki maujoodagi par dhyaan keindrit karte hain. aapoortikrta se pushtikran ya bayaan ka hona, khaate ke astitv ka samuchit pramaan hai. yeh asaamaanya naheen hai ki lekha-pareeksha ke chaaloo hone tak, inmein se kuchh pralekhan kho jaaen ya glat faailon mein rakhe jaaen. aisi sthitiyon mein lekha-pareekshak namoone ke aakaar ko badhaane ka faisala kar sakte hain.
tambaakoo ke sevan ka sabse aam tareeka dhoomrapaan hai aur tambaakoo dhoomrapaan kiya jaane wala sabse aam padaarth hai. krushi utpaad ko aksar doosare yogaj ke saath milaaya jaata hai[8] aur fir sulagaaya jaata hai. parinaamasvaroop bhaap ko saans ke jariye andar kheencha jaata hai fir sakriya padaarth ko fefadon ke maadhyam se koshikaaon se avashoshit kar liya jaata hai.[9] sakriya padaarth tantrika ant mein raasaayanik pratikriyaaon ko shuroo karti hai jisse hrudaya gati, smruti aur satarkata[10] aur pratikriya ki avadhi badh jaati hai.[11] dopaamaain (Dopamine) aur baad mein endorfin(endorphin) ka risaav hota hai jo aksar aanand se jude hue hain.[12] 2000 mein dhoomrapaan ka sevan kuchh 1.22 billion log karte the. purushon mein mahilaaon ki tulana mein dhoomrapaan ki sambhaavana adhik hoti hain[13] tathaapi chhote aayu varg mein is laingik antar mein giraavat aati hai.[14][15] gareebon mein ameeron ki tulana mein aur viksit deshon ke logon mein ameer deshon ki tulana mein dhoomrapaan ki sambhaavana adhik hoti hai.[7]

computer niyantrit digital system ko software dvaara niyantrit kiya ja sakta hai jo ki haardaveyar ko badle bina nae fankshan ko jodne ki anumati deta hai. aur aksar ise adyatan utpaad ke software ke dvaara kaarkhaane ke baahar kiya ja sakta hai. jisse utpaad ke design ki trutiyon ko graahak ke haath mein utpaad ke aane ke baad sanshodhit kiya ja sakta hai.
During the CPM state conference held in Kottayam, he was criticized strongly due to his style of functioning by a majority of Pinarayi Vijayan supporters (38/53) known as official faction and they demanded his ouster from Chief Minister. They warned that the party would lose seats if it goes for ahead parliamentary elections under his leadership.[30][31]
rajistar hastaantaran laujik mein dviaadhaari sankhya flip flop ke samoohon mein sangraheet hain jise rajistar kaha jaata tha. pratyek rajistar ka aautaput taaron ka bandal hai jise ek "bas" kaha jaata hai jo anya aakalan ke liye us number ko paas rakhata hai. yeh aakalan keval sanyojan laujik ka ek bhaag hai. pratyek aakalan ke paas ek bas aautaput hota hai aur ye kai input rajistaron se juda ho sakta hai. kabhi-kabhi ek rajistar ke paas inke input par bahusanketak hota hai jisse yeh kai bason mein se kisi ek se number ko store kar sakta hai. vaikalpik roop se kai cheejon ke aautaput ko bafars ke maadhyam se joda ja sakta hai jo ek ko chhodkar sabhi upakaranon ke aautaput ko band kar sakta hai. input se pratyek rajistar ke naye data ko sveekaar karne par anukramik state machine niyantran karta hai.

saans se kheenche gaye padaarthon tantrika ke sire ke ant mein raasaayanik pratikriyaaon ko shuroo karte hai. klonerjik riseptar aksar svaabhaavik roop se nyoorotraansameetar (neurotransmitter) esteelaklolaain(acetylcholine) se chaaloo hone vaale hain. Acetylcholine aur nikoteen raasaayanik samaanataaon ko vyakt karta hai jo nikoteen ko riseptar ke roop mein kaam karne ki anumati deta hai.[47] ye nikotinik acetylcholine riseptar keindreeya tantrika tantr mein sthit lagte hain aur tantrika-kankaal ki maansapeshiyon ki taakat jankshan par sakriya roop se dil ki gati, satarkata[10] aur pratikriya samay ko drut kar dete hain.[11] nikoteen acetylcholine uttejana pratyaksh taur par nashe ki lat naheen hai. haalaanki jaise hi dopaamaain se prachur maatra mein nyoorauns nikoteen riseptars pravaahit hote hain, dopaamaain pravaahit hota hai.[48] dopaamaain ke pravaahit hone se, jo aanand se juda hua hai adhik majaboot hota hai aur kaam karne ki smruti mein usase vruddhi ho sakti hai.[12][49] nikoteen aur kokeen nyoorauns ke samaan paitarn hain, jo ki is vichaar ka samarthan karte hain ki in maadak padaarthon ke beech aam adh:star sakriya hai.[50]


