bahirmukhata ek aisi visheshata hai jo jyaadaatar dhoomrapaan se judi hai aur dhoomrapaan karne vaale milnasaar, aavegi, jokhim uthaane vaale aur uttejana ki chaahate rakhane vaale vyakti hote hain.[65] haalaanki vyaktitv aur saamaajik kaarak logon ko dhoomrapaan ke liye prerit kar karte hain, vaastavik aadat prabhaav daalne ki anukoolata ki kriya hai. praarambhik charan ke dauraan dhoomrapaan sukhad anubhootiyaan pradaan karta hai (iske dopaamaain-dopamine pranaali par prabhaav ke kaaran) aur is tarah sakaaraatmak sudrudheekaran ke ek srot ke roop mein kaarya karta hai. ek vyakti dvaara kai varshon tak dhoomrapaan karne ke pashchaat parihaar ke lakshan aur nakaaraatmak sudrudheekaran pramukh utprerak ho jaate hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
poorvi uttar ameriki janajaatiyaan vyaapaar ke ek sahaj sveekaar taiyaar mad ke roop mein tambaakoo ke paauch ka badi maatra mein apne paas rakhate hain aur aksar pipe se dhoomrapaan karte hain, chaahe vah paribhaashit samaaroh ho jise pavitra maana jaata hai ya saude ko pakka karne ke liye[17] aur ve ise jeevan ke sabhi charanon sabhi avsaron par peete hain, yahaan tak ki bachapan mein bhi.[18][page needed] aisi maanyata hai ki tambaakoo is jagat ke nirmaata se mila ek ek upahaar tha aur tambaakoo ke kash se nikla dhuaan us vyakti vishesh ke vichaaron aur praarthanaaon ko svarg tak le ja paane mein saksham hai.[19]

In what can be considered as a near repeat of the 2006 pre-election build-up, the Politbureau of CPI-M impressed upon the state leadership to permit VS Achuthanandan to contest elections for the April 2011 Assembly election in Kerala.[16] VS Achuthanandan contested from the Malampuzha Constituency and won with a margin of around 25,000 votes. It was the VS factor that had created history in the 2011 elections with the Opposition front UDF winning the elections on the margin of 72-68 assembly seats. This is considered as loss for UDF as they were ahead in 100 constituencies during the 2009 Lok Sabha Election. After this election VS has been considered the man behind the Uprising of LDF after the 2009 Parliament and 2010 Municipal election loses.[17]


During the CPM state conference held in Kottayam, he was criticized strongly due to his style of functioning by a majority of Pinarayi Vijayan supporters (38/53) known as official faction and they demanded his ouster from Chief Minister. They warned that the party would lose seats if it goes for ahead parliamentary elections under his leadership.[30][31]
computer aarkitekchar ek vishesh engineering gatividhi hai jo rajistar, aakalan laujik, bason aur computer ke anya bhaagon ko kuchh prayojan ke liye sabse achhe tareekon se shreneebaddh karne ki koshish karta hai. computer vaastukaar ne laagat kam karne aur gati ko teevr karne aur computer prograaming trutiyon ki pratirksha ke liye computer ke design mein vruhad maatra mein suprayog ko lagaaya hai. aur teji se baitari paavard computer pranaali mein bijli ko kam karna iska saadhaaran uddeshya hai. kai computer aarkeetek maaikroprograamars ke roop mein vistrut prashikshuta ki seva de rahe hain.
Achuthanandan has served many positions in his long political career. He was the Kerala State Secretary of the CPI(M) between 1980 and 1992 and he became a member of the Politburo in 1985. He has also been active in parliamentary politics; he was elected as a member of Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1967, 1970, 1991, 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016. He was the Leader of Opposition in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1992 to 1996, from 2001 to 2006 and from 2011 to 2016. He was the editor of CPI(M) mouth piece in Malayalam, Deshabhimani daily. He was the Chief Ministerial candidate for 1996 State elections. In those elections, LDF gained 80 out of 140 seats, but Achuthanandan, who contested from Mararikulam in Alappuzha district, lost by a margin of 1965 votes. Thus, E.K. Nayanar, who held the position twice earlier, became Chief Minister again.

hamane pahale se hee sanvardhit vaastavikata (eaar) aur aabhaasee vaastavikata (veeaar) praudyogikee ke lie 2016 mein kuchh pramukh kadamon ko dekha hai. okulas ripht ko sakaaraatmak risepshan ke lie jaaree kiya gaya tha, aur hajaaron veeaar aips aur gems ka paalan kiya gaya tha. hamane piksamon go bhee dekha, eaar gem, 100 miliyan se adhik daunalod ke saath visphot kiya. baajaar eaar aur veeaar ke lie taiyaar hai, aur in epleekeshans ke lie hamaare paas pahale se shuruaatee stareey upakaran aur tek mil chuke hain, lekin isase pahale ki ham cheejen sachamuch le jaenge, agale saal hone ja rahe hain. ek baar ve karate hain, aapako vyaavahaarik roop se har cheej ke eaar aur veeaar sanskaranon ke lie taiyaar rahana hoga- aur paalan karane ke lie paryaapt vipanan avasaron ka paalan karana hoga.


