ekeekrut paripthon ki vruddhi ke saath, prayukt chips ki nirpeksh sankhya ko kam karne se laagat bachaane ka ek aur tareeka pesh hua. ek designer ka lakshya sirf aasaan sarkit banaana naheen hai, balki ghatak ki ginti kam rakhana hai. kabhi-kabhi yeh antarnihit digital laujik ke sambandh mein thode adhik jatil dijaain mein parint hota hai, lekin fir bhi ghatakon ki sankhya, board aakaar aur yahaan tak ki bijli ki khapat ko kam kar deta hai.
iske vipreet, kuchh gair-vaigyaanik adhyayan hain jismein se ekcheck ganaraajya ke Phillip mauris[72] dvaara aur doosra kaato Institute dvaara kiye gaye hain,[73] jo vipreet sthiti ka samarthan karte hain. adhyayan ki na to saathiyon dvaara sameeksha ki gayi aur na hi kisi vaigyaanik patrika mein prakaashit kiya gaya aur kaato Institute ko ateet mein tambaakoo companiyon se dhan praapt hua tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein] Phillip mauris ne spasht roop se apne poorv ke adhyayan ke liye yeh kehkar maafi maangi hai ki: "is adhyayan ke liye dhan aur saarvajanik vigyapti mein anya baaton ke alaava dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki samay se pehle hone waali mauton se check ganaraajya ki vistrut kathit laagat bachat ki baat ek ek bhayaanak nishkarsh hai, saath hi saath vah poorn roop se buniyaadi maanaveeya moolyon ki upeksha hai, jo asveekaarya hai. hamaari tambaakoo companiyon mein se ek ne is adhyayan ka kaaryabhaar diya tha, jo ek bhayaanak galati naheen thi, balki vah anuchit tha. Phillip mauris mein ham sabhi, yeh koi maayane naheen rakhata ki ham kahaan kaam karte hain, is kaarya ke liye kshamaapraarthi hain. vaastav mein dhoomrapaan se koi faayda naheen, uske kaaran gambhir aur mahatvapoorn rog hote hain."[72]
jab se digital sarkit enaalaug ghatakon se bana hain digital sarkit lo-prisishn se bhi dheere ganana karta hai jo ek samaan space aur shakti ka prayog karta hai. haalaanki digital sarkit iske uchch shor unmukti ke kaaran baar-baar aakalan kar paaega. doosari or, uchch parishuddhata domen mein (udaaharan ke liye jahaan parishuddhata ke liye 14 ya adhik bits ki aavashyakta hai) enaalaug sarkit ko adhik shakti aur digital samakaksh kshetr ki aavashyakta hai.
maariyo kaardullo ka saaaincha:US Patent 1973 mein aadhunik RFID ka pehla sachcha poorvaj tha; smruti wala ek nishkriya radio traansapondar. praarambhik upakaran nishkriya tha, jo poochh-taachh sanket ke dvaara sanchaalit hota tha aur 1971 mein New York port athauriti aur anya sambhaavit prayoktaaon ke liye iska pradarshan kiya gaya aur yeh ek tol upakaran ke roop mein istemaal ke liye 16 bit smruti ke saath ek traansapondar se bana tha. buniyaadi kaardullo peteint sanchaaran media ke roop mein RF, dhvani aur prakaash ke istemaal ko aavrut karta hai. 1969 mein, niveshakon ke saamane prastut mool vyaapaar yojana ne parivhan (otomotiv vaahan pehchaan, svachaalit tol pranaali, electronic license plate, electronic maalasoochi, vaahan maarg, vaahan pradarshan nigraani), banking (electronic check book, electronic kredit card), suraksha (karmiyon ki pehchaan, svachaalit dwaar, nigraani) aur chikitsa (pehchaan, rogi itihaas) mein iska istemaal dikhaaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

dendaari lekhon ke karmiyon dvaara frji beejakon par nazar rakhani chaahiye. khareed aadesh pranaali ke abhaav mein, raksha ki pehli pankti hai anumodit karne wala prabandhak. fir bhi, A/P stauf ko kuchh saamaanya samasyaaon ke saath parichit hona chaahiye, jaise "yallo pejas" dhokhaadhadiyaan, jismein kapati prachaalak vigyaapan dete hain. chalne waali ungaliyon ke logo ko kabhi tredamaark naheen banaaya gaya hai aur yallo pejas shaili ki kai nirdeshikaaen upalabdh hain, jinka bahut kam vitran hota hai. sheetakaaleen 2000 ameriki perol association ke empalauyar praiktiss ke ek lekh ke anusaar, "vikreta aise dastaavej bhej sakte hain jo dekhne mein beejak ke samaan lage, lekin jin par chhote aksharon mein mudrit hota hai "yeh bill naheen hai". ye nirdeshika soocheekaran ya vigyaapan ke liye shulk ho sakte hain. haal hi mein, kuchh companiyon ne jo check bhejane shuroo kiye hain, ve dekhne mein to chhoot ya vaapasi ki prateet hoti hain; vaastav mein, yeh sakriya sevaaon ke liye panjeekaran hai, jab dastaavej hastaakshar ke saath lautaae jaate hain."
