In the 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, the Left Democratic Front (LDF) secured a huge win with a total of 91 seats in 140 assembly constituencies. At the age of 92, VS travelled across the state campaigning for the party with much vigour. V S Achuthanandan also contested this election from Malampuzha constituency, where he won by a margin of 27,142 votes. Being the face and most recognizable leader of the front, he staked his claim to be the next Chief Minister. However, the State and Central leadership appointed Pinarayi Vijayan as Chief Minister instead.
sitmbar 2008 ko, Alcatel-Lucent demo faul 2008 par pehli upabhokta RFID seva pesh ki: touchatag. yeh USB ke maadhyam se PC (Windows ya Mac) se judta hai aur jab yeh ek RFID taig se lais vastu ka pata lagaata hai, to malteemeediya ke tamaam prakaar ke anuprayog prakshepit karta hai. unke paas ek anuprayog vikaas kaaryakram aur vyaapaar samaadhaan bhi hai (udaaharan, pingaping-Belgium ke saath sahayog aur Accor Services ke liye ek vaanijyik pilot.[54]

kuchh companiyaan nae vikretaaon ko jodne aur vaauchar pravisht karne ke kaarya ko bhi alag karti hain. isse kisi karmachaari ke liye asambhav ho jaata hai ki vah khud ko vikreta ke roop mein jode aur fir kisi anya karmachaari ke saath bina saanth-gaanth ke apne naam check kaatein. yeh faail master veindar faail ke roop mein nirdisht hai. yeh company ke aapoortikrtaaon ke baare mein sabhi mahatvapoorn jaankaari ka bhandaar hai. jahaan beejak ke bhugataan ka maamala hai, yeh dendaari lekhon ka sandarbh bindu hai.[5]
The Vyapar - Accounting & Invoicing has 8 plans - Basic - Desktop INRUSD 38 (Device/Year),Saver Plan - Desktop INRUSD 68 (Device/ 3 Years),Super Saver Plan - Desktop INRUSD 98 (Device/ 5 Years),Ultra Saver Plan - Desktop INRUSD 167 (Device/ 10 Years),Basic - Android INRUSD 11 (Device/Year),Saver Plan - Android INRUSD 27 (Device/ 3 Years),Super Saver Plan - Android INRUSD 42 (Device/ 5 Years),Ultra Saver Plan - Android INRUSD 74 (Device/ 10 Years).
Achuthanandan has served many positions in his long political career. He was the Kerala State Secretary of the CPI(M) between 1980 and 1992 and he became a member of the Politburo in 1985. He has also been active in parliamentary politics; he was elected as a member of Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1967, 1970, 1991, 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016. He was the Leader of Opposition in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1992 to 1996, from 2001 to 2006 and from 2011 to 2016. He was the editor of CPI(M) mouth piece in Malayalam, Deshabhimani daily. He was the Chief Ministerial candidate for 1996 State elections. In those elections, LDF gained 80 out of 140 seats, but Achuthanandan, who contested from Mararikulam in Alappuzha district, lost by a margin of 1965 votes. Thus, E.K. Nayanar, who held the position twice earlier, became Chief Minister again.
↑ Null, Linda; Lobur, Julia (2006). The essentials of computer organization and architecture. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pa॰ 121. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0763737696. http://books.google.com/books?id=QGPHA19GE-IC&pg=PA121&dq=digital++circuits+and+Boolean+logic#v=onepage&q=digital%20%20circuits%20and%20Boolean%20logic&f=false. "We can build logic diagrams (which in turn lead to digital circuits) for any Boolean expression..."
