kisi sansthaan mein jama aisa vyaapaarik agrim jiske mad mein jamaakarta ko na to koi maal diya gaya ho aur na usaki koi vyaapaarik seva ki gayi ho us sansthaan ke liya deya dhan hai. yeh rakam sansthaan mein deya khaate mein ankit ki jaati hai. svaami, saajhedaaron, sanchaalakon tatha karmachaariyon dvaara sansthaan ko diya gaya rin is khaate mein pravishti naheen paata. vah ek alag deya rinakhaate mein ankit kiya jaata hai. deya khaata vyaapaarik agrim ka khaata hai. vah sansthaan ke liye deya to hai par vah rin naheen hai isliye iski svatantr sthiti hai. vyaapaar se sambaddh agrim jama raashi maatr ka ismein ankan hota hai. theek yahi sthiti sansthaan dvaara diye gaye vyaapaarik agrim ki hai. vah dhanaraashi jo agrim ke roop mein anya kisi vyaapaarik sansthaan ko di gayi ho aur uske mad mein na to koi maal aaya ho aur na anya vyaapaarik seva li gayi ho sansthaan ke praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai. jiske naam yeh raashi praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai vah sansthaan apne yahaaain is rakam ko deya khaate mein daalata hai.
On 12 May 2013, three of his personal staffs VK Sasidharan (additional private secretary), A Suresh (personal assistant) and K Balakrishnan (press secretary) were ousted by the Politburo, which was entrusted by the CPI(M) central committee to decide on the action to be taken against them. They were expelled on charges of leaking information to media, according to CPIM.[18] With the decision, Achuthanandan's arch-rival and Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M) state secretary Pinarayi Vijayan appears to have won. The state committee of the party where Vijayan has a huge majority also wanted Achuthanandan to be removed from the post of leader of opposition but this was not done. "This is a clipping of the wings of Achuthanandan", said K.M. Shahjahan.[19]

is gatividhi ke liye dhoomrapaan karne vaalon dvaara diye gaye kaaran ko mote taur par is prakaar vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai: dhoomrapaan ke nashe ki lat, maje ke liye dhoomrapaan, tanaav mein kami/vishraam, saamaajikta ke kaaran dhoomrapaan, uttejana, aadat/svachaalan aur prabandhan . in vajahon mein se kitni vajahein jimmedaar hain yeh lingabhed par nirbhar hai, tanaav mein kami/vishraam, uttejana aur saamaajikta ke kaaran dhoomrapaan ke maamale mahilaaon mein purushon se adhik hone ki sambhaavana ka havaala diya gaya hai.[66]
keemat ke ghatne se RFID praudyogiki teji se prachalit ho rahi hai. January 2003 mein jilet ne ghoshana ki ki usane eliyn technology ko 500 million taig ka aadesh diya hai. jilet ke V.P. dik kaantavel, jo ab Cisco ke karmachaari hain, ka kehna hai ki company ne har taig ke liye "das seint ke andar" bhugataan kiya hai. Japani HIBIKI pahal, is keemat ko kam karke 5 yen (4 yooroseint) par laana chaahata hai. aur January 2009 mein envego ne 5.9 seint ke taig ki ghoshana ki.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
2009 ki garmiyon ke baad se, do kredit card companiyaan vishesh maaicroSD card ke vikaas ke liye dalaas, Texas aadhaarit divaaisafideliti ke saath kaam kar rahi hain. jab ise ek mobile phone mein daala jaaega to yeh microSD card, ek nishkriya taig aur ek RFID reedar, donon ho sakta hai.[11] microSD daalne ke baad, ek upayogakarta ka phone bank khaate se jud jaaega aur usaka upayog mobile bhugataan mein kiya jaaega.
America mein khaadya evam aushadhi prashaasan ne maanavon mein RFID chip ke prayog ko manjoori di hai.[80] kuchh vyaavasaayik pratishthaan, graahakon ko seva ke bhugataan ke liye ek RFID-aadhaarit taib ke upayog ka vikalp dete hain, jaise Barcelona mein baaja beech night club.[81] isse ek vyakti ki gopaneeyata sambandhit chintaaen badh gayi hain choonki ve jahaan bhi ve jaayeinge unhein unke ek adviteeya pahachaanakarta dvaara sambhaavit roop se track kiya ja sakta hai. chintaaen vyaapt hain ki ek adhinaayakavaadi sarkaar dvaara iska durupayog kiya ja sakta hai ya svatantrata ko hataane mein falit ho sakta hai.[82]

