Singapore mein, saarvajanik parivhan ki bason aur trainon mein nishkriya RFID ko laagoo kiya gaya hai jise EZ-Link card ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. bheed bhare shahar ke aatanrik kshetron mein yaataayaat ko char tol dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai jise stord vailyoo card (kaishakaard ke roop mein gyaat) ke upayog ko ek sakriya taiging pranaali ke saath upayog dvaara laagoo kiya jaata hai.

kuchh pranaaliyon mein yadi digital deta ka ek bhaag lupt ho jaae ya galat tareeke se vyavahrut hon, to sambandhit deta ke vishaal khandon ka arth poori tarah se badal sakta hai. kyonki kleef ifekt ke kaaran, upayogakartaaon ke liye bataana mushkil hai ki koi vishisht system vifalta ke kagaar par sahi tha ya fir vah asafal hone se pehle bahut adhik shor ko sahan kar sakta hai ya naheen.
Prabhakar married Nirmala Sitaraman in 1986. They have a daughter. His mother was Congress MLA in Andhra Pradesh, while his father Parakala Seshavatharam was a long time Legislator and served in three successive Cabinets in the state of Andhra Pradesh in the 1970s and early 1980s. Parakala took his doctorate from London School of Economics. He did his Master of Arts (M.A.) and Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) from Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi.
ek baar input deta ko sahi maanane ke baad, khud dijaain ko abhi bhi shuddhata ke liye satyaapit kiya jaana chaahiye. kuchh upakaran pravaah, pehle ek dijaain ke utpaadan dvaara design ki pushti karte hain aur fir upakaran pravaah ke liye sangat input deta ke utpaadan ke liye design ki skaining karte hain. yadi scan kiya hua deta, input deta ke saath mel khaata hai, to upakaran pravaah ne shaayad koi trutiyaan pesh naheen ki.
riflekted power (modyuleted baikaskaitar) RFID taig ka ek bahut praarambhik pradarshan, nishkriya aur arddh-nishkriya, donon ka, steven dep, alfred koele aur Robert freman dvaara 1973 mein loss elaamos national leboretari mein kiya gaya.[2] yeh portebal pranaali 915 megaahartj par sanchaalit hoti thi aur 12-bit taig ka prayog karti thi. is takaneek ka upayog aaj ke adhikaansh UHFID aur maaikrovev RFID taig dvaara kiya jaata hai.
dendaari lekha ek aisa faail ya khaata hai, jismein vyakti ya company dvaara aapoortikrtaaon ko bakaaya, lekin ab tak adatt (karj ka ek roop) paisa hota hai. jab aapko beejak praapt hota hai, to aap use faail se jodte hain aur bhugataan karte samay use hataate hain. is prakaar, A/P rin ka ek aisa svaroop hai, jo aapoortikrta apne khreedaaron ko pesh karte hain, jiske jriye pehle se hi praapt kisi utpaad ya seva ke liye baad mein bhugataan anumat hota hai.
poorvi uttar ameriki janajaatiyaan vyaapaar ke ek sahaj sveekaar taiyaar mad ke roop mein tambaakoo ke paauch ka badi maatra mein apne paas rakhate hain aur aksar pipe se dhoomrapaan karte hain, chaahe vah paribhaashit samaaroh ho jise pavitra maana jaata hai ya saude ko pakka karne ke liye[17] aur ve ise jeevan ke sabhi charanon sabhi avsaron par peete hain, yahaan tak ki bachapan mein bhi.[18][page needed] aisi maanyata hai ki tambaakoo is jagat ke nirmaata se mila ek ek upahaar tha aur tambaakoo ke kash se nikla dhuaan us vyakti vishesh ke vichaaron aur praarthanaaon ko svarg tak le ja paane mein saksham hai.[19]
maariyo kaardullo ka saaaincha:US Patent 1973 mein aadhunik RFID ka pehla sachcha poorvaj tha; smruti wala ek nishkriya radio traansapondar. praarambhik upakaran nishkriya tha, jo poochh-taachh sanket ke dvaara sanchaalit hota tha aur 1971 mein New York port athauriti aur anya sambhaavit prayoktaaon ke liye iska pradarshan kiya gaya aur yeh ek tol upakaran ke roop mein istemaal ke liye 16 bit smruti ke saath ek traansapondar se bana tha. buniyaadi kaardullo peteint sanchaaran media ke roop mein RF, dhvani aur prakaash ke istemaal ko aavrut karta hai. 1969 mein, niveshakon ke saamane prastut mool vyaapaar yojana ne parivhan (otomotiv vaahan pehchaan, svachaalit tol pranaali, electronic license plate, electronic maalasoochi, vaahan maarg, vaahan pradarshan nigraani), banking (electronic check book, electronic kredit card), suraksha (karmiyon ki pehchaan, svachaalit dwaar, nigraani) aur chikitsa (pehchaan, rogi itihaas) mein iska istemaal dikhaaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