Parakala is a trained political economist. After his return from the London School of Economics (LSE) in 1991 summer, he established a policy and research consultancy and by name Centre for Public Policy Studies (CPPS). He led the Centre as its director. CPPS worked for governments, both union and state, and undertook many evaluation studies for inter-governmental organisations such as Unicef, ILO, UNDP, WTO etc. CPPS also undertook public opinion polls and election analyses. CPPS is now made into a private limited company with the name RightFOLIO. RightFOLIO has a large portfolio: political analysis, election studies, Communications, Conferences, Brand Consulting, and Human Resource consulting. Parakala is now heading RightFOLIO as its Managing director.
suraksha visheshagya Bruce shneyar ne sujhaav diya hai ki ek havaai adde ke nikat sanchaalan karta ek lutera ameer deshon se aane vaalon ko shikaar bana sakta hai, ya ek aatankvaadi ek taatkaalik visfotak upakaran design kar sakta hai jo tab kaarya karega jab kisi vishesh desh ke vyakti dvaara sampark kiya jaae yadi yaatri apna card apne shareer ke najadeek (uchch taral aur khaari saamagri) ya ek fauyal-laaind batue mein naheen rakhate.

RFID taig ka istamaal jin tol booth par electronic tol sangrahan ke liye kiya jaata hai unamein shaamil hain jaurjiya ka krooj card, California ka faasatraik, Colorado ka E-470, ilinois ka I-paas, oklaahoma ka paaikapaas, vistaar karte poorvi raajyon ka E-ZPass pranaali (maisaachusets ke fast len, delaaveyar, new haimpashaayar tarnapik, maireelaind, new jersey tarnapik peinsilveniya tarnapik, vest varjeeniya tarnapik, New York ki throove pranaali, varjeeniya, main tarnapik aur rode dweep ke nyooport brij sahit), sentral florida bhi is takaneek ka istemaal apne E-PASS pranaali ke maadhyam se karte hain. E-paas aur sanapaas paarasparik roop se sangat hain. florida ka sanapaas, Texas mein vibhinn pranaali jismein shaamil hain D/FW ka NTTA tolataig, ostin metro TxTag aur Houston HCTRA EZ taig (jo praarambhik 2007 ke roop mein kisi bhi Texas tol road par maanya hain), kensaas ka K-taig, "kraus-ijraail raajamaarg" (raajamaarg 6), fileepeens ka south lujon expressway E-paas, Brisbane ke kveensalaind motaravej ka govaaya taig (pehle E-tol ke naam se gyaat), Australia, mein system, otopista del sol (sans raajamaarg), otopista sentral (kendreeya raajamaarg), otopista los librtadores, kostaanera norte, vespusiyo norte express aur vespusiyo sur shahari raajamaarg aur har aane wala shahari raajamaarg (ek "mukt pravaah" saadhan mein) chili mein niji niveshakon ko chhoot praapt, Hongkong ke sabhi tol surang (ototol) aur Portugal ke sabhi raajamaarg (viya verd, tol ke poore network ka vistaar karne waali duniya ki pehli pranaali), France (libr-T pranaali), Italy (teleepaas), Spain (Via-T), braajeel (sem paraar - Via Fáacil). taig, jo aam taur par sakriya prakaar ke hote hain, vaahanon ke booth se gujarte samay door se padhe jaate hain aur taig jaankaari ka prayog ek poorv bhugataan khaate se tol raashi ko naame likhne ke liye kiya jaata hai. yeh pranaali tol plaaja ke maadhyam se yaataayaat ko gati dene mein madad karti hai, choonki yeh RFID vaahan taig ke liye taareekh, samay aur bill ke aankade darj karta hai. greater Toronto area mein plaaja aur kataar-mukt 407 express tol root, sabhi biling ke liye ek traansapondar (ek sakriya taig) ke prayog ki anumati deta hai. isse, license plate dvaara ek vaahan ki pehchaan karne ki aavashyakta samaapt ho jaati hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
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