NADRA ne RFID aadhaarit chaalak license viksit kiya hai jis par license dhaarak ki vyaktigat jaankaari aur yaataayaat ullanghan, jaari kiye gaye ticket aur bakaaya dand ke baare mein data sangrahit hote hain. license card is tarah se dijaain kiye gaye hain ki driving adhikaar ko gambhir ullanghan ke maamale mein electronic tareeke se radd kiya ja sake. [49]
nishkriya aur sakriya RFID system ka istemaal sadak ke baahar ke khelon mein hota hai jaise oriyenatiaring, endyooro heyar end haaunds resing. chaalakon par ek traansapondar laga hota hai, aamtaur par unke haath par. jab ve ek laip poora karte hain to ve svaaip karte hain ya riseevar ko chhoote hain jo ek computer se juda hota hai aur unke laip samay ko darj karta hai. kaaseemo group limited aisi pranaali bechata hai, jaisa ki sveedan ka SportIdent. RFID ko kai bharti agencyon dvaara anukoolit kiya ja raha hai jinme unki arhak prakriya ke roop mein ek PET hai (fijikl endyoreins test), vishesh roop se un maamalon mein jahaan ummeedavaaron ki sankhya laakhon mein ho (bhaarateeya railway bharti prabhaag, police aur bijli kshetr). ek bhaarateeya software company, software aautasorsing sarvises ne is pranaali ko pehli baar UHF taig ka upayog karte hue isi uddeshya ke liye sateek banaaya hai aur ve pratidin 30,000 se jyaada ummeedavaaron ko chhaantane mein saksham hain.
poore Europe mein aur vishesh roop se peris mein (pranaali RATP dvaara 1995 mein shuroo ki gayi), lion, bordo, grenobal, nainsi aur maarsile France mein, poore purtagaali raajamaarg vyavastha mein aur kai purtagaali saarvajanik car park mein, Milan, turin, Italy mein nepals aur floreins aur Belgium mein brasels, kailipso antararaashtreeya maanak ke anuroop RFID paas ka saarvajanik parivhan pranaali ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai. unka upayog ab Canada (mauntriyl), maiksiko, isaraail, Columbia mein bogota aur parera, naarve mein stavaangar, laksamabarg, aadi mein bhi kiya jaata hai.
ekeekrut paripthon ki vruddhi ke saath, prayukt chips ki nirpeksh sankhya ko kam karne se laagat bachaane ka ek aur tareeka pesh hua. ek designer ka lakshya sirf aasaan sarkit banaana naheen hai, balki ghatak ki ginti kam rakhana hai. kabhi-kabhi yeh antarnihit digital laujik ke sambandh mein thode adhik jatil dijaain mein parint hota hai, lekin fir bhi ghatakon ki sankhya, board aakaar aur yahaan tak ki bijli ki khapat ko kam kar deta hai.
sigaar sookhe aur kinvit tambaakoo ko kas kar bandal kar banaaya jaata hai jisse tambaakoo ko prajvalit kar uske dhuen ko munh tak kheencha ja sakta hai. aam taur par dhuen ka uchch kshaareeya tatv saans ke jariye andar naheen kheencha jaata kyonki vah jald hi shvaasanali aur fefadon ke liye pareshaani ka sabab ho sakta hai. iske bajaay aam taur par ve munh mein lete hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] sigaar peene ka prachalan sthaan, aitihaasik kaal, sarvekshan ka aadhaar banaayi gayi aabaadi aur sarvekshan ke aakalan ki apanaayi gayi paddhati par nirbhar karta hai. sanyukt raajya America ab tak sheersh upabhokta desh hai, uske baad Germany aur United Kingdom hai, duniya bhar mein sigaar ki bikri ka yogadaan 75% America aur pashchimi Europe mein hai.[42] 2005 mein 4.3% purush aur 0.3% mahilaaon ke sigaar peene ka anumaan hai.[43]
electronic cigarette tambaakoo ke dhoomrapaan ka ek vaikalpik tareeka hai, haalaanki ismein tambaakoo ka sevan ekdam naheen kiya jaata. yeh ek baitari se chalne wala upakaran hai jo vaashpeekrut propilen glaaikol (propylene glycol)/ nikoteen ghol se nikoteen ki khuraak saans se andar bhejata hai. kaanooni aur saarvajanik svaasthya ki jaanch ke kai maamale vartamaan mein kai deshon mein lambit pade hain, jo iske kaaran apekshaakrut haal mein ubhare hain.