laujik gate ke haaidrolik, vaayaveeya aur yaantrik sanskaran maujood hain aur aisi sthitiyon mein istemaal kiye jaate hain jahaan bijli ka upayog naheen kiya ja sakta. pehle do prakaar ko fludeeks ke tahat maana jaata hai. fludeek laujik ka ek prayog, sainya haardaveyar mein hai jiske ek vidyut chumbakeeya pals mein ujaagar hone ki sambhaavana hai (parmaanu EMP, ya NEMP) jo bijli ke sarkit ko nasht karta hai.
sabse chhoti RFID chip ka record hitaachi ke naam hai jo 0.05mm x 0.05mm hai. Mu chip taig, nae RFID taig se 64 guna chhote hain.[7] vinirmaan silikaun-on-insuletar (SOI) prakriya ke upayog dvaara saksham hota hai. "dhoolakan" ke aakaar ke ye chips, 128 bit reed onli memori (ROM) ka upayog karke 38 ankon ki sankhya ko sangrahit kar sakte hain .[8] ek badi chunauti entena ko jodna hai, is prakaar pathan seema ko keval kuchh mileemeetar tak seemit kar diya.
jyaadaatar maamalon mein sanketo ki avastha ki sankhya do hoti hai aur in do avasthaaon ko do voltej staron dvaara darshaaya jaata hai: prayog mein aapoorti voltej ke aadhaar par ek va doosra (aamtaur par "jameeni" ya shoonya volt ke roop mein kaha jaata hai)| 1 uchch star par hota hai va 0 nimn star par. aksar ye donon star "lo" aur "haai" ke roop mein pratinidhitv karte hain.
sansthaan ki ye sahaayak khaata bahiyaaain hai. deya khaata bahi mein sansthaan ke sabhi deya khaate tatha praapya khaata bahi mein uske sabhi praapya khaate ankit rahate hain. yadi khaaton ki sankhya adhik hui to ek se adhik khaata bahiyaaain varnaanukram ya bhaugolik aadhaar par suvidhaanusaar bhi ye bahiyaaain rakhi jaati hai. sansthaan ke samaanya khaate mein bhi deya tatha praapya dhan ka aalekh rahata hai. in khaata bahiyon ki alag vyavastha shramavibhaajan ke sahaj laabh ke kaaran ki jaati hai kyonki iske dvaara vitt vibhaag ko baaaint kar tatha alag svatantr roop se bhi kaam karne mein sahaayata milti hai. saath hi shram aur samay ki bachat hoti hai. hisaab kitaab ke Milan mein bhi isse sahaayata milti hai kyonki sansthaan ke saamaanya khaate se in bahiyon ke khaate ka santulan samay samay par hota rahata hai jisse bhool chook ki chhaanabeen bhi aasaani se ho jaati hai. bade vyaapaarik sansthaanon mein in sahaayak bahiyon ka upayog vyaapak paimaane par kiya jaata hai.
Germany mein dhoomrapaan virodhi samooh aksar sharaab virodhi samoohon ke saath jud gaye,[30] tambaakoo ke sevan ke khilaaf der taibakajejaner Der Tabakgegner (tambaakoo pratidvandvi) patrika mein 1912 aur 1932 mein prakaashit lekh mein pehli baar vakaalat ki gayi. san 1929 mein Germany ke dresaden ke fritj likint ne ek lekh prakaashit kiya jismein fefadon ke Cancer-tobaiko link ka aupachaarik saankhyikeeya saboot tha. edaulf hitlar ne ghanaghor avasaad ke dauraan dhoomrapaan karne ki lat ko paise ki barabaadi kehkar ninda ki thi aur baad mein usane drudh vaktavya diye.[31] yeh aandolan aage chalakar naaji prajanan neeti ke kaaran aur majboot hua jismein mahilaaon ke dhoomrapaan ko ek jarman parivaar mein patniyon aur maataaon ke liye anupayukt maana gaya.[32]
For stock tracking you can search or use Portfolio to monitor your investments and add your preferred stock to the Watchlist section. Stay updated with the a range of news covered in our News and Personal Finance sections. Get market calls during the market hours and in-depth coverage and analysis of the financial markets with real-time market wire feature.
I Am Rahul Sankhala Founder of HAMARA VYAPAR this company part of Sankhala Services, which started in 2010. Income tax, SALES tax, service tax and all type business registration and all kinds of advice as a small firm in my life It was given in the firm and today even this work continues in this firm. In the beginning I have to face big difficulties in this work because people Due to being a new firm and not having my CA, my firm was afraid to work At that time, there was a little disappointment, but did not give up on the condition that today the condition of the smallest firm started with the help of the services, it has raised its rank very high..