puraane samay ke dhoomrapaan karne vaale prasiddh vyakti apni chhavi ke ek hisse ke roop mein cigarette ya pipe ka istemaal karte the, jaise jeen paul saartr kigauloise -brand ki cigarette,albart aainsteen,Joseph staalin, dagalas maikaaarthar, bartreind Russel, bing krosbi ki paaipein ya samaachaar prasaaranakartaEdward aar. murro ki cigarette. kuchh khaas lekhak dhoomrapaan ke liye jaane jaate the, udaaharan ke liye dekhein kaurnel professor richrd clean ki kitaab sigrets aar sabalaaim, French saahitya ke is professor ki bhoomika ne baad mein 19 veen aur 20 veen sadi mein dhoomrapaan mein bhoomika nibhaai. lokapriya lekhak kart vonnegut ne apne upanyaason mein cigarette peene ki apni lat ka ullekh kiya hai. Britain ke pradhaanamantri herold Wilson saarvajanik taur par pipe peene ke liye vikhyaat the aur vinstan charchil ko sigaar ke liye jaana jaata hai. sar aarthar kaunan dauyal dvaara racha gaya kaalpanik jaasoos sharlak holmas "apne London ke jeevan ke sust dinon mein jab kuchh naheen ho raha hota tha to apne atyadhik kriyaasheel mastishk ko vyast rakhane ke liye" khud ko kokeen ke injekshan lagaane ke alaava pipe, cigarette aur sigaar peeta tha. DC vertigo kaumik book (haasya pustak) mein elan moor ka paatr John kaanstestaain dhoomrapaan ka paryaaya ban gaya hai, itna ki pehli kahaani ke paraamarsh nirmaata garth inees ne use John kaanstestaain ke fefadon ke Cancer ke aaspaas keindrit kar diya. peshevar pahalavaan James fulingatan ne haalaanki bahut din se dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ko durbhaagya ko aamantrit karne vaale ek charitra "saindamain" (pariyon ki kahaaniyon ka ek bauna, jo bachchon ki aankhon mein ret jhonkakar unhein sone ke liye vivsh kar deta tha) ki sanjnyaa di hai.
veetaakraaft dvaara dijaain, RFIQin, ek svat: khaana pakaane ka upakaran hai, jismein teen bhinn aakaar ke bartan hain, ek portebal indakshan heetar hai aur resipi card hai. pratyek pain mein antarnihit ek RFID taig hai jo bhojan ki pratyek sekend mein 16 baar jaanch karta hai jabki paaen ke haindal mein laga MI taig indakshan heetar ko taapamaan ko samaayojit karne ke liye sanket sanchaarit karta hai.
Britain mein, RFID praudyogiki ka upayog karke, saarvajanik parivhan ke aseemit prayog ke liye poorv bhugataan ki sanchaalan pranaali ko taiyaar kiya ja raha hai. yeh design kreditkaard sadrush paas mein antarnihit hai, jise jab scan kiya jaata hai to paas ke vaidh hone ka vivran aur us paas ke vaidh hone ke dinon ka pata chalta hai. pehli baar ise laagoo karne waali company nautingham shahar ki NCT company hai, jahaan aam janta pyaar se ise "beep card" kehti hai. iske baad ise safalataapoorvak London mein laagoo kiya gaya, jahaan "oyastar card" pe-aij-you-go yaatra ki anumati deta hai saath hi saath vibhinn samayaavadhi aur vibhinn kshetron ke liye maanya paas ki bhi anumati hai.