dhoomrapaan ki shurooaat jyaadaatar kishoraavastha ya kishoraavastha ke aarambhik daur mein hoti hai. dhoomrapaan mein jokhim ke tatv aur vidroh hota hai, jo ki aksar yuva logon ko aakarshit karta hai. uchch star ke model aur saathiyon ki upasthiti bhi dhoomrapaan karne ko protsaahit kar sakti hai. choonki kishor vayaskon ki tulana mein apne saathiyon se adhik prabhaavit hote hain isliye maata-pita, school tatha svaasthya peshevar in logon ke cigarette peene ke prayaas ko rokane mein aksar asafal hote hain.[58][59]
kuchh deshon mein bhi tambaakoo utpaadon ki paikejing par kaanooni aavashyakataaon ko laagoo kiya. udaaharan ke liye Europeeya sangh ke deshon Turkey, Australia[96] aur dakshin Africa mein cigarette ke packet par pramukhata ke saath dhoomrapaan ke kaaran svaasthya ke saath jude jokhim ke ullekh ka lebal anivaarya hai.[97] Canada, Australia, Thailand, aaisalaind aur Brazil mein bhi cigarette ke packet par dhoomrapaan ke prabhaav ki chetaavani ke lebal ki anivaaryata laagoo ki hai aur usamein dhoomrapaan ka svaasthya par padne vaale prabhaavon ke rekhaachitr ko bhi shaamil kiya hai. Canada mein cigarette ke packet mein card bhi daala jaata hai. ve solah hain aur unamein se keval ek packet mein aata hai. unamein dhoomrapaan chhodne ki vibhinn vidhiyon ko samajhaaya gaya hai. iske alaava United Kingdom mein kai graafik NHSvijnyaaapan hain, ek mein dikhaaya gaya hai ki cigarette mein vasaayukt jamaav bhara hota hai aur yeh ek cigarette dhoomrapaan karne vaale ki dhamani ka prateek hai.

web aadhaarit prabandhan upakaran, sangathanon ko apni sampatti ki nigraani ki anumati dete hue duniya mein kaheen se bhi prabandhan ke faisale karne mein saksham karte hain. web aadhaarit anuprayog ka ab matlab hai ki, teesara paksh, jaise vinirmaata aur thekedaar ko parisanpatti deta ko adyatan karne ke liye pahunch di ja sakti hai, udaaharan ke liye jismein shaamil hai, nireekshan itihaas aur online pralekhan hastaantaran jo yeh sunishchit karta hai ki antim upayogakarta ke paas hamesha sahi, rial-time data ho. sangathan, pehle se hi mobile parisanpatti prabandhan samaadhaan ke saath RFID taig ko sanyojit karke apni sampatti ko darj karne aur uske sthaan par najar rakhane, usaki vartamaan sthiti aur unka rakh-rakhaav kiya gaya hai ya naheen, yeh jaanane ke liye prayog kar rahe hain.
nishkriya aur sakriya RFID system ka istemaal sadak ke baahar ke khelon mein hota hai jaise oriyenatiaring, endyooro heyar end haaunds resing. chaalakon par ek traansapondar laga hota hai, aamtaur par unke haath par. jab ve ek laip poora karte hain to ve svaaip karte hain ya riseevar ko chhoote hain jo ek computer se juda hota hai aur unke laip samay ko darj karta hai. kaaseemo group limited aisi pranaali bechata hai, jaisa ki sveedan ka SportIdent. RFID ko kai bharti agencyon dvaara anukoolit kiya ja raha hai jinme unki arhak prakriya ke roop mein ek PET hai (fijikl endyoreins test), vishesh roop se un maamalon mein jahaan ummeedavaaron ki sankhya laakhon mein ho (bhaarateeya railway bharti prabhaag, police aur bijli kshetr). ek bhaarateeya software company, software aautasorsing sarvises ne is pranaali ko pehli baar UHF taig ka upayog karte hue isi uddeshya ke liye sateek banaaya hai aur ve pratidin 30,000 se jyaada ummeedavaaron ko chhaantane mein saksham hain.
isi prakaar ki samaan praudyogiki, jaise United Kingdom mein 1915 mein aavishkaar ki gayi IFF traansapondar, ka dviteeya vishv yuddh mein mitr raashtron dvaara vimaanon ki dost ya dushman ke roop mein pehchaan karne ke liye niyamit roop se istemaal kiya gaya. abhi bhi traansapondar ka, atyadhik shaktishaali vimaan dvaara aaj bhi prayog kiya jaata hai. RFID ki padtaal karta ek anya kaarya, 1948 ka Harry staukaman ka mahatvapoorn pepar hai, jiska sheershak tha "kamyunikeshan baai meens of riflekted power" (IRE ki kaaryavaahi, pp 1196–1204, October 1948). staukaman ne bhavishyavaani ki ki "... riflekted-power sanchaar mein shesh buniyaadi samasyaaon ko hal karne aur upayogi anuprayogon ke kshetr ka pata lagaane se pehle kaafi anusandhaan aur vikaas ka kaam kiya jaana hai."

nishkriya aur sakriya RFID system ka istemaal sadak ke baahar ke khelon mein hota hai jaise oriyenatiaring, endyooro heyar end haaunds resing. chaalakon par ek traansapondar laga hota hai, aamtaur par unke haath par. jab ve ek laip poora karte hain to ve svaaip karte hain ya riseevar ko chhoote hain jo ek computer se juda hota hai aur unke laip samay ko darj karta hai. kaaseemo group limited aisi pranaali bechata hai, jaisa ki sveedan ka SportIdent. RFID ko kai bharti agencyon dvaara anukoolit kiya ja raha hai jinme unki arhak prakriya ke roop mein ek PET hai (fijikl endyoreins test), vishesh roop se un maamalon mein jahaan ummeedavaaron ki sankhya laakhon mein ho (bhaarateeya railway bharti prabhaag, police aur bijli kshetr). ek bhaarateeya software company, software aautasorsing sarvises ne is pranaali ko pehli baar UHF taig ka upayog karte hue isi uddeshya ke liye sateek banaaya hai aur ve pratidin 30,000 se jyaada ummeedavaaron ko chhaantane mein saksham hain.


