agar system vaanchhit degree ki vishvastata ke pratinidhitv karne ke liye paryaapt digital deta ka bhandaaran karta hai to parimaaneekaran truti ko kam kiya ja sakta hai. ek nirdhaarit enaalaug sanket ko theek-theek prastut karne ke liye kitni digital data ki aavashyakta hoti hai usaki jaankaari naaikvist-shaannon namoona prameya ek mahatvapoorn nirdesh pradaan karta hai.
dhoomrapaan ka itihaas bahut puraana 5000-3000 E.poo. ke pehle se raha hai jab dakshin America mein krushi utpaadon ki kheti shuroo hui thi; usaka baad mein prayog paudhe ke padaarth ko jalaakaar istemaal ya to durghatanaavash shuroo hua ya upabhog ke anya saadhan ki khoj ke iraade se viksit hua.[1] iska upayog jhaad-foonk ke anushthaanon mein apni tarah se hota raha.[16][page needed] kai praacheen sabhyataaon mein jaise kasadiyon, bhaarateeyon aur cheeniyon mein dhoop jalaana ek dhaarmik anushtaan ka ek bhaag hai, jaise isaraailiyon aur baad ke Catholic aur roodhivaadi krishchiyn church jalaate hain. America mein dhoomrapaan ka mool sanbhavat: jhaadfoonk ke samaarohon mein dhoop jalaane se hua hai lekin baad mein aanand ke liye ya fir ek saamaajik upakaran ke roop mein apnaaya gaya.[2] tambaakoo aur vibhinn helusinojenik (hallucinogenic) nasheele padaarthon ka prayog tanmayaavastha aur aatma ki duniya se sampark mein aane ke liye kiya jaata tha.
Indian Navy claimed that the 300-Watt panels will generate about 5.4 kW solar power system, and avoid around 165 kg of carbon a day, "So in its 25 years life the total carbon saved is around 15 lakhs kg and 5.75 lakh litres of diesel by this innovation" [14][15] Noting that the world is looking for clean, renewable sources of energy in order to protect and reduce the harm caused to the environment, the Navy said the deterioration of the environment is highly correlated to the production and usage of fossil-based fuels worldwide. The Navy said it has created a new mechanism to encourage the utilization and development of renewable energy resources.[16]
puraane samay ke dhoomrapaan karne vaale prasiddh vyakti apni chhavi ke ek hisse ke roop mein cigarette ya pipe ka istemaal karte the, jaise jeen paul saartr kigauloise -brand ki cigarette,albart aainsteen,Joseph staalin, dagalas maikaaarthar, bartreind Russel, bing krosbi ki paaipein ya samaachaar prasaaranakartaEdward aar. murro ki cigarette. kuchh khaas lekhak dhoomrapaan ke liye jaane jaate the, udaaharan ke liye dekhein kaurnel professor richrd clean ki kitaab sigrets aar sabalaaim, French saahitya ke is professor ki bhoomika ne baad mein 19 veen aur 20 veen sadi mein dhoomrapaan mein bhoomika nibhaai. lokapriya lekhak kart vonnegut ne apne upanyaason mein cigarette peene ki apni lat ka ullekh kiya hai. Britain ke pradhaanamantri herold Wilson saarvajanik taur par pipe peene ke liye vikhyaat the aur vinstan charchil ko sigaar ke liye jaana jaata hai. sar aarthar kaunan dauyal dvaara racha gaya kaalpanik jaasoos sharlak holmas "apne London ke jeevan ke sust dinon mein jab kuchh naheen ho raha hota tha to apne atyadhik kriyaasheel mastishk ko vyast rakhane ke liye" khud ko kokeen ke injekshan lagaane ke alaava pipe, cigarette aur sigaar peeta tha. DC vertigo kaumik book (haasya pustak) mein elan moor ka paatr John kaanstestaain dhoomrapaan ka paryaaya ban gaya hai, itna ki pehli kahaani ke paraamarsh nirmaata garth inees ne use John kaanstestaain ke fefadon ke Cancer ke aaspaas keindrit kar diya. peshevar pahalavaan James fulingatan ne haalaanki bahut din se dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ko durbhaagya ko aamantrit karne vaale ek charitra "saindamain" (pariyon ki kahaaniyon ka ek bauna, jo bachchon ki aankhon mein ret jhonkakar unhein sone ke liye vivsh kar deta tha) ki sanjnyaa di hai.
web aadhaarit prabandhan upakaran, sangathanon ko apni sampatti ki nigraani ki anumati dete hue duniya mein kaheen se bhi prabandhan ke faisale karne mein saksham karte hain. web aadhaarit anuprayog ka ab matlab hai ki, teesara paksh, jaise vinirmaata aur thekedaar ko parisanpatti deta ko adyatan karne ke liye pahunch di ja sakti hai, udaaharan ke liye jismein shaamil hai, nireekshan itihaas aur online pralekhan hastaantaran jo yeh sunishchit karta hai ki antim upayogakarta ke paas hamesha sahi, rial-time data ho. sangathan, pehle se hi mobile parisanpatti prabandhan samaadhaan ke saath RFID taig ko sanyojit karke apni sampatti ko darj karne aur uske sthaan par najar rakhane, usaki vartamaan sthiti aur unka rakh-rakhaav kiya gaya hai ya naheen, yeh jaanane ke liye prayog kar rahe hain.