keemat ke ghatne se RFID praudyogiki teji se prachalit ho rahi hai. January 2003 mein jilet ne ghoshana ki ki usane eliyn technology ko 500 million taig ka aadesh diya hai. jilet ke V.P. dik kaantavel, jo ab Cisco ke karmachaari hain, ka kehna hai ki company ne har taig ke liye "das seint ke andar" bhugataan kiya hai. Japani HIBIKI pahal, is keemat ko kam karke 5 yen (4 yooroseint) par laana chaahata hai. aur January 2009 mein envego ne 5.9 seint ke taig ki ghoshana ki.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

dhoomrapaan ke alaava dava ke roop mein bhi tambaakoo ka upayog hota hai. ek dard nivaarak ke taur par yeh kaan ke dard aur daant ke dard aur kabhi-kabhi ek pralep ke roop mein bhi istemaal kiya jaata hai. registaan mein rahane vaale bhaarateeya kehte hain ki dhoomrapaan karne se jukaam theek ho jaata hai, khaaskar yadi tambaakoo mein tejapaat ke chhote patte tejapaat ki dori ya bhaarateeya gulameinhadi ya khaansi mool Leptotaenia multifida mila diye jaayein, jo iske atirikt asthama aur tapedik ke liye vishesh roop se achha maana gaya.[20]


Parakala since the beginning was against the idea of dividing the state of Andhra Pradesh. Towards the end of 2009, when the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government at the centre announced their intent to divide the state into two and granting statehood to Telangana, there was a political upheaval in Andhra Pradesh. Parakala along with a few likeminded people launched Visalandhra Mahasabgha, a forum to keep the state of Andhra Pradesh united. The forum held meetings, produced booklets and literature and argued for the unity of the state. It questioned the rationale and arguments of those who advocated statehood for Telangana. Parakala led the movement as the organisation's General Secretary. He toured the length and breadth of coastal and Rayalaseema regions. He was prevented form entering the Telangana districts by the separatist agitators, particularly the Telangana Rashtra Samiti activists. He was physically attacked, his house was stoned and the book he published was burnt in public view in the meeting hall where it was released. His publication 'Refuting an Agitation' listed the arguments of the separatists and refuted one after another with facts and figures and historical evidence. The agitators were unable provide a counter argument to the powerful critique of the agitation launched by Visalandhra Mahasabha. But the forum was not a mass body. It was only a platform of intellectuals and the mass parties have all either remained neutral or supported the demand for separate statehood for Telangana. Visalandhra Mahasabha could not muster mass support to sustain the agitation. The political class did not back the Mahasabha wholeheartedly. Even those who opposed the division of the state hardly took any initiative for mass mobilisation. The state was divided and the Visalandhra Mahasabha remained a mute spectator to the bifurcation of the first linguistic state in the country.
richrd daul ne 1950 mein british medical journal mein anusandhaan prakaashit kiya jismein dhoomrapaan aur fefade ke Cancer ke beech kareebi sambandh pradarshit kiya gaya.[35] chaar saal baad 1954 mein british doctoron ke adhyayan mein, jise 20 varshon tak lagbhag 40 hajaar doctoron ne kiya tha, is sujhaav ki pushti ki, jiske aadhaar par sarkaar ne salaah jaari ki ki dhoomrapaan aur fefade ke Cancer ki dar ka aapasi sambandh hai.[5] isi tarah 1964 mein dhoomrapaan aur svaasthya par sanyukt raajya America ke surgeon general ki report dhoomrapaan aur Cancer ke beech sambandh par sujhaav se shuroo hui.
Parakala was appointed to the NSUI central committee as All India Vice President in 1984. It was almost like a token of appreciation by the Congress High Command of his performance as President of the JNU unit and his contribution to the establishment of the organisation in the citadel of left wing student politics. As an office bearer of the central committee of NSUI, he toured several states and universities to organise the activities of the students' wing of the Congress Party. He took up a massive campaign against drug abuse in the university campuses all over the country. With his departure for United Kingdom in October 1986 to pursue his higher studies at the London School of Economics (LSE), there was a break to his political activity. On his return to India in May 1991 he resumed political activity in his native place Narasapuram in West Godavari District. Tragic political events in the country resulted in dramatic political developments. Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, in the midst of the election campaign and P V Narasimha Rao was elected to lead the Congress Party. After the elections, Narasimha Rao became Prime Minister at the head of a minority government. Parakala family was closely associated with P V Narasimha Rao for a long time, Parakala Seshavataram, Prabhakar's father, being a close political associate of Rao. Narasimha Rao assigned the task of conceiving, designing and building a grand institution to perpetuate the memory of Rajiv Gandhi. He made Parakala as Officer on Special Duty to oversee the implementation of the project 'Rajiv Gandhi National Institute for Youth Development (RGNIYD). It is conceived as an institution to train the youth of India and impart to them skills that are necessary to them to play a vital role in building a modern nation in the 21st century, a theme that was dear to the heart of Rajiv Gandhi. Parakala went around the country to study various institutions, their constitutions, structures, course content etc., and designed the Institute which is functional now under the aegis of Ministry of Human Resource Development. Around this time Parakala was nominated by the Congress High Command to represent the Congress Party at the French Communist Party's Plenary in Paris.