sabse saamaanya-uddeshya transfer-laujik machine ek computer hai. yeh moolat: ek svat: baainari abekas hai. aam taur par computer ki niyantran ikaai ka design ek micro program ke roop mein kiya gaya hai jise ek maaikroseekveinsar dvaara chalaaya jaata hai. yeh micro program ek player-piyaano rol ki tarah hoti hai. har taalika pravishti ya sookshm program ke "shabd" state ke har bit ko command deti hai jo ki computer par niyantran karti hai. anukramak fir use ginti karta hai aur memori ya sanyojan laujik machine mein yeh ginti sambodhit karta hai jismein micro program samaahit hota hai. maaikroprograam se bits ankaganiteeya laujik ikaai, memori aur computer ke anya bhaagon aur swayam maaikrosikyonsar par niyantran karta hai.

yaantrik tark aksar aisi vaashing machine mein un logon ke roop mein saste niyantrakon mein prayog kiya jaata hai. mashahoor roop se, Charles baibej dvaara pehla computer design ko yaantrik laujik ke prayog ke liye dijaain kiya gaya tha. yaantrik laujik ko, bahut chhote computer mein bhi istemaal kiya ja sakta hai jise naino takaneek dvaara banaaya ja sakta hai.


sanyukt raajya America mein, Chicago traanjit praadhikran ne poori pranaali mein 2002 ke baad se rel bhugataanon ke liye Chicago card aur Chicago card plas ki peshakash ki aur 2005 ke baad se bas bhugataanon ke liye. MBTA ne RFID saksham chaarleekaard ko 2006 mein Boston ke sampoorn metro, streetakaar aur bas pranaali mein laagoo kiya aur dashakon puraane tokan aadhaarit kiraaya sangrah pranaali ko pratisthaapit kiya.

Achuthanandan has served many positions in his long political career. He was the Kerala State Secretary of the CPI(M) between 1980 and 1992 and he became a member of the Politburo in 1985. He has also been active in parliamentary politics; he was elected as a member of Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1967, 1970, 1991, 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016. He was the Leader of Opposition in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1992 to 1996, from 2001 to 2006 and from 2011 to 2016. He was the editor of CPI(M) mouth piece in Malayalam, Deshabhimani daily. He was the Chief Ministerial candidate for 1996 State elections. In those elections, LDF gained 80 out of 140 seats, but Achuthanandan, who contested from Mararikulam in Alappuzha district, lost by a margin of 1965 votes. Thus, E.K. Nayanar, who held the position twice earlier, became Chief Minister again.

RFID ko vastu-stareeya khudara upayog ke liye apnaaya ja raha hai. kaaryakushalata aur utpaad upalabdhata laabh ke alaava, yeh pranaali electronic aartikl sarvilaans(EAS) ka ek behatareen roop pradaan karti hai aur upabhoktaaon ke liye ek behtar sv-jaanch prakriya. pehli vaanijyik, saarvajanik vastu-stareeya RFID khudara pranaali ki sthaapana maana jaata hai ki north kairolina, America mein freedom shoping ink dvaara May 2005 mein ki gayi.


sakriya RFID ka sabse bada prayog, ameriki raksha vibhaag dvaara apne das lakh se adhik shiping kantenaron par saavi[3] sakriya taig ka upayog hai jo mahaadveepeeya America (CONUS) ke baahar jaata hai. sabse bada nishkriya RFID prayog, difens laujistiks agency (DLA) ka hai jo odin dvaara 72 suvidhaaon par laagoo hai[4] jisne eyarabas ke liye vaishvik prachaar kiya[5] jo vishv bhar mein 13 pariyojanaaon se nirmit tha.
iske vipreet, kuchh gair-vaigyaanik adhyayan hain jismein se ekcheck ganaraajya ke Phillip mauris[72] dvaara aur doosra kaato Institute dvaara kiye gaye hain,[73] jo vipreet sthiti ka samarthan karte hain. adhyayan ki na to saathiyon dvaara sameeksha ki gayi aur na hi kisi vaigyaanik patrika mein prakaashit kiya gaya aur kaato Institute ko ateet mein tambaakoo companiyon se dhan praapt hua tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein] Phillip mauris ne spasht roop se apne poorv ke adhyayan ke liye yeh kehkar maafi maangi hai ki: "is adhyayan ke liye dhan aur saarvajanik vigyapti mein anya baaton ke alaava dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki samay se pehle hone waali mauton se check ganaraajya ki vistrut kathit laagat bachat ki baat ek ek bhayaanak nishkarsh hai, saath hi saath vah poorn roop se buniyaadi maanaveeya moolyon ki upeksha hai, jo asveekaarya hai. hamaari tambaakoo companiyon mein se ek ne is adhyayan ka kaaryabhaar diya tha, jo ek bhayaanak galati naheen thi, balki vah anuchit tha. Phillip mauris mein ham sabhi, yeh koi maayane naheen rakhata ki ham kahaan kaam karte hain, is kaarya ke liye kshamaapraarthi hain. vaastav mein dhoomrapaan se koi faayda naheen, uske kaaran gambhir aur mahatvapoorn rog hote hain."[72]
sabse chhoti RFID chip ka record hitaachi ke naam hai jo 0.05mm x 0.05mm hai. Mu chip taig, nae RFID taig se 64 guna chhote hain.[7] vinirmaan silikaun-on-insuletar (SOI) prakriya ke upayog dvaara saksham hota hai. "dhoolakan" ke aakaar ke ye chips, 128 bit reed onli memori (ROM) ka upayog karke 38 ankon ki sankhya ko sangrahit kar sakte hain .[8] ek badi chunauti entena ko jodna hai, is prakaar pathan seema ko keval kuchh mileemeetar tak seemit kar diya.

