pashu taiging ke liye dijaain kiye gaye pratyaaropit kiye jaane vaale RFID chip, ab insaanon mein istemaal kiye ja rahe hain. RFID pratyaaropan ke saath ek aaranbhik prayog, saaibaranetiks ke british professor kevin vaaravik dvaara kiya gaya jinhonne 1998 mein apne haath mein ek chip pratyaaropit kiya. 2004 mein kaunaraad ches ne Barcelona aur rautaradaim mein apne naait club mein apne VIP graahakon ki pehchaan ke liye jo iska prayog peya ke bhugataan ke liye karte the, pratyaaropit chips ki peshakash ki[42].
kredit card companiyaan ab kisi bhi mobile phone se gair-sampark bhugataan card jodne ke liye bhugataan samaadhaan talaash rahi hain. ek vaahak samaadhaan jo is udyog ki jaroorat ko poora kare ab upalabdh hai. 3mm se kam mota, yeh up-card 2 varshon tak apne paryaavaran ko jhel sakega aur ek baar daale jaane ke baad yeh tatvon se rakshit aur vaahak mein surakshit rahega.[10]
Xero Beautiful Accounting Software is a cloud-based accounting software for small and mid-sized businesses. It's product are based on the software as a service (SaaS) model and sold by subscription , based on the type and number of company entities managed by the subscriber. Xero accounting software is accessible from any computer or mobile device , making for a smarter , easier accounting process.
1612 mein jemsataaun ke avasthaapan ke chhah saal baad John raalf pehle adhivaasi hain jinhonne tambaakoo ki ek nakadi fasal ke roop mein safalataapoorvak kheti ki. tambaakoo ki maang mein teji se vruddhi hui, use "bhoora sona" kaha gaya, kyonki usane sone ke abhiyaan mein vifal varjeeniya ko share company mein punarjeevit kar diya.[21] puraani duniya ki maangon ko poora karne ke liye tambaakoo ki paidaavaar lagaataar ki gayi jiske parinaamasvaroop jameen ki urvara shakti sheegra hi kam ho gayi. isne pashchim ko ek agyaat mahaadveep mein basane ke liye prerak ka kaarya kiya aur isi tarah tambaakoo utpaadan ka ek vistaar hua.[22] bekan vidroh ke pehle tak anubandhit daasata hi praathamik shram bal ka aadhaar thi jiske kaaran das pratha par dhyaan kendrit hua.[23] yeh pravrutti ameriki kraanti ke baad kam hui aur daasapratha laabhaheen maani gayi. haalaanki yeh pratha 1794 mein punarjeevit ho gayi jab kapaas ki charkhi ka aavishkaar hua.[24][page needed]
poorvi uttar ameriki janajaatiyaan vyaapaar ke ek sahaj sveekaar taiyaar mad ke roop mein tambaakoo ke paauch ka badi maatra mein apne paas rakhate hain aur aksar pipe se dhoomrapaan karte hain, chaahe vah paribhaashit samaaroh ho jise pavitra maana jaata hai ya saude ko pakka karne ke liye[17] aur ve ise jeevan ke sabhi charanon sabhi avsaron par peete hain, yahaan tak ki bachapan mein bhi.[18][page needed] aisi maanyata hai ki tambaakoo is jagat ke nirmaata se mila ek ek upahaar tha aur tambaakoo ke kash se nikla dhuaan us vyakti vishesh ke vichaaron aur praarthanaaon ko svarg tak le ja paane mein saksham hai.[19]