2002 ke baad se taaipei, taaivaan mein parivhan pranaali, kiraaya sangrah ke liye RFID sanchaalit card ka upayog karti hai. iji card ko sthaaneeya suvidha store aur metro stationon par chaarj kiya ja sakta hai aur metro, bason aur parking mein istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. upayog ko bhavishya mein taaivaan ke sampoorn taapoo mein laagoo karne ki yojana hai.
gair electronic digital tantr nirmaan sambhav hai. siddhaant roop mein, asatat state ka pratinidhitv aur laujik kaaryon ka pratinidhitv karne mein saksham kisi bhi takaneek ka istemaal yaantrik laujik banaane ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. MIT ke chhaatron, erleen gi, Edward haardabek, daini hilis (the kanekshan machine ke sah-lekhak), maargaret minsaki aur bairi aur Brian silvaraman bhaai, ne tinkar khilaune, string, ek int aur ek teevr peinsil se do computer ka nirmaan kiya.[3] tinkaratauya computer, Boston vigyaan sangrahaalaya mein hai.
laujik gate ke haaidrolik, vaayaveeya aur yaantrik sanskaran maujood hain aur aisi sthitiyon mein istemaal kiye jaate hain jahaan bijli ka upayog naheen kiya ja sakta. pehle do prakaar ko fludeeks ke tahat maana jaata hai. fludeek laujik ka ek prayog, sainya haardaveyar mein hai jiske ek vidyut chumbakeeya pals mein ujaagar hone ki sambhaavana hai (parmaanu EMP, ya NEMP) jo bijli ke sarkit ko nasht karta hai.

udaaharan ke liye baitari sanchaalit selyular telephone aksar ek kam shakti ke enaalaug agrasira ke istemaal se base station se radio signal badhaane aur sangati bithaane ke liye karti hai. haalaanki ek base station ke paas grid ki shakti hoti hai aur apekshit vidyut ka prayog kar sakti hai, lekin bahut lacheele software radio mein. is tarah ke base stationon ke liye aasaani se nae selular maanakon mein prayukt sanket prakriya ko aasaani se riprograam kiya ja sakta hai.
baithakon aur sammelanon mein bhi upasthiti baij mein RFID praudyogiki laagoo ki ja rahi hai taaki sammelanon mein logon ko track kiya ja sake. isse jo aankada upalabdh hota hai usase pata chalta hai ki logon ne din ke samay kis kamre mein pravesh kiya aur baahar gaye.[51] yeh data aayojakon ko dikhaane ke liye upalabdh hota hai taaki sammelan ki saamagri aur dijaain mein sudhaar karne mein unki madad ki ja sake. pradarshaniyon mein pradarshakon ke liye netrutv bahaali prakriya mein sudhaar karne ke liye bhi RFID ka upayog kiya ja raha hai.
haalaanki, is baat par bahas chal rahi hai ki kab aur kahaan pustakaalayon mein pratham baar RFID shuroo hua, ise pehli baar ek takaneek ke roop mein pustakaalaya seting mein kaaryapravaah mein vruddhi karne hetu 1990 ke dashak mein prastaavit kiya gaya. pustakaalayon mein sarvapratham RFID shuroo karne vaalon mein nishchit roop se Singapore hai aur New York mein raukafelar vishvavidyaalaya is takaneek ka upayog karne wala sanyukt raajya America mein pehla shaikshanik pustakaalaya hai, jabki Michigan mein Farmington Community Library is takaneek ka upayog karne waali pehli saarvajanik sanstha hai, donon ne 1999 mein RFID ka upayog shuroo kiya. Europe mein, RFID ka upayog karne wala pratham saarvajanik pustakaalaya Netherland mein hoogejand-saipemeer mein hai, jahaan 2001 mein lenevaalon ko ek vikalp diya gaya. unhein aashcharyachakit karte hue, bujurg logon sahit 70% ne RFID vikalp ka prayog kiya aur jaldi hi anukoolit ho gaye.
V.A.Arun Kumar, son of V. S. Achuthanandan, was appointed as Additional Director for the Institute of Human Resources Development (IHRD), a state owned organization controlling a handful of state owned engineering colleges, technical schools and other institutions. This appointment is alleged to be irregular.[37][38][39][40] It has been alleged that changes were made in the notification for appointing Mr. Arun Kumar and the existing qualifications of additional director were amended to enable V. A. Arun Kumar to apply for the post.[37] This issue in now facing a Lokayukta enquiry as well as a Vigilance[41][42] enquiry. He is facing yet another Lokayuktha enquiry regarding allegations related to the Model Finishing School of (IHRD).[43]
Shalini, an illegitimate daughter of Sukanya, but making Sukanya believe that kid is dead & married off to another person with whom she gives birth to 2 children. The emotional drama between daughter and mother when Shalini goes to Sukanya's house, both unaware of their relationship, Sukanya tortures her own daughter for the sake of her legal daughter, Anu, but Shalini supports Sukanya always. It is about negative shaded Anu ill-treating her sister, Shalini, even after knowing the relationship they both share.
riflekted power (modyuleted baikaskaitar) RFID taig ka ek bahut praarambhik pradarshan, nishkriya aur arddh-nishkriya, donon ka, steven dep, alfred koele aur Robert freman dvaara 1973 mein loss elaamos national leboretari mein kiya gaya.[2] yeh portebal pranaali 915 megaahartj par sanchaalit hoti thi aur 12-bit taig ka prayog karti thi. is takaneek ka upayog aaj ke adhikaansh UHFID aur maaikrovev RFID taig dvaara kiya jaata hai.
digital masheenein, pehli baar upayogi tab bani jab ek svich ke liye MTBF kuchh sau ghante se oopar ho gaya. fir bhi, inmein se kai masheenon mein jatiltaaen theen, achhi tarah se abhyaas ki jaane waali marammat prakriyaaen aur ek tube ke jal jaane ya ek keet ke ek rile mein fans jaane ke kaaran kai ghanton tak kaam naheen karateen thi. aadhunik traanjistar krut ekeekrut paripth laujik gate mein lagbhag ek treeliyn ghante ka MTBFs hai (1 × 1012)),[krupaya uddharan jodein] aur unki jaroorat hai kyonki unke paas bahut saare laujik gate hai.