jab tambaakoo ka sevan kiya jaata hai, jyaadaatar nikoteen jhulas jaata hai. haalaanki, ek khuraak halki shaareerik nirbharata ke liye paryaapt hai aur ek majaboot manovaigyaanik nirbharata ko halka karne ke liye paryaapt rahati hai. vahaan tambaakoo ke dhuen mein maujood acetaldehyde se haaramon(ek MAO avarodhak) ka gathan bhi hota hai. aisa lagta hai ki nikoteen ke nashe mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibha raha hai- nikoteen ki uttejanaaon ke javaab ke roop mein ek javaabi kaarravaai ke taur par naabhik accumbens mein ek dopamine ki suvidha jaari ki gayi.[51] adhyayan ke liye choohe ka upayog karke yeh doharaaya gaya ki nikoteen ke upayog ke baad kam jimmedaar naabhik accumbens koshikaaen sudrudheekaran ke liye jimmedaar hain, jo aparaadh mein fansaane ki kai ghatnaaon, jismein keval nikoteen hi naheen isi tarah ki cheejein majabooti ko kam kar deti hain.[52]
veetaakraaft dvaara dijaain, RFIQin, ek svat: khaana pakaane ka upakaran hai, jismein teen bhinn aakaar ke bartan hain, ek portebal indakshan heetar hai aur resipi card hai. pratyek pain mein antarnihit ek RFID taig hai jo bhojan ki pratyek sekend mein 16 baar jaanch karta hai jabki paaen ke haindal mein laga MI taig indakshan heetar ko taapamaan ko samaayojit karne ke liye sanket sanchaarit karta hai.
mahangi engineering prakriyaaon ko svachaalit karne ke liye, kuchh EDA state table le sakte hain jo state machine ka varnan karte hain aur ek state machine ke mishrit bhaag ke liye ek truth table ya ek fankshan table ka utpaadan kar sakte hain. state table paath ka ek tukada hai jo pratyek state ko paristhitiyon ke saath soocheebaddh karta hai, jo unke aur sambandhit utpaadan sanketon ke beech sankraman ko niyantrit karta hai.

INS Sarvekshak had previously visited Mauritius in February 2006 and March 2007 to undertake hydrographic surveys. The survey work by INS Sarvekshak was of immense help to Mauritius with regards to fishing, ecosystem preservation and management, establishment of artificial reefs, delimitation of the Continental Shelf of Mauritius and safe navigation of ships and crafts.[8] In 2007 the ship surveyed Port Mathurin, Rodrigues, which was last surveyed 133 years ago.[9] In 2011 the ship was also deployed in Seychelles to carry out hydrographic surveys off the atoll of Aldabra, Picard Island, Polyminie and part of Malabar Island and Grande-Terre island on the request of Government of Seychelles as the last survey of the area was done back in 1960s.[10] As part of goodwill tour 20 students from Jammu and Kashmir also toured the ship in 2011.[11]