rajistar hastaantaran laujik mein dviaadhaari sankhya flip flop ke samoohon mein sangraheet hain jise rajistar kaha jaata tha. pratyek rajistar ka aautaput taaron ka bandal hai jise ek "bas" kaha jaata hai jo anya aakalan ke liye us number ko paas rakhata hai. yeh aakalan keval sanyojan laujik ka ek bhaag hai. pratyek aakalan ke paas ek bas aautaput hota hai aur ye kai input rajistaron se juda ho sakta hai. kabhi-kabhi ek rajistar ke paas inke input par bahusanketak hota hai jisse yeh kai bason mein se kisi ek se number ko store kar sakta hai. vaikalpik roop se kai cheejon ke aautaput ko bafars ke maadhyam se joda ja sakta hai jo ek ko chhodkar sabhi upakaranon ke aautaput ko band kar sakta hai. input se pratyek rajistar ke naye data ko sveekaar karne par anukramik state machine niyantran karta hai.
ek safal pilot ke baad, aavaas evam vikaas board (HDB) Singapore ne 2006 mein kaagaj season parking ticket (SPT) ko pratisthaapit karte hue RFID ko laagoo karne ke liye do nividaaon ko jaari kiya. safal nividaakaaron ne March 2007 ke baad se SPT dhaarakon ko RFID taig vitrit kiya.[14] viytanaam mein, futek ke paas is desh mein kai bilding ke liye svachaalit jaanch ticket pranaali laagoo hai.
Place 2 cups of Basmati Rice, 3/4 cup of hulled Mung Beans (Dal), 1/2 teaspoon Turmeric powder, 1/2 teaspoon Cumin seeds and salt in a pot, covered with three times the amount of water. Allow to simmer until it is tender. Mix in 1 dessert spoon of butter or clarified butter per serve. This food has the effect of providing a protective film on the intestinal tract and for this reason, as much as possible should be eaten. Do not drink for 2 hours after eating this meal.

fir bhi anya kootlekhit protokaul, anadhikrut paathakon ke khilaaf gopaneeyata haasil karne ke prayaas mein hain, haalaanki ye protokaul abhi anusandhaan charan mein hain. RFID taig ko surakshit karne mein ek badi chunauti, taig ke bheetar kampyooteshanal sansaadhanon ki kami hai. maanak kootalekhan takaneek mein adhikaansh kam keemat vaale RFID upakaranon mein upalabdh sansaadhanon ki tulana mein adhik ki aavashyakta hoti hai. RSA security ne ek prototaaip upakaran ko peteint karaaya hai jo sthaaneeya star par ek maanak takkar parihaar protokaul ke dakhal se RFID sanketon ko jaam kar deta hai, or prayokta ko agar vaanchhit ho to pehchaan rokane ki anumati deta hai.[64] vibhinn neetigat upaayon ka bhi prastaav kiya gaya hai, jaise ki RFID taig waali vastu ko ek udyog maanak lebal ke saath chihnit karna. RFID suraksha, kuchh varshon se ek bahut sakriya anusandhaan kshetr hai, jismein 2002 se lekar aaj tak 400 se adhik vaigyaanik pepar prakaashit kiye gaye hain. is kshetr mein sandarbh ki ek vyaapak soochi RFID Security and Privacy Lounge mein pai ja sakti hai.