Parakala was appointed to the NSUI central committee as All India Vice President in 1984. It was almost like a token of appreciation by the Congress High Command of his performance as President of the JNU unit and his contribution to the establishment of the organisation in the citadel of left wing student politics. As an office bearer of the central committee of NSUI, he toured several states and universities to organise the activities of the students' wing of the Congress Party. He took up a massive campaign against drug abuse in the university campuses all over the country. With his departure for United Kingdom in October 1986 to pursue his higher studies at the London School of Economics (LSE), there was a break to his political activity. On his return to India in May 1991 he resumed political activity in his native place Narasapuram in West Godavari District. Tragic political events in the country resulted in dramatic political developments. Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, in the midst of the election campaign and P V Narasimha Rao was elected to lead the Congress Party. After the elections, Narasimha Rao became Prime Minister at the head of a minority government. Parakala family was closely associated with P V Narasimha Rao for a long time, Parakala Seshavataram, Prabhakar's father, being a close political associate of Rao. Narasimha Rao assigned the task of conceiving, designing and building a grand institution to perpetuate the memory of Rajiv Gandhi. He made Parakala as Officer on Special Duty to oversee the implementation of the project 'Rajiv Gandhi National Institute for Youth Development (RGNIYD). It is conceived as an institution to train the youth of India and impart to them skills that are necessary to them to play a vital role in building a modern nation in the 21st century, a theme that was dear to the heart of Rajiv Gandhi. Parakala went around the country to study various institutions, their constitutions, structures, course content etc., and designed the Institute which is functional now under the aegis of Ministry of Human Resource Development. Around this time Parakala was nominated by the Congress High Command to represent the Congress Party at the French Communist Party's Plenary in Paris.

richrd daul ne 1950 mein british medical journal mein anusandhaan prakaashit kiya jismein dhoomrapaan aur fefade ke Cancer ke beech kareebi sambandh pradarshit kiya gaya.[35] chaar saal baad 1954 mein british doctoron ke adhyayan mein, jise 20 varshon tak lagbhag 40 hajaar doctoron ne kiya tha, is sujhaav ki pushti ki, jiske aadhaar par sarkaar ne salaah jaari ki ki dhoomrapaan aur fefade ke Cancer ki dar ka aapasi sambandh hai.[5] isi tarah 1964 mein dhoomrapaan aur svaasthya par sanyukt raajya America ke surgeon general ki report dhoomrapaan aur Cancer ke beech sambandh par sujhaav se shuroo hui.
RFID daud samay ke kai roop 1990 ke dashak ke praarambh se vibhinn prakaar ki race ki timing ke liye prayog mein rahe hain. yeh istamaal pijn race se shuroo hua, jise ek company dvaara shuroo kiya gaya jiska naam tha barasingahauyasan ki daaistar electronic Gmbh, Germany: daaistar electronics. ek marathon mein jaanvaron ya vyaktiyon ke race praarambh aur samaapti ke panjeekaran ke liye iska prayog kiya jaata hai, jahaan har khilaadi ke liye sahi staupavauch reeding paana asambhav hai.
web aadhaarit prabandhan upakaran, sangathanon ko apni sampatti ki nigraani ki anumati dete hue duniya mein kaheen se bhi prabandhan ke faisale karne mein saksham karte hain. web aadhaarit anuprayog ka ab matlab hai ki, teesara paksh, jaise vinirmaata aur thekedaar ko parisanpatti deta ko adyatan karne ke liye pahunch di ja sakti hai, udaaharan ke liye jismein shaamil hai, nireekshan itihaas aur online pralekhan hastaantaran jo yeh sunishchit karta hai ki antim upayogakarta ke paas hamesha sahi, rial-time data ho. sangathan, pehle se hi mobile parisanpatti prabandhan samaadhaan ke saath RFID taig ko sanyojit karke apni sampatti ko darj karne aur uske sthaan par najar rakhane, usaki vartamaan sthiti aur unka rakh-rakhaav kiya gaya hai ya naheen, yeh jaanane ke liye prayog kar rahe hain.
saans se kheenche gaye padaarthon tantrika ke sire ke ant mein raasaayanik pratikriyaaon ko shuroo karte hai. klonerjik riseptar aksar svaabhaavik roop se nyoorotraansameetar (neurotransmitter) esteelaklolaain(acetylcholine) se chaaloo hone vaale hain. Acetylcholine aur nikoteen raasaayanik samaanataaon ko vyakt karta hai jo nikoteen ko riseptar ke roop mein kaam karne ki anumati deta hai.[47] ye nikotinik acetylcholine riseptar keindreeya tantrika tantr mein sthit lagte hain aur tantrika-kankaal ki maansapeshiyon ki taakat jankshan par sakriya roop se dil ki gati, satarkata[10] aur pratikriya samay ko drut kar dete hain.[11] nikoteen acetylcholine uttejana pratyaksh taur par nashe ki lat naheen hai. haalaanki jaise hi dopaamaain se prachur maatra mein nyoorauns nikoteen riseptars pravaahit hote hain, dopaamaain pravaahit hota hai.[48] dopaamaain ke pravaahit hone se, jo aanand se juda hua hai adhik majaboot hota hai aur kaam karne ki smruti mein usase vruddhi ho sakti hai.[12][49] nikoteen aur kokeen nyoorauns ke samaan paitarn hain, jo ki is vichaar ka samarthan karte hain ki in maadak padaarthon ke beech aam adh:star sakriya hai.[50]