January, 2005 mein, Wall-Mart ne apne sheersh 100 aapoortikrtaaon ke liye sabhi ladaan par RFID lebal lagaana jaroori kar diya. is aavashyakta ko poora karne ke liye, vikretaaon ne dabbon aur pailet par jismein Wall-Mart ke liye EPC taig ki aavashyakta thi, lebal lagaane ke liye RFID printar/inakodar ka upayog kiya. ye smart lebal, saamagri ke andar RFID inlej jad kar aur uske baad lebal ki satah par baar code aur dikhaai dene waali anya jaankaari mudrit kar ke nirmit kiye gaye hain. 

ek digital pranaali mein, ek adhik sateek sanket ke pratinidhitv ke liye adhik baainari ankon ka upayog kiya ja sakta hai. haalaanki is prakriya ke liye ismein adhik aankik paripth ki aavashyakta hoti hai, choonki pratyek ank ek hi prakaar ke haardaveyar dvaara sambhaala jaata hai nateejatan ek aasaan maapaneeya tantr ka nirmaan ho jaata hai| ek enaalaug system mein atirikt rejlushan raikhikta mein buniyaadi sudhaar aur sanket shrrunkhala ke pratyek charan ke shor ke abhilkshan mein buniyaadi sudhaar ki aavashyakta hoti hai.
is gatividhi ke liye dhoomrapaan karne vaalon dvaara diye gaye kaaran ko mote taur par is prakaar vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai: dhoomrapaan ke nashe ki lat, maje ke liye dhoomrapaan, tanaav mein kami/vishraam, saamaajikta ke kaaran dhoomrapaan, uttejana, aadat/svachaalan aur prabandhan . in vajahon mein se kitni vajahein jimmedaar hain yeh lingabhed par nirbhar hai, tanaav mein kami/vishraam, uttejana aur saamaajikta ke kaaran dhoomrapaan ke maamale mahilaaon mein purushon se adhik hone ki sambhaavana ka havaala diya gaya hai.[66]