isi prakaar ki samaan praudyogiki, jaise United Kingdom mein 1915 mein aavishkaar ki gayi IFF traansapondar, ka dviteeya vishv yuddh mein mitr raashtron dvaara vimaanon ki dost ya dushman ke roop mein pehchaan karne ke liye niyamit roop se istemaal kiya gaya. abhi bhi traansapondar ka, atyadhik shaktishaali vimaan dvaara aaj bhi prayog kiya jaata hai. RFID ki padtaal karta ek anya kaarya, 1948 ka Harry staukaman ka mahatvapoorn pepar hai, jiska sheershak tha "kamyunikeshan baai meens of riflekted power" (IRE ki kaaryavaahi, pp 1196–1204, October 1948). staukaman ne bhavishyavaani ki ki "... riflekted-power sanchaar mein shesh buniyaadi samasyaaon ko hal karne aur upayogi anuprayogon ke kshetr ka pata lagaane se pehle kaafi anusandhaan aur vikaas ka kaam kiya jaana hai."
kai deshon jaise Ireland, laataviya, estoniya, Netherland, France, Finland, naarve, Canada, Australia, sveedan, Portugal, Singapore, Italy, Indonesia, Bhaarat, lithuaaniya, chili, Spain, aaisalaind, United Kingdom, sloveniya aur maalta ne saarvajanik sthaanon par dhoomrapaan ke khilaaf kaanoon banaaye hain, jinmein baar aur restaurant bhi shaamil hain. restaurant mein bhi kuchh nyaayaalayon ne anumati di hai ki ve sunishchit dhoomrapaan kshetron (ya dhoomrapaan nishedh ke liye) ka nirmaan karein. sanyukt raajya America mein kai raajyon mein restaurant mein dhoomrapaan nishedh hai aur kuchh sharaabakhaanon mein bhi dhoomrapaan nishedh hai. Canada ke praanton mein inador kaaryasthalon aur saarvajanik sthaanon par dhoomrapaan avaidh hai jinmein sharaabakhaane aur restaurant bhi shaamil hain. 31 March 2008 ko Canada ne sabhi saarvajanik sthaanon par dhoomrapaan par pratibandh lagaaya, saath hi saath kisi bhi saarvajanik jagah ke pravesh dwaar ke 10 meter ke bheetar bhi yeh pratibandh laagoo hai. Australia mein dhoomrapaan par pratibandh har raajya mein alag-alag hai. vartamaan mein kveensalaind mein sabhi saarvajanik sthalon ke androoni hisson mein dhoomrapaan par poornataya pratibandh hai (jinmein kaaryasthal, sharaabakhaane, pab aur bhojanaalaya shaamil hain) saath hi saath aavaajaahi vaale samudra tat aur kuchh saarvajanik sthalon ke baahari kshetr shaamil hain. tathaapi, chihnit dhoomrapaan kshetr apavaad hain. Victoria mein train stationon, bas staap aur train staap par dhoomrapaan nishiddh hai aur in saarvajanik sthaanon par jahaan dhoomrapaan se parivhan ka intajaar kar raha gair dhoomrapaan karne wala prabhaavit ho sakta hai aur 1 July 2007 se use sabhi inador saarvajanik sthalon par laagoo kar diya gaya hai. New Zealand aur Brazil mein saarvajanik sthaanon se sanlagn kshetr mein dhoomrapaan karne par pratibandh laga diya hai, jismein mukhya roop se sharaabakhaana, restaurant aur pab shaamil hai. Hongkong mein 1 January 2007 ko kaaryasthal mein dhoomrapaan par pratibandh laga diya gaya jaise restaurant, karaaoke rooms, imaaraton aur saarvajanik park. sharaab parosane vaale baar jinmein 18 varsh ki aayu se kam ke logon ko pravesh naheen dete, ko 2009 tak chhoot di gayi. romaaniya mein railgaadiyon, metro stationon, saarvajanik sansthaanon (jahaan aamtaur par nirdisht sthal baahar hai) aur saarvajanik parivhan mein dhoomrapaan avaidh hai.
Parakala took his Ph.D from renowned London School of Economics. He submitted a thesis "Security Doctrines and Foreign Policy Behaviour: A Study of Brazil, Ghana and Indonesia". He worked for his thesis in the International Relations Department under the supervision of Dr Christopher Coker. Before joining the LSE, he went to Jawaharlal Nehru University (School of International Studies) for his MA and MPhil degrees. He did his graduation from Andhra Loyola College in Vijayawada. First year of his Intermediate was from Hyderabad and for the second year of the course he went back to his native town Narasapuram. In Hyderabad he attended Nampally Junior College and in Narasapuram he went to Sri YN College. His schooling was also in two places. His primary and secondary education was in Narasapuram. He went to Lakshminarasamamba Municipal school for his primary education. He went to Mission High School for his High School. He did his tenth partly in Narasapuram and partly in Peoples' High School in Himayatnagar, Hyderabad.