dhoomrapaan karne vaale maata pita ke bachchon mein gair dhoomrapaan karne vaale maata-pita ke bachchon se dhoomrapaan karne ki sambhaavana adhik hoti hai. ek adhyayan mein paaya gaya hai ki maata pita ke dhoomrapaan chhodne ka sambandh kishoraavastha mein kam dhoomrapaan se hai, sivaaya tab jab doosare maata pita vartamaan mein dhoomrapaan karte hon.[60] ek maujooda adhyayan ke pareekshan mein paaya gaya hai ki dhoomrapaan ke niyman ke maamale mein kishoraavastha mein dhoomrapaan ka sambandh ghar mein vayaskon ko dhoomrapaan ki anumati se hai. parinaam bataate hain ki ghar mein dhoomrapaan sambandhi pratibandhaatmak neetiyaan maadhyamik aur uchch vidyaalaya ke chhaatron ke dhoomrapaan ki koshish ki kam sambhaavana ke saath jude hain.[61]
In 2006 Parakala contested the for the Graduates constituency of East and West Godavari Districts of the newly constituted Legislative Council of the state. He polled about 12,000 first preference votes but narrowly missed to make it to the second round in the single transferable preferential voting system. That was the fourth electoral defeat of Parakala. That election also led to Parakala breaking away from BJP. Parakala claimed that there was an informal understanding between him and the party leadership that he would contest as an independent candidate as the election was not fought on party symbols. This was a tactical move necessary to attract voters who were antagonistic to BJP among the educated sections. He claimed that the party reneged on the agreement and put up an official candidate. Parakala resigned from BJP and went ahead with the campaign. In the event the official BJP candidate did not poll more than 200 votes while Parakala polled over 12,000 first preference votes.
apratyaksh dhoomrapaan tambaakoo ke dhuen ka anaichhik sevan hai. second hand dhoomrapaan (SHS) vah khapat hai jahaan sulagane ka sira maujood hota, paryaavaran tambaakoo dhoomrapaan (ETS) ya thard hand dhoomrapaan vah dhoomrapaan hai jiska upabhog jalne vaale sire ke baad bhi hota rahata hai. iske nakaaraatmak prabhaav ke kaaran upabhog ke is svaroop ne tambaakoo utpaadon ke viniyman mein ek keindreeya bhoomika nibhaai.
beedi patali hoti hai, aksar masaaledaar, dakshin Asiaee cigarette teindu patte mein lipte tambaakoo se bani hoti hai aur surakshit rakhane ke liye antim sire par ek rangeen dhaage se bandhi hoti hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] beedi peene se uchch star ka kaarban monoaaksaaid, nikoteen aur sanyukt raajya America mein vishisht cigarette se raal niklata hai.[40][41] saamaanya cigarette ki tulana mein beedi apekshaakrut kam keemat waali hoti hai, jo Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, kanbodiya aur Bhaarat mein gareebon ke beech lambe samay se lokapriya hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
ek badi laujik machine mein (maan leejiye, sau se adhik laujik char waali) sambhav state ki ek khagoleeya sankhya ho sakti hai. jaahir hai, kaarkhaane mein, har state ka pareekshan avyaavahaarik hai agar har state ke pareekshan mein ek maaikrosekand lagta hai aur brahmaand ke shuroo hone se hi maaikrosekand ki sankhya se kaheen adhik state hain. durbhaagya se, yeh haasyaaspad lagne wala maamala vishisht hai.
INS Sarvekshak had previously visited Mauritius in February 2006 and March 2007 to undertake hydrographic surveys. The survey work by INS Sarvekshak was of immense help to Mauritius with regards to fishing, ecosystem preservation and management, establishment of artificial reefs, delimitation of the Continental Shelf of Mauritius and safe navigation of ships and crafts.[8] In 2007 the ship surveyed Port Mathurin, Rodrigues, which was last surveyed 133 years ago.[9] In 2011 the ship was also deployed in Seychelles to carry out hydrographic surveys off the atoll of Aldabra, Picard Island, Polyminie and part of Malabar Island and Grande-Terre island on the request of Government of Seychelles as the last survey of the area was done back in 1960s.[10] As part of goodwill tour 20 students from Jammu and Kashmir also toured the ship in 2011.[11]
sanyukt raajya America mein cigarette kar alag-alag raajyon mein ek doosare se vyaapak roop se bhinn hai. udaaharan ke liye dakshin kairolina mein ek packet par keval 7 seint hai, jo desh ka nyoonatam hai, jabki road aailaind mein America ka uchchatam sitret tax prati packet $ 3.46 hai. Alabama mein, ilinois, misauri, New York shahar, Tennessee aur varjeeniya, kaauntiyon aur shaharon cigarette ki keemat par ek atirikt seemit kar laagoo hain.[87] uchch kar dar ke kaaran new jersey mein cigarette ke ek ausat packet ki keemat $ 6.45 hai,[88][89] jo abhi bhi cigarette ke ek packet ki anumaanit baahya laagat se bhi kam hai.
ZDNet ke anusaar, aalochakon ka maanana hai ki is praudyogiki se kisi vyakti ki har gatividhi par nazar rakha jaaega aur yeh gopaneeyata par ek aakraman hoga. vivaad is baat par hai ki aalochak maanate hain ki sarkaar dvaara iska durupayog hoga. kuchh log aise bhavishya ki avadhaarana pesh karte hain jahaan har gatividhi par sarkaar ki nazar hogi.[86] Cathrine albrekt ke spaaichips: how major korporeshan end gavarnameint plaan tu track yor evri moov vith RFID, se ek vyakti ko "gair-nijta waali duniya ki kalpana" ke liye protsaahit kiya jaata hai. "jahaan aapki har khareed ki nigraani aur ek detaabes mein darj ki jaati hai aur aapki har cheej sankhyaabaddh hai. jiske tahat, kisi anya sudoor raajya ke ya shaayad kisi doosare desh ke vyakti ke paas aapki har khareed ka byaura hoga. aur kya, unka pata lagaaya ja sakta hai aur door se najar rakhi ja sakti hai."[87] seedhe shabdon mein kahein, shadayantrakaareeyon ka tark hai ki RFID chip ke saath sarkaar ek vyakti ko bhaan hue bina hi usaki gopaneeyata bhang kar sakti hai.
ek FDA-naamit taask fors ne vartamaan mein vyaavasaayik taur par upalabdh vibhinn praudyogikiyon ke adhyayan ke baad yeh nishkarsh diya ki unamein se kaun si takaneekein vanshaavali aavashyakataaon ko poora kar sakti hain. baar koding sahit adhyayan ki gayi sabhi praudyogikiyon mein, RFID sabse adhik sambhaavana yukt dikhti hai aur samiti ne mahasoos kiya ki vanshaavali aavashyakta ko, aasaani se upalabdh chhej ko nivesh kar ke praapt kiya ja sakta hai. (adhik jaankaari ke liye dekhein RFID-FDA-Regulations)

yadi kisi taig yukt vastu ka bhugataan kredit card ya ek lauyalti card ke upayog ke saath sanyojan ke roop mein kiya jaata hai, to paroksh roop se us vastu ki duniya bhar mein adviteeya ID (RFID taig mein samaahit) ko padh kar kreta ki pehchaan ko nikaalna sambhav ho jaaega. aisa tabhi sambhav hai jab dekhne vaale vyakti ke paas agar lauyalti card deta aur kredit card data tak abhigm bhi ho aur upakaran wala vyakti yeh jaanta ho ki aap kahaan jaane vaale hain.