During the assembly elections held in Kerala in April–May 2006, VS Achuthanandan defeated Satheesan Pacheeni of the United Democratic Front by a margin of 20,017 votes in Malampuzha constituency in Palakkad district. He was sworn in as Chief Minister of Kerala on 18 May 2006, with his 21-member cabinet. Aged 82 years and 7 months at time, he was the oldest Chief Minister of Kerala, and one of the oldest in the whole India. It is noticeable that he had been denied a party ticket to contest elections just two months before he sworn in. He became the 11th Chief Minister of Kerala. On 12 July the CPM Polit bureau and Central Committee removed him from the PB for his stands taken in relation to the accusation and legal procedures against Pinarayi Vijayan in his reported involvement in the Lavlin bribery.
RFID, 2006 kaios kamyunikeshan Congress ke mukhya vishyon mein se ek tha (barlin mein kaios computer club dvaara aayojit) aur isne ek bruhat press bahas ko shuroo kiya. vishay shaamil the: electronic passport, maaifeyar kriptograafi aur FIFA vishv cup 2006 ke liye ticket. vaarta ne darshaaya ki kaise 2006 FIFA vishv cup football mein asli duniya ke RFID praudyogiki ke pehle vyaapak prayog ne kaam kiya. monokrom samooh ne ek vishesh 'haik RFID' geet ka manchan kiya.[79]
lo-freekveinsi (LF: 125-134.2 kHz aur 140-148.5 kHz) (LowFID) taig aur haai-freekveinsi (HF: 13.56 MHz) (HighFID) taig bina ek license ke vishv star par prayog kiya ja sakta. ultra haai-freekveinsi (UHF: 868-928 MHz) (Ultra-HighFID ya UHFID) taig ko duniya bhar mein istemaal naheen kiya ja sakta hai kyonki koi bhi vaishvik maanak naheen hai. uttari America mein, UHF ko 902-928& MHz (915 MHz center freekveinsi se ± 13 MHz) ke liye bina license ke istemaal kiya ja sakta hai, par paareshan adhikaar ke liye pratibandh maujood hain. Europe mein, RFID aur anya kam-kshamata vidyut radio anuprayog, ETSI ki sifaarishon EN 300 220 aur EN 302 208 aur ERO 70 03 sifaarish dvaara viniymit hain, jo RFID ko 865-868 megaahartaj ke kuchh jatil band pratibandhon ke saath sanchaalan ki anumati dete hain. paathakon ko prasaaran se pehle ek channel par najar rakhane ki jaroorat hoti hai ("lisen bifor tauk"); is aavashyakta se pradarshan par thoda pratibandh laga hai, jiska sankalp maujooda shodh ka vishay hai. uttar ameriki UHF maanak, France mein sveekaar naheen kiye jaate hain choonki ye uske sainya band ke saath hastakshep karte hain. cheen aur Japan ke liye, UHF ka upayog karne ke liye koi niyam naheen hai. in deshon mein har UHF ke aavedan ke liye ek site license ki jarurat hai, jiska aavedan sthaaneeya adhikaariyon ke paas kiya jaana chaahiye aur ise radd kiya ja sakta hai. Australia aur New Zealand ke liye 918-926 megaahartaj gair-license vaale hain, lekin sancharan adhikaar ke liye pratibandh maujood hain.

jab se digital sarkit enaalaug ghatakon se bana hain digital sarkit lo-prisishn se bhi dheere ganana karta hai jo ek samaan space aur shakti ka prayog karta hai. haalaanki digital sarkit iske uchch shor unmukti ke kaaran baar-baar aakalan kar paaega. doosari or, uchch parishuddhata domen mein (udaaharan ke liye jahaan parishuddhata ke liye 14 ya adhik bits ki aavashyakta hai) enaalaug sarkit ko adhik shakti aur digital samakaksh kshetr ki aavashyakta hai.

lo-freekveinsi (LF: 125-134.2 kHz aur 140-148.5 kHz) (LowFID) taig aur haai-freekveinsi (HF: 13.56 MHz) (HighFID) taig bina ek license ke vishv star par prayog kiya ja sakta. ultra haai-freekveinsi (UHF: 868-928 MHz) (Ultra-HighFID ya UHFID) taig ko duniya bhar mein istemaal naheen kiya ja sakta hai kyonki koi bhi vaishvik maanak naheen hai. uttari America mein, UHF ko 902-928& MHz (915 MHz center freekveinsi se ± 13 MHz) ke liye bina license ke istemaal kiya ja sakta hai, par paareshan adhikaar ke liye pratibandh maujood hain. Europe mein, RFID aur anya kam-kshamata vidyut radio anuprayog, ETSI ki sifaarishon EN 300 220 aur EN 302 208 aur ERO 70 03 sifaarish dvaara viniymit hain, jo RFID ko 865-868 megaahartaj ke kuchh jatil band pratibandhon ke saath sanchaalan ki anumati dete hain. paathakon ko prasaaran se pehle ek channel par najar rakhane ki jaroorat hoti hai ("lisen bifor tauk"); is aavashyakta se pradarshan par thoda pratibandh laga hai, jiska sankalp maujooda shodh ka vishay hai. uttar ameriki UHF maanak, France mein sveekaar naheen kiye jaate hain choonki ye uske sainya band ke saath hastakshep karte hain. cheen aur Japan ke liye, UHF ka upayog karne ke liye koi niyam naheen hai. in deshon mein har UHF ke aavedan ke liye ek site license ki jarurat hai, jiska aavedan sthaaneeya adhikaariyon ke paas kiya jaana chaahiye aur ise radd kiya ja sakta hai. Australia aur New Zealand ke liye 918-926 megaahartaj gair-license vaale hain, lekin sancharan adhikaar ke liye pratibandh maujood hain.