sarkaarein, yaataayaat prabandhan ke liye RFID anuprayogon ka upayog karti hain, jabki motor vaahan companiyaan, utpaad prabandhan ke liye vibhinn RFID traiking samaadhaan ka upayog karti hain. in samaadhaanon mein se kai, bhavishya mein ek saath kaam kar sakte hain, haalaanki gopaneeyata niyam kai pahal ko us gati mein aage badhne se rokate hain jiski takaneek anumati deta hai.

haai-freekveinsi RFID ya HFID/HighFID taig pustakaalaya ki pustakon ya kitaabon ki dukaan ki traiking, gahanon ki traiking, pailet traiking, abhigm niyantran nirmaan, airline saamaan traiking aur paridhaan aur davaaon ki traiking. haai-freekveinsi taig, vyaapak roop se pehchaan baij mein prayukt hote hain jinhonne pehle ke maignetik-straaip card ka sthaan liya. dhaarak ko pramaanit karne ke liye in baij ko reedar se ek nishchit doori ke bheetar rakhana hota hai. American express blue kredit card mein ab ek HighFID taig shaamil hai. fravari 2008 mein, ameeraat airline ne London aur dubai havaai addon par RFID saamaan traiking ka pareekshan shuroo kiya.
poore Europe mein aur vishesh roop se peris mein (pranaali RATP dvaara 1995 mein shuroo ki gayi), lion, bordo, grenobal, nainsi aur maarsile France mein, poore purtagaali raajamaarg vyavastha mein aur kai purtagaali saarvajanik car park mein, Milan, turin, Italy mein nepals aur floreins aur Belgium mein brasels, kailipso antararaashtreeya maanak ke anuroop RFID paas ka saarvajanik parivhan pranaali ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai. unka upayog ab Canada (mauntriyl), maiksiko, isaraail, Columbia mein bogota aur parera, naarve mein stavaangar, laksamabarg, aadi mein bhi kiya jaata hai.

baharahaal, pathan seema, reedar aur taig, donon ka hi ek kaarya hai. praudyogiki ke kshetr mein sudhaar se taig ki pathan seema mein vruddhi ki ja sakti hai. reedar ke taig ke bahut paas hone se kam doori ke taig pathaneeya ho jaate hain. aam taur par, ek taig ki pathan seema ko reedar se utani doori par seemit kiya jaata hai jis par taig, reedar kshetr se taig ko niyantrit karne ke liye paryaapt oorja kheench sake. ek reedar ki shakti ko badhaakar, taig ko unke liye niyat doori se adhik door se padha ja sakta hai. pathan doori par seema, tab reedar ko taig se vaapas bheje gaye sanket ka signal-tu-nauej anupaat ban jaata hai. do suraksha sammelanon mein shodhakartaaon ne dikhaaya ki nishkriya Ultra-HighFID taig, ameriki passport mein prayukt HighFID prakaar vaale naheen, jo aamtaur par 30 feet tak padhe jaate hain, upayukt upakaranon ke upayog dvaara 50-69 foot ki doori se padhe ja sakte hain.[73][74]


RFID suraksha ko lekar ek praathamik chinta RFID taig ki avaidh traiking hai. taig, jo vaishvik roop se pathaneeya hain, ve niji sthaan gopaneeyata aur kaurporet/sainya suraksha, donon ke liye khatra paida kar rahe hain. is tarah ki chintaaen, ameriki raksha vibhaag dvaara haal mein aapoorti shrrunkhala prabandhan ke liye RFID taig ko apnaane se uthaai gayi hain.[63] aam taur par, gopaneeyata sangathanon ne electronic utpaad code (EPC) RFID taig ko upabhokta utpaadon mein sannihit karne ke chal rahe prayaason ke sandarbh mein chinta vyakt ki hai.