Canadian Cattle Identification Agency ne baarakod taig ke liye ek sthaanaapann ke roop mein RFID taig ka prayog shuroo kiya. taig ki aavashyakta gojaateeya jhund ke mool ki pehchaan karne ke liye hoti hai aur iska prayog yeh pata lagaane ke liye kiya jaata hai kab ek paiking plant ek shav ko khaarij karta hai. vartamaan mein CCIA taig ka istemaal, ek svaichhik aadhaar par viskaunsin mein aur America ke kisaanon dvaara kiya ja raha hai. USDA vartamaan mein apna swayam ka kaaryakram viksit kar raha hai.
udaaharan ke liye baitari sanchaalit selyular telephone aksar ek kam shakti ke enaalaug agrasira ke istemaal se base station se radio signal badhaane aur sangati bithaane ke liye karti hai. haalaanki ek base station ke paas grid ki shakti hoti hai aur apekshit vidyut ka prayog kar sakti hai, lekin bahut lacheele software radio mein. is tarah ke base stationon ke liye aasaani se nae selular maanakon mein prayukt sanket prakriya ko aasaani se riprograam kiya ja sakta hai.
yadi kisi taig yukt vastu ka bhugataan kredit card ya ek lauyalti card ke upayog ke saath sanyojan ke roop mein kiya jaata hai, to paroksh roop se us vastu ki duniya bhar mein adviteeya ID (RFID taig mein samaahit) ko padh kar kreta ki pehchaan ko nikaalna sambhav ho jaaega. aisa tabhi sambhav hai jab dekhne vaale vyakti ke paas agar lauyalti card deta aur kredit card data tak abhigm bhi ho aur upakaran wala vyakti yeh jaanta ho ki aap kahaan jaane vaale hain.
kuchh pranaaliyon mein yadi digital deta ka ek bhaag lupt ho jaae ya galat tareeke se vyavahrut hon, to sambandhit deta ke vishaal khandon ka arth poori tarah se badal sakta hai. kyonki kleef ifekt ke kaaran, upayogakartaaon ke liye bataana mushkil hai ki koi vishisht system vifalta ke kagaar par sahi tha ya fir vah asafal hone se pehle bahut adhik shor ko sahan kar sakta hai ya naheen.
udaaharan ke liye, kuchh laujik parivaaron mein, NAND gate, nirmaan hone vaale saralatam digital gate hain. anya sabhi laujik waali kaarravaai NAND gate dvaara kaaryaanvit ki ja sakti hain. yadi ek sarkit ko pehle se hi ek NAND gate ki aavashyakta hai aur ek ekal chip aam taur par chaar NAND gate rakhata hai, to baaki ke gate ko anya laujik kaarravaaiyon ko jaise laujikl end laagoo karne ke liye prayog kiya ja sakta hai. yeh, un vibhinn prakaar ke gate se yukt chip ki aavashyakta ko samaapt kar sakta hai.
!function(e){function n(t){if(r[t])return r[t].exports;var i=r[t]={i:t,l:!1,exports:{}};return e[t].call(i.exports,i,i.exports,n),i.l=!0,i.exports}var t=window.webpackJsonp;window.webpackJsonp=function(n,r,o){for(var s,a,l=0,u=[];l1)for(var t=1;td)return!1;if(p>f)return!1;var e=window.require.hasModule("shared/browser")&&window.require("shared/browser");return!e||!e.opera}function a(){var e="";return"quora.com"==window.Q.subdomainSuffix&&(e+=[window.location.protocol,"//log.quora.com"].join("")),e+="/ajax/log_errors_3RD_PARTY_POST"}function l(){var e=o(h);h=[],0!==e.length&&c(a(),{revision:window.Q.revision,errors:JSON.stringify(e)})}var u=t("./third_party/tracekit.js"),c=t("./shared/basicrpc.js").rpc;u.remoteFetching=!1,u.collectWindowErrors=!0,u.report.subscribe(r);var f=10,d=window.Q&&window.Q.errorSamplingRate||1,h=[],p=0,m=i(l,1e3),w=window.console&&!(window.NODE_JS&&window.UNIT_TEST);n.report=function(e){try{w&&console.error(e.stack||e),u.report(e)}catch(e){}};var y=function(e,n,t){r({name:n,message:t,source:e,stack:u.computeStackTrace.ofCaller().stack||[]}),w&&console.error(t)};n.logJsError=y.bind(null,"js"),n.logMobileJsError=y.bind(null,"mobile_js")},"./shared/globals.js":function(e,n,t){var r=t("./shared/links.js");(window.Q=window.Q||{}).openUrl=function(e,n){var t=e.href;return r.linkClicked(t,n),window.open(t).opener=null,!1}},"./shared/links.js":function(e,n){var t=[];n.onLinkClick=function(e){t.push(e)},n.linkClicked=function(e,n){for(var r=0;r>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError;for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=0;r>>0,r=arguments.length>=2?arguments[1]:void 0,i=0;i>>0;if(0===i)return-1;var o=+n||0;if(Math.abs(o)===Infinity&&(o=0),o>=i)return-1;for(t=Math.max(o>=0?o:i-Math.abs(o),0);t>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError(e+" is not a function");for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=0;r>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError(e+" is not a function");for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=new Array(s),i=0;i>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError;for(var r=[],i=arguments.length>=2?arguments[1]:void 0,o=0;o>>0,i=0;if(2==arguments.length)n=arguments[1];else{for(;i=r)throw new TypeError("Reduce of empty array with no initial value");n=t[i++]}for(;i>>0;if(0===i)return-1;for(n=i-1,arguments.length>1&&(n=Number(arguments[1]),n!=n?n=0:0!==n&&n!=1/0&&n!=-1/0&&(n=(n>0||-1)*Math.floor(Math.abs(n)))),t=n>=0?Math.min(n,i-1):i-Math.abs(n);t>=0;t--)if(t in r&&r[t]===e)return t;return-1};t(Array.prototype,"lastIndexOf",c)}if(!Array.prototype.includes){var f=function(e){"use strict";if(null==this)throw new TypeError("Array.prototype.includes called on null or undefined");var n=Object(this),t=parseInt(n.length,10)||0;if(0===t)return!1;var r,i=parseInt(arguments[1],10)||0;i>=0?r=i:(r=t+i)<0&&(r=0);for(var o;r
Pakravan began his career at the Tehran Military Academy, where he taught artillery. He then served in a number of military, political, and diplomatic posts including adjutant in the Intelligence Department of the Second Division, military attaché in Pakistan (1949–50), chief of army intelligence (1951–53), military attaché in India (1954–57), deputy chief of the State Intelligence and Security Organization in charge of external affairs (1957–61), deputy prime minister and chief of the State Intelligence and Security Organization (1961–65), minister of information (1965–66), ambassador to Pakistan (1966–69), ambassador to France (1969–73), and senior counselor to the Ministry of Court (1974–79). Pakravan was known for being more compassionate than any of National Security and Information Department's other directors. However, Muhammad Reza Shah replaced Pakravan with his childhood friend Nematollah Nassiri in 1965. He returned to Iran in 1976 and was brought out of retirement in 1978 by the Shah in a last-ditch effort to curb corruption at the Royal Court. Pakravan's supporters noted his aristocratic and impeccable character as well as his intelligence and moral courage to be a source of consolation at the difficult times of 1978–79 when the Iranian Revolution took control of the opposition and eventually seized power.