gharon mein aam taur par vidyut company, telephone company, kebal teleevijn ya upagrah dish seva, akhbaar ka chanda aur anya aisi niyamit sevaaen dendaari lekhe hain. gruhasth log saamaanyat: check ya kredit card ka upayog karte hue, hastachaalit tareeke se maasik aadhaar par inka dhyaan rakhate aur bhugataan karte hain. vyaapaar mein, aam taur par A/P faail mein vyaapak sevaaen shaamil hoti hain aur saamaanya roop se lekhaakaar ya bahi-khaata likhnevaale, jab unhein beejak milta hai to is dendaari khaate mein aane vaale dhan aur jab ve bhugataan karte hain, to is khaate se jaane vaale dhan ke pravaah ki khoj-khabar ke liye lekhaankan software ka prayog karte hain. badi companiyaan ek sangathan ke beejakon ke sansaadhan mein prayukt kaagj aur hastachaalit tatvon ko svachaalit karne ke liye teji se vishesh dendaari lekhon ke svachaalan ka prayog kar rahi hain.
kisi sansthaan mein jama aisa vyaapaarik agrim jiske mad mein jamaakarta ko na to koi maal diya gaya ho aur na usaki koi vyaapaarik seva ki gayi ho us sansthaan ke liya deya dhan hai. yeh rakam sansthaan mein deya khaate mein ankit ki jaati hai. svaami, saajhedaaron, sanchaalakon tatha karmachaariyon dvaara sansthaan ko diya gaya rin is khaate mein pravishti naheen paata. vah ek alag deya rinakhaate mein ankit kiya jaata hai. deya khaata vyaapaarik agrim ka khaata hai. vah sansthaan ke liye deya to hai par vah rin naheen hai isliye iski svatantr sthiti hai. vyaapaar se sambaddh agrim jama raashi maatr ka ismein ankan hota hai. theek yahi sthiti sansthaan dvaara diye gaye vyaapaarik agrim ki hai. vah dhanaraashi jo agrim ke roop mein anya kisi vyaapaarik sansthaan ko di gayi ho aur uske mad mein na to koi maal aaya ho aur na anya vyaapaarik seva li gayi ho sansthaan ke praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai. jiske naam yeh raashi praapya khaate mein daali jaati hai vah sansthaan apne yahaaain is rakam ko deya khaate mein daalata hai.

apni adyatan sanrachana aur suvijnyaata ke saath si pi aar I ne desh ke vidyut kshetr ko unnat yojana, prachaalan tatha vidyut pranaaliyon ke niyantran ke liye paryaapt yogadaan diya hai. aantarik anusandhaan va vikaas ke alaava, si pi aar I suvijnyaata ke vibhinn kshetron mein nirmaataaon aur anya abhikranon se praayojit anusandhaan pariyojanaaon ko sveekaarata hai.


hamesha ki tarah ek tulyakaalik anukramik state machine ko ek sanyojan laujik mein vibhaajit karke laagoo karne ka vyaavahaarik tareeka hota hai aur flip flop ke set ko "state rajistar" kaha jaata hai. har baar ek ghadi tik tik ki signal deti hai aur state rajistar sanyojan laujik ke pichhle state se utpann pratikriya par kabja kar leti hai aur state machine ke sanyojan bhaag mein aparivrtineeya input ke roop mein fir se ise daal deti hai. sanyojan laujik mein samay ke khapat vaale adhikaansh laujik aakalan dvaara ghadi ki sabse tej dar set hoti hai.