ZDNet ke anusaar, aalochakon ka maanana hai ki is praudyogiki se kisi vyakti ki har gatividhi par nazar rakha jaaega aur yeh gopaneeyata par ek aakraman hoga. vivaad is baat par hai ki aalochak maanate hain ki sarkaar dvaara iska durupayog hoga. kuchh log aise bhavishya ki avadhaarana pesh karte hain jahaan har gatividhi par sarkaar ki nazar hogi.[86] Cathrine albrekt ke spaaichips: how major korporeshan end gavarnameint plaan tu track yor evri moov vith RFID, se ek vyakti ko "gair-nijta waali duniya ki kalpana" ke liye protsaahit kiya jaata hai. "jahaan aapki har khareed ki nigraani aur ek detaabes mein darj ki jaati hai aur aapki har cheej sankhyaabaddh hai. jiske tahat, kisi anya sudoor raajya ke ya shaayad kisi doosare desh ke vyakti ke paas aapki har khareed ka byaura hoga. aur kya, unka pata lagaaya ja sakta hai aur door se najar rakhi ja sakti hai."[87] seedhe shabdon mein kahein, shadayantrakaareeyon ka tark hai ki RFID chip ke saath sarkaar ek vyakti ko bhaan hue bina hi usaki gopaneeyata bhang kar sakti hai.
gair electronic digital tantr nirmaan sambhav hai. siddhaant roop mein, asatat state ka pratinidhitv aur laujik kaaryon ka pratinidhitv karne mein saksham kisi bhi takaneek ka istemaal yaantrik laujik banaane ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. MIT ke chhaatron, erleen gi, Edward haardabek, daini hilis (the kanekshan machine ke sah-lekhak), maargaret minsaki aur bairi aur Brian silvaraman bhaai, ne tinkar khilaune, string, ek int aur ek teevr peinsil se do computer ka nirmaan kiya.[3] tinkaratauya computer, Boston vigyaan sangrahaalaya mein hai.

poore Europe mein aur vishesh roop se peris mein (pranaali RATP dvaara 1995 mein shuroo ki gayi), lion, bordo, grenobal, nainsi aur maarsile France mein, poore purtagaali raajamaarg vyavastha mein aur kai purtagaali saarvajanik car park mein, Milan, turin, Italy mein nepals aur floreins aur Belgium mein brasels, kailipso antararaashtreeya maanak ke anuroop RFID paas ka saarvajanik parivhan pranaali ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai. unka upayog ab Canada (mauntriyl), maiksiko, isaraail, Columbia mein bogota aur parera, naarve mein stavaangar, laksamabarg, aadi mein bhi kiya jaata hai.
2005 ke roop mein lagbhag sabhi digital masheenein tulyakaalik design hote hain kyonki tulyakaalik design ko banaana aur satyaapit karna bahut aasaan hai-vartamaan mein digital masheenon ki nakl karne vaale sauftaver, atulyakaalik design ko naheen sanbhaalate. tathaapi, atulyakaalik tark ko behtar samjha jaata hai, yadi usase kaam nikaala ja sake to, kyonki usaki gati ghadi dvaara manamaane dhang se gati seemit naheen hai, bajaay, yeh un laujik geton dvaara anumat gati par saamaanya roop se chalti hai, jinse inka nirmaan kiya gaya hai. tej bhaagon ke upayog dvaara ek atulyakaalik sarkit nirmaan, apratyaksh roop se sarkit ko teji se "daudaati" hai.