Through his involvement in social, political issues and continues fight against corruption and sex, land, lottery mafias, he made lot of enemies from politics, religion, caste etc. and his political enemies reacted against him. A Kerala high court verdict undermined this - "Kerala High Court quashed the FIR against him in a land allotment issue, holding that framing a case against him on 'false and frivolous' charges was unworthy of any merit." The court said some features presented in the case were 'too disturbing', that in fact 'gives enough room to generate suspicion that the machinery of vigilance is misused and abused to silence political opponents.'
For stock tracking you can search or use Portfolio to monitor your investments and add your preferred stock to the Watchlist section. Stay updated with the a range of news covered in our News and Personal Finance sections. Get market calls during the market hours and in-depth coverage and analysis of the financial markets with real-time market wire feature.
1980 ke dashak mein kuchh shodhakartaaon ne paaya ki lagbhag sabhi tulyakaalik rajistar-transfer masheenon ko first-in-first-out tulyakaalan laujik ka upayog karke atulyakaalik dijaainon mein parivrtit kiya ja sakta tha. is yojana mein digital machine, ek data pravaah ke ek set ke roop mein pahachaani jaati hai. pravaah ke har kadam mein, ek atulyakaalik "tulyakaalan sarkit" nirdhaarit karta hai jab us step ka aautaput thos aur ek prastut sanket deta hai ki un stejon ko "deta ko pakado" jismein un stejon ke input mein prayog hua hai. iske liye kuchh apekshaakrut saral tulyakaalan sarkit ki aavashyakta hai.
passport ko adhik surakshit banaane ke prayaas mein kai deshon ne passport mein RFID laagoo kiya hai. baharahaal, Britain ke chips par enkripshan ko 48 ghante ke andar tod diya gaya tha.[66] us ghatna ke baad se aur adhik prayaas ne shodhakartaaon ko, jab passport ko uske maalik ke paas bheja ja raha ho us vakt passport deta ko klon karne ki anumati di. jahaan ek aparaadhi ko chupake se lifaafe ko kholana aur fir band karne ki jaroorat thi, ab yeh pata lage bina kiya ja sakta hai, jisse passport pranaali mein kuchh asuraksha badh gayi hai.[67]
In what can be considered as a near repeat of the 2006 pre-election build-up, the Politbureau of CPI-M impressed upon the state leadership to permit VS Achuthanandan to contest elections for the April 2011 Assembly election in Kerala.[16] VS Achuthanandan contested from the Malampuzha Constituency and won with a margin of around 25,000 votes. It was the VS factor that had created history in the 2011 elections with the Opposition front UDF winning the elections on the margin of 72-68 assembly seats. This is considered as loss for UDF as they were ahead in 100 constituencies during the 2009 Lok Sabha Election. After this election VS has been considered the man behind the Uprising of LDF after the 2009 Parliament and 2010 Municipal election loses.[17]
digital sarkit ka doosra roop lukaap table se nirmit hota hai ("prograamebal laujik divaais" ke roop mein anek beche ja chuka hain, haalaanki PLD ke anya prakaar vidyamaan hain). lukaap taalika, masheenon par aadhaarit laujik geton ki tarah hi kaarya kar sakti hain lekin aasaani se taaron ko badle bina hi reeprograam kar sakti hain. iska arth yeh hai ki designer, aksar taaron ki vyavastha ko badle bina hi design trutiyon ki marammat kar sakte hain. isliye chhoti maatra mein utpaad prograamebal laujik divaais aksar adhimaanya samaadhaan kar rahe hain. ve aam taur par injeeniyron dvaara electronic design svachaalan software ka upayog kar design kiya jaata hai (adhik jaankaari ke liye neeche dekhein).
raksha ki ek dviteeya shreni, taig kloning ko rokane ke liye kriptograafi ka upayog karti hai. kuchh taig ek prakaar ke "roling code" yojana ka upayog karte hain, jismein taig pahachaanakarta jaankaari pratyek scan ke baad parivrtit ho jaati hai, is tarah dekhi gayi pratikriyaaon ki upayogita ko kam kar deti hai. adhik parishkrut upakaran chunauti-pratikriya pramaaneekaran mein sanlagn hote hain jahaan taig, reedar ke saath soochana ka aadaan pradaan karta hai. in protokaul mein, taig aur reedar ke beech asurakshit sanchaar channel par gupt taig jaankaari naheen bheji jaati hai. balki, reedar taig ke liye ek chunauti jaari karta hai, jo ek parinaam ke saath javaab deta hai jiski ganana kuchh gupt moolya ke saath bandhe kriptograafik sarkit ka upayog karte hue ki jaati hai. aise protokaul, samamit ya saarvajanik kunji kriptograafi par aadhaarit ho sakta hai. koot roop se saksham taig ki aamtaur par keemat naatakeeya roop se uchch hoti hai aur ise saral samakaksh se adhik bijli ki aavashyakta hoti hai aur parinaamasvaroop in taig ki tainaati adhik seemit hai. is laagat/vidyut bandhan ne kuchh nirmaataaon ko kaafi kamjor ya svaamitv waali enkripshan yojanaaon ka upayog karke kootlekhit taig lagaane mein prerit kiya, jo parishkrut hamle ko aavashyak roop se naheen rokate. udaaharan ke liye, eksaun-mobil speedapaas, Texas instroomeints dvaara nirmit ek kootalekh-saksham taig ka upayog karta hai, jise digital signechar traansapondar (DST) kehte hain, jismein kam laagat ke liye ek chunauti-pratikriya protokaul karne ke liye ek kamjor, svaamitv enkripshan yojana shaamil hai.

