veparaaijr ek upakaran hai jiska upayog paudhe ki saamagri ke sakriya tatv ko parishuddh karne ke liye hota hai. vanaspati ko jalaane ke badle sambhaavit pareshaani paida karne vaale jahareele ya Cancer paida karne vaale up utpaad ko tambaakoo se door karne hetu veparaaijr, saamagri ko ek aanshik vaikyoom mein itna tapaata hai ki paudhe mein upasthit sakriya yaugik khaulakar bhaap ban jaayein. dhoomrapaan saamagri sambandhi chikitseeya prashaasan seedhe paudhe ki saamagri ko garm karne mein aksar is vidhi ka upayog karta hai.


computer niyantrit digital system ko software dvaara niyantrit kiya ja sakta hai jo ki haardaveyar ko badle bina nae fankshan ko jodne ki anumati deta hai. aur aksar ise adyatan utpaad ke software ke dvaara kaarkhaane ke baahar kiya ja sakta hai. jisse utpaad ke design ki trutiyon ko graahak ke haath mein utpaad ke aane ke baad sanshodhit kiya ja sakta hai.
dubai mein, (sanyukt arab ameeraat) shekh jaayad road aur garahaud brij se gujarane vaale driver RFID taig ka upayog karte hue tol bhugataan karte hain jise saleek (pathakar) kaha jaata hai. dubai ne ek saarvajanik parivhan card bhi shuroo kiya hai jiska naam Nol [9] hai (jiska arth arabi mein kiraaya hai) jise metro, bas aur vaatarabas mein istemaal kiya jaata hai, ise dubai metro ke sarkaari prakshepan ke 9 September 2009 ke din seva mein pesh kiya gaya tha.
Achuthanandan has served many positions in his long political career. He was the Kerala State Secretary of the CPI(M) between 1980 and 1992 and he became a member of the Politburo in 1985. He has also been active in parliamentary politics; he was elected as a member of Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1967, 1970, 1991, 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016. He was the Leader of Opposition in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1992 to 1996, from 2001 to 2006 and from 2011 to 2016. He was the editor of CPI(M) mouth piece in Malayalam, Deshabhimani daily. He was the Chief Ministerial candidate for 1996 State elections. In those elections, LDF gained 80 out of 140 seats, but Achuthanandan, who contested from Mararikulam in Alappuzha district, lost by a margin of 1965 votes. Thus, E.K. Nayanar, who held the position twice earlier, became Chief Minister again.
kuchh pranaaliyon mein yadi digital deta ka ek bhaag lupt ho jaae ya galat tareeke se vyavahrut hon, to sambandhit deta ke vishaal khandon ka arth poori tarah se badal sakta hai. kyonki kleef ifekt ke kaaran, upayogakartaaon ke liye bataana mushkil hai ki koi vishisht system vifalta ke kagaar par sahi tha ya fir vah asafal hone se pehle bahut adhik shor ko sahan kar sakta hai ya naheen.
laujik geton ke samakaksh set ke saath digital sarkit ka pratinidhitv shaastreeya tareeka hai. praay: kam se kam electronic ke saath electronic svichon ke samakaksh pranaali ka nirmaan ek doosra tareeka hai (aam taur par traanjistar karta hai). sirf ek trooth table se yukt smruti aasaan tareekon mein se ek hota hai. memori ke pate par input daale jaate hain aur memori ke data aaootput, aaootput ban jaate hain.

1980 ke dashak mein kuchh shodhakartaaon ne paaya ki lagbhag sabhi tulyakaalik rajistar-transfer masheenon ko first-in-first-out tulyakaalan laujik ka upayog karke atulyakaalik dijaainon mein parivrtit kiya ja sakta tha. is yojana mein digital machine, ek data pravaah ke ek set ke roop mein pahachaani jaati hai. pravaah ke har kadam mein, ek atulyakaalik "tulyakaalan sarkit" nirdhaarit karta hai jab us step ka aautaput thos aur ek prastut sanket deta hai ki un stejon ko "deta ko pakado" jismein un stejon ke input mein prayog hua hai. iske liye kuchh apekshaakrut saral tulyakaalan sarkit ki aavashyakta hai.

aam taur par dendaari lekhon ke karmiyon dvaara gban rokane ke liye, durupayog ke khilaaf vividh jaanch maujood hain. kartavyon ka pruthakkaran ek aam niyantran hai. lagbhag sabhi companiyon mein check ke sansaadhan aur mudran ke liye ek junior karmachaari aur check ke punareekshan aur us par hastaakshar karne ke liye ek varishth karmachaari hota hai. aksar, lekhaankan software pratyek karmachaari ko keval unhein saunpe gaye kaarya ko nishpaadit karne tak hi seemit karte hain, taaki aisa koi jriya maujood na ho, jisse koi karmachaari - niyantrak bhi - akele koi bhugataan kar paae.
Nokia ke 2008 ke upakaran, 6212, mein RFID kshamataaen bhi hain. saksham haindaset ka upayog karte hue kredit card ki jaankaari ko sangraheet kiya ja sakta hai aur bank khaaton tak seedhe pahuncha ja sakta hain. is phone ko, agar mobile bhugataan ke liye ek vektar ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaae to ismein is maayane mein atirikt suraksha hoti hai ki ismein upayogakartaaon ko bhugataan ke praadhikrut hone se pehle ek paasakod ya pin darj karne ki aavashyakta hogi.[13]
kisi sansthaan mein jama aisa vyaapaarik agrim jiske mad mein jamaakarta ko na to koi maal diya gaya ho aur na usaki koi vyaapaarik seva ki gayi ho us sansthaan ke liya deya dhan hai. yeh rakam sansthaan mein deya khaate mein ankit ki jaati hai. svaami, saajhedaaron, sanchaalakon tatha karmachaariyon dvaara sansthaan ko diya gaya rin is khaate mein pravishti naheen paata. vah ek alag deya rinakhaate mein ankit kiya jaata hai. deya khaata vyaapaarik agrim ka khaata hai. vah sansthaan ke liye deya to hai par vah rin naheen hai isliye iski svatantr sthiti hai. vyaapaar se sambaddh agrim jama raashi maatr ka ismein ankan hota hai. theek yahi sthiti sansthaan dvaara diye gaye vyaapaarik agrim ki hai. vah dhanaraashi jo agrim ke roop mein anya kisi vyaapaarik sansthaan ko di gayi ho aur uske mad mein na to koi maal aaya ho aur na anya vyaapaarik seva li gayi ho sansthaan ke praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai. jiske naam yeh raashi praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai vah sansthaan apne yahaaain is rakam ko deya khaate mein daalata hai.
1980 ke dashak mein mile vaigyaanik pramaan ke anusaar tambaakoo companiyaan ne daava kiya hai ki laaparavaahi baratne ka kaaran svaasthya par padne vaale pratikool prabhaav se pehle unka anajaan hona tha ya paryaapt vishvasaneeyata ka abhaav tha. svaasthya adhikaariyon ne 1998 tak in daavon ka saath diya jiske baad unhonne apni sthiti ulat di. tambaakoo pradhaan niptaan samjhauta (the tobaiko master saitalameint egreemeint) mool roop se chaar sabse badi tambaakoo companiyon aur 46 raajyon ke ameriki etorni general ke beech hua. tambaakoo ke kuchh khaas prakaar ke vijnyaaapanon par pratibandh laga diya gaya aur svaasthya muaavaje ke taur par bhugataan ko aavashyak kar diya gaya, jo baad mein sanyukt raajya America ke itihaas mein sabse bade naagrik niptaan ke roop saamane aaya.[36] 

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