ZDNet ke anusaar, aalochakon ka maanana hai ki is praudyogiki se kisi vyakti ki har gatividhi par nazar rakha jaaega aur yeh gopaneeyata par ek aakraman hoga. vivaad is baat par hai ki aalochak maanate hain ki sarkaar dvaara iska durupayog hoga. kuchh log aise bhavishya ki avadhaarana pesh karte hain jahaan har gatividhi par sarkaar ki nazar hogi.[86] Cathrine albrekt ke spaaichips: how major korporeshan end gavarnameint plaan tu track yor evri moov vith RFID, se ek vyakti ko "gair-nijta waali duniya ki kalpana" ke liye protsaahit kiya jaata hai. "jahaan aapki har khareed ki nigraani aur ek detaabes mein darj ki jaati hai aur aapki har cheej sankhyaabaddh hai. jiske tahat, kisi anya sudoor raajya ke ya shaayad kisi doosare desh ke vyakti ke paas aapki har khareed ka byaura hoga. aur kya, unka pata lagaaya ja sakta hai aur door se najar rakhi ja sakti hai."[87] seedhe shabdon mein kahein, shadayantrakaareeyon ka tark hai ki RFID chip ke saath sarkaar ek vyakti ko bhaan hue bina hi usaki gopaneeyata bhang kar sakti hai.
sanyukt raajya America mein cigarette kar alag-alag raajyon mein ek doosare se vyaapak roop se bhinn hai. udaaharan ke liye dakshin kairolina mein ek packet par keval 7 seint hai, jo desh ka nyoonatam hai, jabki road aailaind mein America ka uchchatam sitret tax prati packet $ 3.46 hai. Alabama mein, ilinois, misauri, New York shahar, Tennessee aur varjeeniya, kaauntiyon aur shaharon cigarette ki keemat par ek atirikt seemit kar laagoo hain.[87] uchch kar dar ke kaaran new jersey mein cigarette ke ek ausat packet ki keemat $ 6.45 hai,[88][89] jo abhi bhi cigarette ke ek packet ki anumaanit baahya laagat se bhi kam hai.
usi samay, nae ekeekrut paripth (ICs) eliyn, impinj aur NXP (poorv mein Philips) dvaara shuroo kiye gaye jisne behtar pradarshan dikhaaya aur IT parisanpatti nigraani anuprayog mein visfot hua. aaj ki taareekh mein isko bruhat paimaane par apnaane vaale bank of America aur vels faarago prateet hote hain - pratyek ki ek darjan se adhik deta kendron mein 100,000 se adhik parisanpatti hai.[16]
June 1967 mein sangheeya sanchaar aayog ne nirnaya liya ki TV station par dhoomrapaan aur svaasthya charcha ka prasaaran aparyaapt hai aur vah bhugataan kiye jaane vaale un vijnyaaapanon ki kami poori naheen kar paate jo paanch se das minute roj prasaarit hote hain. April 1970 mein Congress ne television aur radio par cigarette ke vigyaapan par pratibandh lagaane vaale jan svaasthya cigarette dhoomrapaan adhiniyam ko paarit kar diya, jo 2 January 1971 ko laagoo hua.[92]
2002 mein rog niyantran aur rokathaam kendra ne kaha ki sanyukt raajya America mein beche gaye cigarette ke ek packet par dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki chikitsa aur utpaadakata mein kshati ke roop mein desh ke 7 $ (dollar) se adhik kharch hote hain, jo prativrsh dhoomrapaan karne vaale prati vyakti par prativrsh $ 2000 se adhik baithata hai.[70] svaasthya arthashaastriyon ke ek dal ne ek anya adhyayan mein paaya ki unke parivaaron aur samaaj dvaara sanyukt pradatt moolya cigarette ke prati packet par 41 dollar hai.[83]
lekin, January 2009 mein saims club ne paalan na karne par lagne vaale jurmaane ko kaafi kam kar diya, jise usane prati pailet $2 se ghataakar sirf 12 seint prati pailet kar diya. Wall-Mart ka anumaan hai ki saims ke liye khud taiging karne par prati pailet 12 seint ka kharcha aaega. saims ne yeh bhi ghoshana ki ki pailet-stareeya taiging ko 2010 mein poori shrrunkhala bhar mein shuroo kiye jaane ki ummeed hai, jabki vyaktigat vastu par taiging ki samay seema "vichaaraadheen" hai.

jab se digital sarkit enaalaug ghatakon se bana hain digital sarkit lo-prisishn se bhi dheere ganana karta hai jo ek samaan space aur shakti ka prayog karta hai. haalaanki digital sarkit iske uchch shor unmukti ke kaaran baar-baar aakalan kar paaega. doosari or, uchch parishuddhata domen mein (udaaharan ke liye jahaan parishuddhata ke liye 14 ya adhik bits ki aavashyakta hai) enaalaug sarkit ko adhik shakti aur digital samakaksh kshetr ki aavashyakta hai.

nirpeksh sankhya mein duniya bhar mein, RFID sanyukt raajya America mein sabse adhik istemaal kiya jaata hai (apne 300 million nivaasiyon ke saath), jiske baad United Kingdom aur Japan ka sthaan hai. anumaan hai ki duniya bhar mein 30 million se adhik pustakaalaya saamagriyon par ab RFID taig laga hai jismein rom mein Vatican laaibreri mein kuchh shaamil hain.[29]