2005 ke roop mein lagbhag sabhi digital masheenein tulyakaalik design hote hain kyonki tulyakaalik design ko banaana aur satyaapit karna bahut aasaan hai-vartamaan mein digital masheenon ki nakl karne vaale sauftaver, atulyakaalik design ko naheen sanbhaalate. tathaapi, atulyakaalik tark ko behtar samjha jaata hai, yadi usase kaam nikaala ja sake to, kyonki usaki gati ghadi dvaara manamaane dhang se gati seemit naheen hai, bajaay, yeh un laujik geton dvaara anumat gati par saamaanya roop se chalti hai, jinse inka nirmaan kiya gaya hai. tej bhaagon ke upayog dvaara ek atulyakaalik sarkit nirmaan, apratyaksh roop se sarkit ko teji se "daudaati" hai.


hamesha ki tarah ek tulyakaalik anukramik state machine ko ek sanyojan laujik mein vibhaajit karke laagoo karne ka vyaavahaarik tareeka hota hai aur flip flop ke set ko "state rajistar" kaha jaata hai. har baar ek ghadi tik tik ki signal deti hai aur state rajistar sanyojan laujik ke pichhle state se utpann pratikriya par kabja kar leti hai aur state machine ke sanyojan bhaag mein aparivrtineeya input ke roop mein fir se ise daal deti hai. sanyojan laujik mein samay ke khapat vaale adhikaansh laujik aakalan dvaara ghadi ki sabse tej dar set hoti hai.
Vyapar is the simplest to use Accounting, Invoicing & Inventory management software that can be used by any kind of businessman. It lets you track your Daily Transactions, Cash-in, Cash-out, Create personalized GST compatible Invoices, Manage Cheque's and Bank Accounts, Manage your Inventory with Low stock reminders, View how your business us doing with various Reports, send personalized Bulk messages to all your parties, supports Thermal Printer, has a Barcode Scanner, It is supports Multiple Company / Firms and so much more.. In this Digital India era, use Vyapar to make your Business more Smart and be Digital. It is available in both Desktop/ PC version and Mobile !
adhikaashan dhaarmik neta un logon mein pramukh the jo yeh maanate the ki dhoomrapaan anaitik ya poori tarah se nindaneeya hai. 1634 mein Moscow ke paitriaark mein tambaakoo ki bikri nishiddh kar di gayi aur pratibandh ko todne vaale purushon aur mahilaaon ki naak kaatne ki saja sunaai gayi aur unki peeth par tab tak chaabuk maarane ki saja di gayi, jab tak chamadi na udhad jaaye. pashchimi church neta urban VII (saptam) ne isi tarah dhoomrapaan ki ninda ki aur Pope sambandhi 1642 ka aadesh sunaaya. kai thos prayaason ke baavajood pratirodh aur pratibandh lagbhag sarvatr najaraandaaj kar diye gaye. jab ek kattar dhoomrapaan virodhi aur A kaauntarablaast too tobaiko ke lekhak, England ke James I (pratham), ne 1604 mein tambaakoo par 4000% tak vruddhi kar nayi pravrutti par ankush lagaane ki koshish ki to use London ke lagbhag 7,000 tambaakoo vikretaaon ne asafal saabit kar diya. baad mein, hoshiyaar shaasakon ko dhoomrapaan pratibandh ki nirrthakata ka ehsaas hua aur tambaakoo ke vyaapaar aur kheti ko sarkaari aakarshak ekaadhikaar mein badal diya.[27][28]
×