pipe dhoomrapaan mein aamtaur par tambaakoo ke dahan ke liye ek chhota sa kaksh (katora) aur ek patali nalika (danda) shaamil hai, jo mukhapatr (thoda) mein samaapt hota hai. tambaakoo ke kase tukadon ko kaksh mein rakha aur prajvalit kar diya jaata hai. pipe mein dhoomrapaan ke liye tambaakoo aksar bahut dhyaan dekar istemaal kiya jaata hai aur svaad ki baareekiyon ki mishrit upalabdhata anya tambaakoo utpaadon mein upalabdh naheen hai.

V.A.Arun Kumar, son of V. S. Achuthanandan, was appointed as Additional Director for the Institute of Human Resources Development (IHRD), a state owned organization controlling a handful of state owned engineering colleges, technical schools and other institutions. This appointment is alleged to be irregular.[37][38][39][40] It has been alleged that changes were made in the notification for appointing Mr. Arun Kumar and the existing qualifications of additional director were amended to enable V. A. Arun Kumar to apply for the post.[37] This issue in now facing a Lokayukta enquiry as well as a Vigilance[41][42] enquiry. He is facing yet another Lokayuktha enquiry regarding allegations related to the Model Finishing School of (IHRD).[43]

antararaashtreeya maanakon se tulya nishpaadan gunataayukt si pi aar I saare Bhaarat mein vyaapt apni saat prayogashaalaaon mein svichgiyr, fayoojagiyr, parinaamitr, kebil, sandhaaritr jaise vibhinn vidyut upaskar, vidyut rodhak saamagriyaaain aur pranaaliyaaain, sancharan line tower, drav paraavaidyuton tatha apaaranparik oorja yuktiyon ke nishpaadan, moolyaankan aur pramaaneekaran par vishisht sevaaeain upalabdh karaata hai.
1600 dashak ke madhya mein pratyek pramukh samaaj mein tambaakoo ke dhoomrapaan ka prachalan karaaya gaya aur kai maamalon mein iske upayog ko kai shaasakon dvaara kathor dand ya jurmaana lagaakar samaapt karne prayaason ke baavajood vah mool sanskruti mein pehle hi aatmasaat kiya ja chuka tha. tambaakoo utpaad aur paudha donon pramukh vyaapaar maargon se pramukh bandaragaahon aur baajaaron mein aaya aur fir bheetari pradeshon mein pahuncha. angreji bhaasha mein smoking (smoking) shabd 1700 ke dashak ke paravarti kaal mein gadha gaya, usase pehle use drinking smok (drinking smoke) kaha jaata tha.[3][page needed]
Parakala was appointed to the NSUI central committee as All India Vice President in 1984. It was almost like a token of appreciation by the Congress High Command of his performance as President of the JNU unit and his contribution to the establishment of the organisation in the citadel of left wing student politics. As an office bearer of the central committee of NSUI, he toured several states and universities to organise the activities of the students' wing of the Congress Party. He took up a massive campaign against drug abuse in the university campuses all over the country. With his departure for United Kingdom in October 1986 to pursue his higher studies at the London School of Economics (LSE), there was a break to his political activity. On his return to India in May 1991 he resumed political activity in his native place Narasapuram in West Godavari District. Tragic political events in the country resulted in dramatic political developments. Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, in the midst of the election campaign and P V Narasimha Rao was elected to lead the Congress Party. After the elections, Narasimha Rao became Prime Minister at the head of a minority government. Parakala family was closely associated with P V Narasimha Rao for a long time, Parakala Seshavataram, Prabhakar's father, being a close political associate of Rao. Narasimha Rao assigned the task of conceiving, designing and building a grand institution to perpetuate the memory of Rajiv Gandhi. He made Parakala as Officer on Special Duty to oversee the implementation of the project 'Rajiv Gandhi National Institute for Youth Development (RGNIYD). It is conceived as an institution to train the youth of India and impart to them skills that are necessary to them to play a vital role in building a modern nation in the 21st century, a theme that was dear to the heart of Rajiv Gandhi. Parakala went around the country to study various institutions, their constitutions, structures, course content etc., and designed the Institute which is functional now under the aegis of Ministry of Human Resource Development. Around this time Parakala was nominated by the Congress High Command to represent the Congress Party at the French Communist Party's Plenary in Paris.