theem park (jaise United Kingdom mein eltan taavars) RFID ka upayog karte hain taaki unhein raaid ke upayogakarta ki pehchaan karne aur park mein unke bitaaye samay ki ek DVD banaane mein madad ho. din ke ant mein fir ise upayogakartaaon ke liye khareedne ke liye upalabdh karaaya jaata hai. yeh upayogakartaaon ke liye svaichhik hai jo park mein unhein diye jaane vaale kalaai band ko pahan kar aisa kar sakte hain.

do saal baad vaal street journal ne "Wall-maarts radio-traikd inveintari hits stetik" naamak lekh prakaashit kiya. lekh ne kaha ki Wall-Mart dvaara ullikhit RFID yojana "asafalata ke lakshan dikha rahi hai" jiska kaaran hai Wall-Mart ke adhikaariyon dvaara is praudyogiki ko apni dukaanon par praarambh karne mein aur aapoortikrtaaon ke liye astitvaheen protsaahanon ko shuroo karne mein asafalata.
baharahaal, pathan seema, reedar aur taig, donon ka hi ek kaarya hai. praudyogiki ke kshetr mein sudhaar se taig ki pathan seema mein vruddhi ki ja sakti hai. reedar ke taig ke bahut paas hone se kam doori ke taig pathaneeya ho jaate hain. aam taur par, ek taig ki pathan seema ko reedar se utani doori par seemit kiya jaata hai jis par taig, reedar kshetr se taig ko niyantrit karne ke liye paryaapt oorja kheench sake. ek reedar ki shakti ko badhaakar, taig ko unke liye niyat doori se adhik door se padha ja sakta hai. pathan doori par seema, tab reedar ko taig se vaapas bheje gaye sanket ka signal-tu-nauej anupaat ban jaata hai. do suraksha sammelanon mein shodhakartaaon ne dikhaaya ki nishkriya Ultra-HighFID taig, ameriki passport mein prayukt HighFID prakaar vaale naheen, jo aamtaur par 30 feet tak padhe jaate hain, upayukt upakaranon ke upayog dvaara 50-69 foot ki doori se padhe ja sakte hain.[73][74]
poore Europe mein aur vishesh roop se peris mein (pranaali RATP dvaara 1995 mein shuroo ki gayi), lion, bordo, grenobal, nainsi aur maarsile France mein, poore purtagaali raajamaarg vyavastha mein aur kai purtagaali saarvajanik car park mein, Milan, turin, Italy mein nepals aur floreins aur Belgium mein brasels, kailipso antararaashtreeya maanak ke anuroop RFID paas ka saarvajanik parivhan pranaali ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai. unka upayog ab Canada (mauntriyl), maiksiko, isaraail, Columbia mein bogota aur parera, naarve mein stavaangar, laksamabarg, aadi mein bhi kiya jaata hai.
27 fravari 2005 ko hue tambaakoo niyantran par WHO ke rooparekha samjhaute ka prabhaav pada. FCTC duniya ki pehli saarvajanik svaasthya sandhi hai. jin deshon ne is par hastaakshar kiye ve is baat par sahamat the ki ve aam lakshyon ki sthaapana, tambaakoo niyantran neeti ke liye nyoonatam maanak aur cigarette ki seema-paar taskari jaisi chunautiyon se nipatne mein sahayog sthaapit kareinge. vartamaan mein WHO ne ghoshit kiya hai ki 4 billion log is sandhi ki paridhi mein aayeinge, jis par 168 logon ne hastaakshar kiye hain.[82] doosare charan mein hastaaksharakarta saath milkar kaanoon banaayeinge jismein kaaryasthalon ke andar, saarvajanik parivhan, inador saarvajanik sthaanon aur jahaan tak upayukt ho anya saarvajanik sthaanon par dhoomrapaan par rok lagaayi jaayegi.