ek badi laujik machine mein (maan leejiye, sau se adhik laujik char waali) sambhav state ki ek khagoleeya sankhya ho sakti hai. jaahir hai, kaarkhaane mein, har state ka pareekshan avyaavahaarik hai agar har state ke pareekshan mein ek maaikrosekand lagta hai aur brahmaand ke shuroo hone se hi maaikrosekand ki sankhya se kaheen adhik state hain. durbhaagya se, yeh haasyaaspad lagne wala maamala vishisht hai.
mobail divais dheere-dheere hamaare dainik jeevan mein praudyogikee jod rahe hain. kisee bhee samay kisee bhee smaartaphon ke bina kisee bhee samay dekhane ke lie yah durlabh hai, hamen vaastavik duniya mein vyaavahaarik roop se anant jaanakaaree tak pahunch pradaan kar raha hai. hamaare paas pahale se hee sait-too-stor kray kee tarah cheejen hain, jisase onalain graahakon ko bhautik khudara sthaan mein khareedane aur lene ke lie saksham kiya ja sakata hai, lekin agale star bhautik aur dijital vaastavikataon ke beech aur ekeekaran bhee hoga. amezain jaise onalain braand daish batan jaisee adhik bhautik utpaadon ko shuroo karana shuroo kar denge, aur volamaart jaisee bhautik braand adhik dijital suvidhaen shuroo kar denge, jaise stor maips aur utpaad pareekshan
Parakala had a chequered public life and an unsuccessful electoral career. Born into a political family, he became familiar with electoral politics since his childhood. His debut as a political activist started when he was elected as the President of the Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi unit of the Congress Party affiliated students' organisation National Students' Union of India (NSUI). He contested the Students' Union Elections of JNU and lost to the CPI(M) affiliated organisation SFI candidate. However, it was for the fist time that NSUI polled a respectable number of votes for the central panel of candidates and could win a Councillor seat. Parakala's participation in May 1983 students' agitation on the campus agains the highhanded attitude of the university authorities lent political respectability to NSUI on the Campus. till then Congress affiliated NSUI was treated as political untouchable in the left dominated student politics of the university.
saare pareekshan ke baad, deta bits jagah par hain, dijaain ko "saamaanya mod" ke liye reekanfigr kiya jaata hai aur ek ya ek se adhik klauk pals ko laagoo kiya jaata hain, taaki dosh ka pata lag sake (jaise stak-ait lo ya stak-ait haai) aur pareekshan ke parinaam ka pragrahan scan shift rajistar mein flip-flop mein aur/ya leches mein kiya jaata hai. ant mein, pareekshan ke parinaam ko block seema mein sthaanaantarit kar diya jaata hai aur poorvaanumaan "gud machine" nateeje ke prati tulana ki jaati hai.