In the 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, the Left Democratic Front (LDF) secured a huge win with a total of 91 seats in 140 assembly constituencies. At the age of 92, VS travelled across the state campaigning for the party with much vigour. V S Achuthanandan also contested this election from Malampuzha constituency, where he won by a margin of 27,142 votes. Being the face and most recognizable leader of the front, he staked his claim to be the next Chief Minister. However, the State and Central leadership appointed Pinarayi Vijayan as Chief Minister instead.
radio-aavrutti pehchaan (angreji: Radio-frequency identification) ek vastu ka upayog hai (aamtaur par ek RFID taig ke roop mein sandarbhit) jise ek utpaad, pashu, ya vyakti mein radio tarangon ke istemaal se pehchaan karne aur traiking ke uddeshya se lagaaya ya daala jaata hai. kuchh taig ko kai meter door se aur paathak ki drushti rekha ke paar se padha ja sakta hai.
laujik geton ke samakaksh set ke saath digital sarkit ka pratinidhitv shaastreeya tareeka hai. praay: kam se kam electronic ke saath electronic svichon ke samakaksh pranaali ka nirmaan ek doosra tareeka hai (aam taur par traanjistar karta hai). sirf ek trooth table se yukt smruti aasaan tareekon mein se ek hota hai. memori ke pate par input daale jaate hain aur memori ke data aaootput, aaootput ban jaate hain.
soochana ka bhandaaran enaalaug ki tulana mein digital pranaali mein aasaani se kar sakte hain. digital system ka shor pratirksha vightan ke bina deta ko sangraheet aur pun: praapt karne ki anumati deta hai. ek enaalaug system mein, puraane aur chheejan se shor sangruheet soochana ko nasht karta hai. ek digital pranaali mein jab tak kul shoragul ek nishchit star se neeche hai, jaankaari ko poori tarah se pun: praapt kiya ja sakta hai.
jab tambaakoo ka sevan kiya jaata hai, jyaadaatar nikoteen jhulas jaata hai. haalaanki, ek khuraak halki shaareerik nirbharata ke liye paryaapt hai aur ek majaboot manovaigyaanik nirbharata ko halka karne ke liye paryaapt rahati hai. vahaan tambaakoo ke dhuen mein maujood acetaldehyde se haaramon(ek MAO avarodhak) ka gathan bhi hota hai. aisa lagta hai ki nikoteen ke nashe mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibha raha hai- nikoteen ki uttejanaaon ke javaab ke roop mein ek javaabi kaarravaai ke taur par naabhik accumbens mein ek dopamine ki suvidha jaari ki gayi.[51] adhyayan ke liye choohe ka upayog karke yeh doharaaya gaya ki nikoteen ke upayog ke baad kam jimmedaar naabhik accumbens koshikaaen sudrudheekaran ke liye jimmedaar hain, jo aparaadh mein fansaane ki kai ghatnaaon, jismein keval nikoteen hi naheen isi tarah ki cheejein majabooti ko kam kar deti hain.[52]
baajaar mein aise kai utpaad upalabdh hain jo RFID saksham card ya passport ke sambandhit vaahak ko apne deta ke parirkshan ki anumati deinge. balki ab to, sanyukt raajya America ki sarkaar ne apne nae karmachaari ID card ke liye ek anumodit parirkshan aasteen ya lifaafe ke saath use bhejana aavashyak kar diya hai.[68] is baat ko lekar virodhaabhaasi vichaar vyaapt hain ki kya elyoominiym RFID chip ke padhne ko rok sakta hai. kuchh logon ka daava hai ki elyoominiym parirkshan, jo moolat: ek fairaade pinjare ka nirmaan karta hai, bilkul kaam karta hai.[69] doosaron ka daava hai ki elyoomeeniym panni mein ek RFID card ko sirf lapetne se keval prasaaran mein aur adhik baadha aati hai, isliye poori tarah se ise rokane mein kaaragar naheen hai.[70]
↑ a aa The World Health Organization, and the Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health (2001). "Women and the Tobacco Epidemic: Challenges for the 21st Century" (PDF). World Health Organization. pp. 5–6. Archived from the original on 2003-11-28. http://web.archive.org/20031128122821/www.who.int/tobacco/media/en/WomenMonograph.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-02.