poore Europe mein aur vishesh roop se peris mein (pranaali RATP dvaara 1995 mein shuroo ki gayi), lion, bordo, grenobal, nainsi aur maarsile France mein, poore purtagaali raajamaarg vyavastha mein aur kai purtagaali saarvajanik car park mein, Milan, turin, Italy mein nepals aur floreins aur Belgium mein brasels, kailipso antararaashtreeya maanak ke anuroop RFID paas ka saarvajanik parivhan pranaali ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai. unka upayog ab Canada (mauntriyl), maiksiko, isaraail, Columbia mein bogota aur parera, naarve mein stavaangar, laksamabarg, aadi mein bhi kiya jaata hai.


EPCglobal - yeh maanakeekaran rooparekha hai jiske ISO niyamon ke anusaar antarraashtreeya maanakeekaran mein jaane ki sabse jyaada sambhaavana hai jaisa ki duniya ke sabhi dhvani maanakon ke saath hai, basharte seemit daayare ke saath na rah rahe hon, seema shulk niyam, havaai yaataayaat ke niyamon aur anya ke roop mein. vartamaan mein bade vitrak aur sarkaari graahak, EPC ko apne samudaaya mein achhi tarah sveekaar kiye jaane vaale ek maanak ke roop mein badhaava de rahe hain, lekin baaki duniya ke liye abhi mukti ke roop mein maanya naheen.

shalya chikitsa, yahaan tak ki ek chhote paimaane par bhi, apne jokhim saath laati hai. RFID chip pratyaaropan bhi koi apavaad naheen hai. "yoojing radio freekveinsi aaidenteefikeshan (RFID) teknolaaji in hyumans in the United states for total control,"[12] ke lekhak David bi smith ke anusaar, smith svaasthya jokhimon ka udaaharan dete hain jaise "... pratikool ootak pratikriya, pratyaaropit traansapondar ka pravaas, samjhauta soochana suraksha, pratyaaropit traansapondar ki vifalta, pratyaaropan ki vifalta, electronic skainar ki vifalta, vidyut chumbakeeya hastakshep bijli ke khatre, chunbakeeya anunaad imejing asangati aur needal stick"(38). is tarah ke jokhim kisi ko bhi ho sakte hain.
baad mein, nirvaat tube ka istemaal kiya gaya. ye bahut tej the, lekin garmi utpann karte the aur filaameints ke jal jaane ke kaaran avishvasaneeya the. fainaaaut aam taur par paanch se saat the, jo tube ke vidyut se heeting dvaara seemit the. 1950 ke dashak mein, filaameint ke saath vishesh "computer tube" viksit kiye gaye jo silikaun ki tarah asthir tatvon ko nikaal dete the. ye kai hajaaron ghante tak chalte hain.

Parakala is a trained political economist. After his return from the London School of Economics (LSE) in 1991 summer, he established a policy and research consultancy and by name Centre for Public Policy Studies (CPPS). He led the Centre as its director. CPPS worked for governments, both union and state, and undertook many evaluation studies for inter-governmental organisations such as Unicef, ILO, UNDP, WTO etc. CPPS also undertook public opinion polls and election analyses. CPPS is now made into a private limited company with the name RightFOLIO. RightFOLIO has a large portfolio: political analysis, election studies, Communications, Conferences, Brand Consulting, and Human Resource consulting. Parakala is now heading RightFOLIO as its Managing director.
kuchh pranaaliyon mein yadi digital deta ka ek bhaag lupt ho jaae ya galat tareeke se vyavahrut hon, to sambandhit deta ke vishaal khandon ka arth poori tarah se badal sakta hai. kyonki kleef ifekt ke kaaran, upayogakartaaon ke liye bataana mushkil hai ki koi vishisht system vifalta ke kagaar par sahi tha ya fir vah asafal hone se pehle bahut adhik shor ko sahan kar sakta hai ya naheen.
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