America mein khaadya evam aushadhi prashaasan ne maanavon mein RFID chip ke prayog ko manjoori di hai.[80] kuchh vyaavasaayik pratishthaan, graahakon ko seva ke bhugataan ke liye ek RFID-aadhaarit taib ke upayog ka vikalp dete hain, jaise Barcelona mein baaja beech night club.[81] isse ek vyakti ki gopaneeyata sambandhit chintaaen badh gayi hain choonki ve jahaan bhi ve jaayeinge unhein unke ek adviteeya pahachaanakarta dvaara sambhaavit roop se track kiya ja sakta hai. chintaaen vyaapt hain ki ek adhinaayakavaadi sarkaar dvaara iska durupayog kiya ja sakta hai ya svatantrata ko hataane mein falit ho sakta hai.[82]
kuchh companiyaan nae vikretaaon ko jodne aur vaauchar pravisht karne ke kaarya ko bhi alag karti hain. isse kisi karmachaari ke liye asambhav ho jaata hai ki vah khud ko vikreta ke roop mein jode aur fir kisi anya karmachaari ke saath bina saanth-gaanth ke apne naam check kaatein. yeh faail master veindar faail ke roop mein nirdisht hai. yeh company ke aapoortikrtaaon ke baare mein sabhi mahatvapoorn jaankaari ka bhandaar hai. jahaan beejak ke bhugataan ka maamala hai, yeh dendaari lekhon ka sandarbh bindu hai.[5]

dendaari lekhon ke karmiyon dvaara frji beejakon par nazar rakhani chaahiye. khareed aadesh pranaali ke abhaav mein, raksha ki pehli pankti hai anumodit karne wala prabandhak. fir bhi, A/P stauf ko kuchh saamaanya samasyaaon ke saath parichit hona chaahiye, jaise "yallo pejas" dhokhaadhadiyaan, jismein kapati prachaalak vigyaapan dete hain. chalne waali ungaliyon ke logo ko kabhi tredamaark naheen banaaya gaya hai aur yallo pejas shaili ki kai nirdeshikaaen upalabdh hain, jinka bahut kam vitran hota hai. sheetakaaleen 2000 ameriki perol association ke empalauyar praiktiss ke ek lekh ke anusaar, "vikreta aise dastaavej bhej sakte hain jo dekhne mein beejak ke samaan lage, lekin jin par chhote aksharon mein mudrit hota hai "yeh bill naheen hai". ye nirdeshika soocheekaran ya vigyaapan ke liye shulk ho sakte hain. haal hi mein, kuchh companiyon ne jo check bhejane shuroo kiye hain, ve dekhne mein to chhoot ya vaapasi ki prateet hoti hain; vaastav mein, yeh sakriya sevaaon ke liye panjeekaran hai, jab dastaavej hastaakshar ke saath lautaae jaate hain."
RFID ko vastu-stareeya khudara upayog ke liye apnaaya ja raha hai. kaaryakushalata aur utpaad upalabdhata laabh ke alaava, yeh pranaali electronic aartikl sarvilaans(EAS) ka ek behatareen roop pradaan karti hai aur upabhoktaaon ke liye ek behtar sv-jaanch prakriya. pehli vaanijyik, saarvajanik vastu-stareeya RFID khudara pranaali ki sthaapana maana jaata hai ki north kairolina, America mein freedom shoping ink dvaara May 2005 mein ki gayi.
Parakala is a trained political economist. After his return from the London School of Economics (LSE) in 1991 summer, he established a policy and research consultancy and by name Centre for Public Policy Studies (CPPS). He led the Centre as its director. CPPS worked for governments, both union and state, and undertook many evaluation studies for inter-governmental organisations such as Unicef, ILO, UNDP, WTO etc. CPPS also undertook public opinion polls and election analyses. CPPS is now made into a private limited company with the name RightFOLIO. RightFOLIO has a large portfolio: political analysis, election studies, Communications, Conferences, Brand Consulting, and Human Resource consulting. Parakala is now heading RightFOLIO as its Managing director.