cigarette ke maamale mein French "chhota sigaar" dhoomrapaan ka ek utpaad hai jise patali tambaakoo ki pattiyon ko ant mein kaatkar aur tambaakoo ka punargathan kar theek se taiyaar kiya jaata hai, aksar ise anya yogaj ke saath sanyukt kar ek velanaakaar kaagaj mein lapet diya jaata hai.[8] cigarette aamtaur par sulagaakar usaka dhuaan ek selooloj eseetet filtar ke maadhyam se munh aur fefadon mein kheencha jaata hai. cigarette peena tambaakoo-sevan ka sabse aam tareeka hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
baajaar mein aise kai utpaad upalabdh hain jo RFID saksham card ya passport ke sambandhit vaahak ko apne deta ke parirkshan ki anumati deinge. balki ab to, sanyukt raajya America ki sarkaar ne apne nae karmachaari ID card ke liye ek anumodit parirkshan aasteen ya lifaafe ke saath use bhejana aavashyak kar diya hai.[68] is baat ko lekar virodhaabhaasi vichaar vyaapt hain ki kya elyoominiym RFID chip ke padhne ko rok sakta hai. kuchh logon ka daava hai ki elyoominiym parirkshan, jo moolat: ek fairaade pinjare ka nirmaan karta hai, bilkul kaam karta hai.[69] doosaron ka daava hai ki elyoomeeniym panni mein ek RFID card ko sirf lapetne se keval prasaaran mein aur adhik baadha aati hai, isliye poori tarah se ise rokane mein kaaragar naheen hai.[70]
Well many many congratulations to the creator of this Amazing App to manage business. I own a Mobile Repair Shop and managing my stock, sale, purchase, ledger, expenses, profit and loss, monthly sales, party statement, reminders for payment and stock, and most importantly billing and I can also use my logo on my bills. And the customer care is also great. They respond within hours.
America mein khaadya evam aushadhi prashaasan ne maanavon mein RFID chip ke prayog ko manjoori di hai.[80] kuchh vyaavasaayik pratishthaan, graahakon ko seva ke bhugataan ke liye ek RFID-aadhaarit taib ke upayog ka vikalp dete hain, jaise Barcelona mein baaja beech night club.[81] isse ek vyakti ki gopaneeyata sambandhit chintaaen badh gayi hain choonki ve jahaan bhi ve jaayeinge unhein unke ek adviteeya pahachaanakarta dvaara sambhaavit roop se track kiya ja sakta hai. chintaaen vyaapt hain ki ek adhinaayakavaadi sarkaar dvaara iska durupayog kiya ja sakta hai ya svatantrata ko hataane mein falit ho sakta hai.[82]
anya desh jo passport mein RFID lagaate hain, unamein shaamil hain Norway (2005)[34], Japan (1 March 2006), Spain Ireland aur Britain sahit Europeeya sangh ke adhikaansh desh (2006 ke aaspaas), Australia aur sanyukt raajya America (2007), Serbia (July 2008), Korea (August 2008), taaivaan (December 2008), albaaniya (January 2009), fileepeens (August 2009).
Europeeya sangh mein 1991 se television without frantiyrs direktiv (1989)[93] ke tahat sabhi tambaakoo vigyaapan aur television par praayojan pratibandhit kar diya, is pratibandh ko television vigyaapan nideshaalaya dvaara vistaarit kiya gaya jo July 2005 ko amal mein aaya jismein media ke anya roopon ko bhi shaamil kar liya gaya jaise Internet, print media aur radio. yeh nirdesh cinemagharon mein vigyaapan, hording ya bikri ke prayog par - ya saanskrutik aayojanon, khel ki pratiyogitaaon par laagoo naheen hota, jo poori tarah sthaaneeya hote hain, jiske sahabhaagiyon mein keval ek sadasya raajya hota hai,[94] kyonki yeh sab Europeeya aayog ke kshetraadhikaar se baahar aata hai. tathaapi, adhikaansh sadasya nirdesh ko apne desh ke kaanoon ke anusaar sthaanaantarit kar dete hain unke kshetr ko vyaapak kar dete hain aur sthaaneeya vigyaapan lete karte hain. Europeeya aayog ki 2008 ki ek report ne nishkarsh nikaala ki nirdesh ka sabhi Europeeya sangh ke sadasya raajyon mein safalataapoorvak raashtreeya kaanoon mein sthaanaantaran ho gaya hai aurain kaanoonon ko achhi tarah se laagoo kiya gaya.[95]
kai deshon ne tambaakoo karaadhaan ke kuchh tareeke laagoo kiye hain. 1997 mein Denmark mein cigarette ke pratyek packet par 4.02 dollar ka uchchatam kar bojh tha. taaivaan mein pratyek packet par keval 0.62 dollar ka kar bojh tha. vartamaan mein sanyukt raajya America mein sigreton par moolya aur utpaad kar ka ausat kai anya audyogik deshon se neeche hai.[86]

si pi aar I vaidyut shikt injeeniyri mein anuprayukt anusandhaan ke liye kein ke roop mein kaam karne ke alaava vidyut upaskar ke pareekshan aur pramaaneekaran ko sampann karne ke liye ek pradhaan nikaaya ke roop mein kaayarrat hai. sansthaan sthit maaneetaran evam kshetr nidaan, oorja pareekshan tatha vitran pranaali prabandhan ke alaava utpaad abhiklp tatha vikaas (design evam development) ke liye paraamarsh sevaaeain pradaan karta hai aur saath hi desh ke donon taap tatha jal vidyut sanyantron ke liye shesh aayu nirdhaaran/naveekaran evam aadhuneenakeekaran adhyayan tatha aayu vistaran adhyayan sampann karta hai.

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