udaaharan ke liye baitari sanchaalit selyular telephone aksar ek kam shakti ke enaalaug agrasira ke istemaal se base station se radio signal badhaane aur sangati bithaane ke liye karti hai. haalaanki ek base station ke paas grid ki shakti hoti hai aur apekshit vidyut ka prayog kar sakti hai, lekin bahut lacheele software radio mein. is tarah ke base stationon ke liye aasaani se nae selular maanakon mein prayukt sanket prakriya ko aasaani se riprograam kiya ja sakta hai.

RFID ke kai pustakaalaya anuprayog hain jo atyadhik laabhakaari ho sakte hain vishesh roop se parisancharan karmachaariyon ke liye. choonki RFID taig ko kisi vastu ke andar se bhi padha ja sakta hai, kisi saamagri ko scan karne ke liye kisi kitaab ke aavaran ya DVD ke khol ko kholne ki jaroorat naheen hai. isse ripteeteev motion injureej ko kam kiya ja sakta hai. jahaan pustakon ke oopar ek baarakod hai, vahaan abhi bhi yeh suvidha hai ki lenevaale ek kitaab ko ek baar mein karne ki bajaae, pustakon ke ek poore dher ko ek baar mein scan kar sakte hain. choonki RFID taig ko gati mein bhi padha ja sakta hai, RFID reedar ka upayog lautaai gayi saamagri ki kanveyar belt par rahate hue jaanch karne se karmachaari samay mein bachat hoti hai. lekin, jaisa ki baarakod ke saath hai, yeh sabhi lenevaalon ke dvaara swayam hi kiya ja sakta hai jiska arth hua ki unhein fir kabhi karmachaariyon ki sahaayata ki jaroorat na ho. ek nishchit sthaan ke in reedar ke alaava portebal reedar bhi hain (laaibreriyn ke liye, lekin bhavishya mein sanbhavat: lenevaalon ke liye bhi, sanbhavat: yahaan tak ki unke swayam ke saamaanya-uddeshya vaale reedar). in sab ke saath, vastusoochi ko kuchh second ke bheetar, saamagri ke ek poore shelf par kiya ja sakega, jiske tahat ek bhi pustak ko aalamaari se hataana naheen padega.[30]. amyo, sveedan mein, RFID ka istemaal netraheenon ke liye shravya pustakein lene ke liye kiya jaata hai.[31] Malaysia mein, malteemeediya university laaibreri, saaibarajaya mein pustakon ka sateek sthaan ingit karne ke liye smart shelvs ka prayog kiya jaata hai.[32] Netherland mein, haath mein pakade jaane vaale reedar ko is uddeshya ke liye shuroo kiya gaya hai.


vyaya prashaasan aam taur par dendaari lekhon ke saath kreeb se juda hua hai aur kabhi-kabhi ek hi karmachaari dvaara ye kaarya kiye jaate hain. vyaya prashaasak yeh pushti karte hue karmachaari ke vyaya report ka satyaapan karta hai ki vimaan yaataayaat, bhoo-parivhan, bhojan aur manoranjan, teleefon, hotel tatha anya vyaya ke samarthan mein raseedein upalabdh hain. yeh pralekhan, kar uddeshyon ke liye aur anupayukt ya glat kharchon ki pratipoorti ki rokathaam ke liye aavashyak hai. vimaan yaataayaat kharch mein, shaayad sabse adhik dhokhaadhadi ki sambhaavana hai, kyonki havaai yaatra ki uchch laagat aur havaai yaatra sambandhi pralekhan ki bhraamak prakruti ki vajah se, jismein aarakshan, raseedein aur vaastavik tikton ka vinyaas shaamil hain.
Parakala had a chequered public life and an unsuccessful electoral career. Born into a political family, he became familiar with electoral politics since his childhood. His debut as a political activist started when he was elected as the President of the Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi unit of the Congress Party affiliated students' organisation National Students' Union of India (NSUI). He contested the Students' Union Elections of JNU and lost to the CPI(M) affiliated organisation SFI candidate. However, it was for the fist time that NSUI polled a respectable number of votes for the central panel of candidates and could win a Councillor seat. Parakala's participation in May 1983 students' agitation on the campus agains the highhanded attitude of the university authorities lent political respectability to NSUI on the Campus. till then Congress affiliated NSUI was treated as political untouchable in the left dominated student politics of the university.