maariyo kaardullo ka saaaincha:US Patent 1973 mein aadhunik RFID ka pehla sachcha poorvaj tha; smruti wala ek nishkriya radio traansapondar. praarambhik upakaran nishkriya tha, jo poochh-taachh sanket ke dvaara sanchaalit hota tha aur 1971 mein New York port athauriti aur anya sambhaavit prayoktaaon ke liye iska pradarshan kiya gaya aur yeh ek tol upakaran ke roop mein istemaal ke liye 16 bit smruti ke saath ek traansapondar se bana tha. buniyaadi kaardullo peteint sanchaaran media ke roop mein RF, dhvani aur prakaash ke istemaal ko aavrut karta hai. 1969 mein, niveshakon ke saamane prastut mool vyaapaar yojana ne parivhan (otomotiv vaahan pehchaan, svachaalit tol pranaali, electronic license plate, electronic maalasoochi, vaahan maarg, vaahan pradarshan nigraani), banking (electronic check book, electronic kredit card), suraksha (karmiyon ki pehchaan, svachaalit dwaar, nigraani) aur chikitsa (pehchaan, rogi itihaas) mein iska istemaal dikhaaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
2002 ke baad se taaipei, taaivaan mein parivhan pranaali, kiraaya sangrah ke liye RFID sanchaalit card ka upayog karti hai. iji card ko sthaaneeya suvidha store aur metro stationon par chaarj kiya ja sakta hai aur metro, bason aur parking mein istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. upayog ko bhavishya mein taaivaan ke sampoorn taapoo mein laagoo karne ki yojana hai.

During the CPM state conference held in Kottayam, he was criticized strongly due to his style of functioning by a majority of Pinarayi Vijayan supporters (38/53) known as official faction and they demanded his ouster from Chief Minister. They warned that the party would lose seats if it goes for ahead parliamentary elections under his leadership.[30][31]
During the CPM state conference held in Kottayam, he was criticized strongly due to his style of functioning by a majority of Pinarayi Vijayan supporters (38/53) known as official faction and they demanded his ouster from Chief Minister. They warned that the party would lose seats if it goes for ahead parliamentary elections under his leadership.[30][31]
suraksha visheshagyon ne pehchaan ki chori ke jokhim ke kaaran logon ke satyaapan ke liye RFID ka upayog karne ke khilaaf chetaavani di hai. udaaharan ke liye ek madhya vyakti hamla ek hamlaavar ko vaastavik samay mein ek vyakti ki pehchaan chori karne mein saksham banaaega. RFID ke sansaadhan kami ke kaaran hamlon ke aise model ke khilaaf suraksha vastut: asambhav hai, kyonki ismein jatil doori-bandhan protokaul ki aavashyakta hoti hai.[43][44][45][46]
Singapore mein, saarvajanik parivhan ki bason aur trainon mein nishkriya RFID ko laagoo kiya gaya hai jise EZ-Link card ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. bheed bhare shahar ke aatanrik kshetron mein yaataayaat ko char tol dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai jise stord vailyoo card (kaishakaard ke roop mein gyaat) ke upayog ko ek sakriya taiging pranaali ke saath upayog dvaara laagoo kiya jaata hai.