mobail divais dheere-dheere hamaare dainik jeevan mein praudyogikee jod rahe hain. kisee bhee samay kisee bhee smaartaphon ke bina kisee bhee samay dekhane ke lie yah durlabh hai, hamen vaastavik duniya mein vyaavahaarik roop se anant jaanakaaree tak pahunch pradaan kar raha hai. hamaare paas pahale se hee sait-too-stor kray kee tarah cheejen hain, jisase onalain graahakon ko bhautik khudara sthaan mein khareedane aur lene ke lie saksham kiya ja sakata hai, lekin agale star bhautik aur dijital vaastavikataon ke beech aur ekeekaran bhee hoga. amezain jaise onalain braand daish batan jaisee adhik bhautik utpaadon ko shuroo karana shuroo kar denge, aur volamaart jaisee bhautik braand adhik dijital suvidhaen shuroo kar denge, jaise stor maips aur utpaad pareekshan
kai adhyayanon ne yeh sthaapana ki hai ki cigarette ki bikri aur dhoomrapaan ke upayog ke samay sambandhi dhaanche alag hain. udaaharan ke liye, sanyukt raajya America mein cigarette ki bikri ka dhaancha kaafi had tak mausam se juda hua hai, garmi ke maheene mein iski bikri kaafi badh jaati hai, jabki sardiyon mein iski khapat kam ho jaati hai.[68]

Ecommerce Software Education & Campus Management School ManagementColleges & UniversitiesCampus ManagementLibrary ManagementEnterprise Resource PlanningHuman Resource Management HR SoftwarePayroll SoftwarePayroll OutsourcingAttendance ManagementTime ManagementTime Tracking SoftwareRecruiting SoftwarePerformance ManagementHospital, Clinic & Lab ManagementEMR & Clinic ManagementHospital Management


2002 mein bees pratishat yuva kishor (13-15) duniya bhar mein dhoomrapaan karte the. jismein se 80,000 ke 1,00,000 bachchon ne roj dhoomrapaan karna shuroo kiya tha- jinmein se lagbhag aadhe Asia mein rahate hain. jinhonne kishor umr mein dhoomrapaan shuroo kiya tha unamein se aadhe logon ke 15 se 20 saal tak dhoomrapaan jaari rakhane ka anumaan hai.[7]
2002 mein rog niyantran aur rokathaam kendra ne kaha ki sanyukt raajya America mein beche gaye cigarette ke ek packet par dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki chikitsa aur utpaadakata mein kshati ke roop mein desh ke 7 $ (dollar) se adhik kharch hote hain, jo prativrsh dhoomrapaan karne vaale prati vyakti par prativrsh $ 2000 se adhik baithata hai.[70] svaasthya arthashaastriyon ke ek dal ne ek anya adhyayan mein paaya ki unke parivaaron aur samaaj dvaara sanyukt pradatt moolya cigarette ke prati packet par 41 dollar hai.[83]
anya desh jo passport mein RFID lagaate hain, unamein shaamil hain Norway (2005)[34], Japan (1 March 2006), Spain Ireland aur Britain sahit Europeeya sangh ke adhikaansh desh (2006 ke aaspaas), Australia aur sanyukt raajya America (2007), Serbia (July 2008), Korea (August 2008), taaivaan (December 2008), albaaniya (January 2009), fileepeens (August 2009).
1612 mein jemsataaun ke avasthaapan ke chhah saal baad John raalf pehle adhivaasi hain jinhonne tambaakoo ki ek nakadi fasal ke roop mein safalataapoorvak kheti ki. tambaakoo ki maang mein teji se vruddhi hui, use "bhoora sona" kaha gaya, kyonki usane sone ke abhiyaan mein vifal varjeeniya ko share company mein punarjeevit kar diya.[21] puraani duniya ki maangon ko poora karne ke liye tambaakoo ki paidaavaar lagaataar ki gayi jiske parinaamasvaroop jameen ki urvara shakti sheegra hi kam ho gayi. isne pashchim ko ek agyaat mahaadveep mein basane ke liye prerak ka kaarya kiya aur isi tarah tambaakoo utpaadan ka ek vistaar hua.[22] bekan vidroh ke pehle tak anubandhit daasata hi praathamik shram bal ka aadhaar thi jiske kaaran das pratha par dhyaan kendrit hua.[23] yeh pravrutti ameriki kraanti ke baad kam hui aur daasapratha laabhaheen maani gayi. haalaanki yeh pratha 1794 mein punarjeevit ho gayi jab kapaas ki charkhi ka aavishkaar hua.[24][page needed]
sooparakandaktiviti ki khoj, raipid ekal flaks kvaantam (RSFQ) ke vikaas sarkit praudyogiki ko sambhav kar pai hai joki traanjistar ke bajaay josefasan jankshan ka upayog karta hai. haal hi mein, aise shuddh optikl kanpyooting pranaali ko banaane ka prayaas kiya gaya, joki naunaleeneear optikl tatvon ka prayog karke digital soochana sansaadhit karne mein saksham hai.
×