kai adhyayanon ne yeh sthaapana ki hai ki cigarette ki bikri aur dhoomrapaan ke upayog ke samay sambandhi dhaanche alag hain. udaaharan ke liye, sanyukt raajya America mein cigarette ki bikri ka dhaancha kaafi had tak mausam se juda hua hai, garmi ke maheene mein iski bikri kaafi badh jaati hai, jabki sardiyon mein iski khapat kam ho jaati hai.[68]
yeh vyavasaaya aniyamit hai, haalaanki antarraashtreeya maanak sthaapit karne vaale nikaaya maujood hain, jinka ek udaaharan hai sanyukt raajya America, Canada, Britain aur anya deshon mein 5,000 se adhik sadasyon ka ek sangh, antarraashtreeya dendaari lekhon ke peshevar (IAPP).[1] apni vyaavasaayik maanak sanrachana ke ansh ke roop mein,[2] IAPP ne dendaari lekhon ki ek nai paribhaasha sthaapit ki hai:

kuchh pranaaliyon mein yadi digital deta ka ek bhaag lupt ho jaae ya galat tareeke se vyavahrut hon, to sambandhit deta ke vishaal khandon ka arth poori tarah se badal sakta hai. kyonki kleef ifekt ke kaaran, upayogakartaaon ke liye bataana mushkil hai ki koi vishisht system vifalta ke kagaar par sahi tha ya fir vah asafal hone se pehle bahut adhik shor ko sahan kar sakta hai ya naheen.
RFID praudyogiki ke kai upayogon mein se ek hai unka pustakaalayon mein prayog. is praudyogiki ne dheere-dheere pustakaalaya ki cheejon par (kitaabein, CD, DVD, aadi) paaramparik baarakod ki jagah lena shuroo kar diya hai. RFID taig mein pehchaan sambandhit jaankaari ho sakti hai jaise ek pustak ka sheershak ya saamagri prakaar, jiske tahat ek alag daataabes ki or ishaara karne ki aavashyakta naheen hogi (lekin yeh uttar America mein durlabh hai). yeh jaankaari ek RFID reedar dvaara padhi jaati hai, jo maanak baarakod reedar ko jo saamaanyat: ek pustakaalaya ki sanchalan mej par paaya jaata hai, pratisthaapit karta hai. pustakaalaya saamagri par paaya jaane wala RFID taig aamtaur par uttar America mein 50 mm X 50 mm aur Europe mein 50 mm x 75 mm ke naap ka hota hai. ise baarakod ki jagah ya usamein shaamil kiya ja sakta hai, jo staaf ko soochi prabandhan ka ek alag tareeka aur lene vaalon ko swayam seva pradaan karega. yeh ek suraksha upakaran ke roop mein bhi kaarya kar sakte hain aur paramparaagat vidyut chumbakeeya patti[28] ki jagah le sakte hain aur na keval kitaabein, balki sadasyata card mein bhi ek RFID taig lagaaya ja sakta hai.
Nokia ke 2008 ke upakaran, 6212, mein RFID kshamataaen bhi hain. saksham haindaset ka upayog karte hue kredit card ki jaankaari ko sangraheet kiya ja sakta hai aur bank khaaton tak seedhe pahuncha ja sakta hain. is phone ko, agar mobile bhugataan ke liye ek vektar ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaae to ismein is maayane mein atirikt suraksha hoti hai ki ismein upayogakartaaon ko bhugataan ke praadhikrut hone se pehle ek paasakod ya pin darj karne ki aavashyakta hogi.[13]
prativedan ke liye engineer digital system ke prakaaron par vichaar karte hain. adhikaansh digital system "sanyojan system" aur "anukramik system" mein vibhaajit ho jaate hain. sanyojan pranaali mein hamesha jo input diya jaata hai vahi aautaput vah deta hai. yeh mool roop se laujik prakriya ke set ka pratinidhitv karta hai aur jiski charcha pehle hi ki ja chuki hai.

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