kai dhoomrapaan virodhi sangathanon ka daava hai ki kishor apne hamaumr ke saathiyon ke dabaav tatha doston ke pade saanskrutik prabhaav ke kaaran dhoomrapaan shuroo karte hain. haalaanki, ek adhyayan mein paaya gaya hai ki cigarette peene ka pratyaksh dabaav kishoraavastha mein dhoomrapaan mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika naheen nibhaata hai. is adhyayan mein yeh bhi report hai ki kishoraavastha mein cigarette peene ke nirdeshaatmak aur pratyaksh donon tarah ke dabaav kam hote hain.[62] aise hi ek adhyayan se pata chala hai ki koi vyakti dhoomrapaan mein usase adhik sakriya bhoomika nibha sakta hai jiski bhoomika pehle sveekaar ki gayi hai aur saathiyon ke dabaav ki tulana mein anya saamaajik prakriyaaon par bhi dhyaan diye jaane ki aavashyakta hai.[63] ek anya adhyayan ke parinaamon se pata chala hai ki saathiyon ke dabaav mein sabhi aayu aur ling ke dal ke dhoomrapaan vyavahaar mahatvapoorn dhang se jude the, lekin ve antaravaiyaktik kaarak kaafi adhik mahatvapoorn the jo 12-13 varsh ki ladkiyon ki tulana mein usi umr ke ladkon ke dhoomrapaan vyavahaar ko alag karta hai. 14-15 saal ke bheetar ke aayu samooh ke logon mein apne saathiyon ke dhoomrapaan ke dabaav ka prabhaav ladkon ki tulana mein ladkiyon par adhik padna ek mahatvapoorn kaarak ke roop mein ubhara.[64] aksar is baat par bahas hoti hai ki kya saathiyon ke dabaav ya swayam chayan kishoraavastha mein dhoomrapaan ka ek bada kaaran hai. yeh tark ka vishay hai ki saathiyon ke dabaav ka ulta bhi sach hai, jab saathiyon mein se jyaadaatar dhoomrapaan naheen karte hain aur jo aisa karne vaalon ko bahishkrut kar dete hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]hains aaiseink jaise manovaijnyaaanikon ne vishisht dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ke liye ek vyaktitv vikaas profaail kiya hai.

Place 2 cups of Basmati Rice, 3/4 cup of hulled Mung Beans (Dal), 1/2 teaspoon Turmeric powder, 1/2 teaspoon Cumin seeds and salt in a pot, covered with three times the amount of water. Allow to simmer until it is tender. Mix in 1 dessert spoon of butter or clarified butter per serve. This food has the effect of providing a protective film on the intestinal tract and for this reason, as much as possible should be eaten. Do not drink for 2 hours after eating this meal.

yaantrik tark aksar aisi vaashing machine mein un logon ke roop mein saste niyantrakon mein prayog kiya jaata hai. mashahoor roop se, Charles baibej dvaara pehla computer design ko yaantrik laujik ke prayog ke liye dijaain kiya gaya tha. yaantrik laujik ko, bahut chhote computer mein bhi istemaal kiya ja sakta hai jise naino takaneek dvaara banaaya ja sakta hai.
tambaakoo aur anya nasheele padaarthon ke istemaal ke beech sambandhon ko achhi tarah se sthaapit kiya gaya hai, lekin is saahacharya ki prakruti aspasht bani hui hai. do mukhya siddhaant fenotaaipik kaaryakaaran sambandh (getave) model aur sahasambaddh daayitv model hain. kaaryakaaran sambandh model ka tark hai ki dhoomrapaan bhavishya mein nasheeli davaaon ke prayog ka ek praathamik prabhaav daalata hai,[102] jabki sahasanbaddh daayitv model ka tark hai ki dhoomrapaan aur anya nasheeli davaaon ke prayog aanuvanshik ya paryaavaraneeya kaarakon se nirdisht hain.[103]
Nokia ke 2008 ke upakaran, 6212, mein RFID kshamataaen bhi hain. saksham haindaset ka upayog karte hue kredit card ki jaankaari ko sangraheet kiya ja sakta hai aur bank khaaton tak seedhe pahuncha ja sakta hain. is phone ko, agar mobile bhugataan ke liye ek vektar ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaae to ismein is maayane mein atirikt suraksha hoti hai ki ismein upayogakartaaon ko bhugataan ke praadhikrut hone se pehle ek paasakod ya pin darj karne ki aavashyakta hogi.[13]
1980 ke dashak mein mile vaigyaanik pramaan ke anusaar tambaakoo companiyaan ne daava kiya hai ki laaparavaahi baratne ka kaaran svaasthya par padne vaale pratikool prabhaav se pehle unka anajaan hona tha ya paryaapt vishvasaneeyata ka abhaav tha. svaasthya adhikaariyon ne 1998 tak in daavon ka saath diya jiske baad unhonne apni sthiti ulat di. tambaakoo pradhaan niptaan samjhauta (the tobaiko master saitalameint egreemeint) mool roop se chaar sabse badi tambaakoo companiyon aur 46 raajyon ke ameriki etorni general ke beech hua. tambaakoo ke kuchh khaas prakaar ke vijnyaaapanon par pratibandh laga diya gaya aur svaasthya muaavaje ke taur par bhugataan ko aavashyak kar diya gaya, jo baad mein sanyukt raajya America ke itihaas mein sabse bade naagrik niptaan ke roop saamane aaya.[36]
↑ Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus; Reichel, William Cornelius (June 1971) [1876] (PDF), History, manners, and customs of the Indian nations who once inhabited Pennsylvania and the neighbouring states, The Historical society of Pennsylvania, pa॰ 149, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0405028533, http://books.google.com/books?id=qPCuo4LkrIwC&printsec=frontcover, abhigman tithi: 2009-03-22
iski tulana mein atulyakaalik system ka design bahut kathin hota hai kyonki sabhi sambhav samay mein bhi sambhaavit state ka vichaar kiya jaana chaahiye. nyoonatam aur adhiktam samay ke table ke nirmaan ke sabse saamaanya vidhi ke anusaar ismein saare state vidyamaan ho aur vaise state ke mineemaaij ke liye sarkit ko samaayojit kiya jaata hai aur jo iske sabhi hisson ke susangat state mein samay-samay par jaane ke liye sarkit ko baadhya kare. (ise "self-reesinkronaaijeshan" kaha jaata hai.) aise saavdhaan design ke bina sanyogavash atulyakaalik laujik ka utpaadan karna aasaan hai jo "asthir" hai aur vaastavik electronics hai jismein apratyaashit parinaam hote hain kyonki electronic upakaranon ke moolyon mein chhote badlaavon ki vajah se sanchit vilamb hota hai. kuchh sarkit (jaise sinkronaaijr-flip flop, svich debaaunsar aur jo baahari anasinkronaaijd ko atulyakaalik laujik sarkit mein pravesh karne ki anumati deta hai) sahaj roop se apne design mein antarnihit atulyakaalik rahe hain aur is tarah hi vishleshan kiya jaana chaahiye.
kai adhyayanon ne yeh sthaapana ki hai ki cigarette ki bikri aur dhoomrapaan ke upayog ke samay sambandhi dhaanche alag hain. udaaharan ke liye, sanyukt raajya America mein cigarette ki bikri ka dhaancha kaafi had tak mausam se juda hua hai, garmi ke maheene mein iski bikri kaafi badh jaati hai, jabki sardiyon mein iski khapat kam ho jaati hai.[68]
1612 mein jemsataaun ke avasthaapan ke chhah saal baad John raalf pehle adhivaasi hain jinhonne tambaakoo ki ek nakadi fasal ke roop mein safalataapoorvak kheti ki. tambaakoo ki maang mein teji se vruddhi hui, use "bhoora sona" kaha gaya, kyonki usane sone ke abhiyaan mein vifal varjeeniya ko share company mein punarjeevit kar diya.[21] puraani duniya ki maangon ko poora karne ke liye tambaakoo ki paidaavaar lagaataar ki gayi jiske parinaamasvaroop jameen ki urvara shakti sheegra hi kam ho gayi. isne pashchim ko ek agyaat mahaadveep mein basane ke liye prerak ka kaarya kiya aur isi tarah tambaakoo utpaadan ka ek vistaar hua.[22] bekan vidroh ke pehle tak anubandhit daasata hi praathamik shram bal ka aadhaar thi jiske kaaran das pratha par dhyaan kendrit hua.[23] yeh pravrutti ameriki kraanti ke baad kam hui aur daasapratha laabhaheen maani gayi. haalaanki yeh pratha 1794 mein punarjeevit ho gayi jab kapaas ki charkhi ka aavishkaar hua.[24][page needed]
×