2009 ki garmiyon ke baad se, do kredit card companiyaan vishesh maaicroSD card ke vikaas ke liye dalaas, Texas aadhaarit divaaisafideliti ke saath kaam kar rahi hain. jab ise ek mobile phone mein daala jaaega to yeh microSD card, ek nishkriya taig aur ek RFID reedar, donon ho sakta hai.[11] microSD daalne ke baad, ek upayogakarta ka phone bank khaate se jud jaaega aur usaka upayog mobile bhugataan mein kiya jaaega.

sabse chhoti RFID chip ka record hitaachi ke naam hai jo 0.05mm x 0.05mm hai. Mu chip taig, nae RFID taig se 64 guna chhote hain.[7] vinirmaan silikaun-on-insuletar (SOI) prakriya ke upayog dvaara saksham hota hai. "dhoolakan" ke aakaar ke ye chips, 128 bit reed onli memori (ROM) ka upayog karke 38 ankon ki sankhya ko sangrahit kar sakte hain .[8] ek badi chunauti entena ko jodna hai, is prakaar pathan seema ko keval kuchh mileemeetar tak seemit kar diya.
laujik gate ke haaidrolik, vaayaveeya aur yaantrik sanskaran maujood hain aur aisi sthitiyon mein istemaal kiye jaate hain jahaan bijli ka upayog naheen kiya ja sakta. pehle do prakaar ko fludeeks ke tahat maana jaata hai. fludeek laujik ka ek prayog, sainya haardaveyar mein hai jiske ek vidyut chumbakeeya pals mein ujaagar hone ki sambhaavana hai (parmaanu EMP, ya NEMP) jo bijli ke sarkit ko nasht karta hai.
1945 mein lion theremin ne soviyt sangh ke liye ek jaasoosi upakaran ka aavishkaar kiya jo shravya jaankaari ke saath ghatna radio tarangon ko pun: sanchaarit karta tha. dhvani tarangein ek daayafraam ko hilaati thi jo rejonetar ke aakaar ko thoda badal deti thi, jo pratibinbit radio aavrutti ko modyulet kar deti thi. yadyapi yeh upakaran ek gupt shravya upakaran tha, na ki ek pehchaan taig, ise RFID praudyogiki ka ek poorvavarti maana jaata hai, kyonki yeh bhi vaise hi nishkriya tha, jo ek baahya srot se vidyutachumbakeeya tarangon dvaara shaktishaali aur sakriya ho jaata tha.[1]
kuchh companiyaan nae vikretaaon ko jodne aur vaauchar pravisht karne ke kaarya ko bhi alag karti hain. isse kisi karmachaari ke liye asambhav ho jaata hai ki vah khud ko vikreta ke roop mein jode aur fir kisi anya karmachaari ke saath bina saanth-gaanth ke apne naam check kaatein. yeh faail master veindar faail ke roop mein nirdisht hai. yeh company ke aapoortikrtaaon ke baare mein sabhi mahatvapoorn jaankaari ka bhandaar hai. jahaan beejak ke bhugataan ka maamala hai, yeh dendaari lekhon ka sandarbh bindu hai.[5]
2006 mein RFID taig ko nae ameriki passport mein shaamil kiya gaya. America ne 2005 mein 10 million passport ka utpaadan kiya aur anumaan hai ki 2006 mein 13 million ka utpaadan kiya jaaega. smaaratraik dvaara nirmit chips ka jadaaoo kaarya vaisi hi jaankaari ko sanjo kar rakhega jaisa ki passport mein mudrit hota hai aur ismein maalik ki ek digital tasveer bhi shaamil hogi.[35] ameriki videsh vibhaag ne shuroo mein kaha ki chips ko keval 10 semi (4 inch) ki doori se padha ja sakega, lekin vyaapak aalochna aur spasht pradarshan ke baad yeh vishesh upakaran pareekshan passport ko 10 meter (33 foot) ki doori se padh sakta hai, in passport ki dijaain mein dhaatu ka ek astar hai jo anaadhikrut paathakon ke liye ismein se jaankaari "kheenchne" ko adhik kathin banaata hai jab passport band ho. yeh vibhaag besik ekses control (BAC) bhi laagoo karega jo passport deta prushth par mudrit aksharon ke roop mein ek vyaktigat pehchaan sankhya (PIN) ke roop mein kaarya karega. ek passport taig ko padhe jaane se pehle, is pin ko ek RFID reedar mein darj karna hoga. BAC chip aur prashnakarta ke beech ke kisi bhi samvaad ke enkripshan ko saksham banaata hai.[36]
kredit card companiyaan ab kisi bhi mobile phone se gair-sampark bhugataan card jodne ke liye bhugataan samaadhaan talaash rahi hain. ek vaahak samaadhaan jo is udyog ki jaroorat ko poora kare ab upalabdh hai. 3mm se kam mota, yeh up-card 2 varshon tak apne paryaavaran ko jhel sakega aur ek baar daale jaane ke baad yeh tatvon se rakshit aur vaahak mein surakshit rahega.[10]
computer aarkitekchar ek vishesh engineering gatividhi hai jo rajistar, aakalan laujik, bason aur computer ke anya bhaagon ko kuchh prayojan ke liye sabse achhe tareekon se shreneebaddh karne ki koshish karta hai. computer vaastukaar ne laagat kam karne aur gati ko teevr karne aur computer prograaming trutiyon ki pratirksha ke liye computer ke design mein vruhad maatra mein suprayog ko lagaaya hai. aur teji se baitari paavard computer pranaali mein bijli ko kam karna iska saadhaaran uddeshya hai. kai computer aarkeetek maaikroprograamars ke roop mein vistrut prashikshuta ki seva de rahe hain.
ek badi laujik machine mein (maan leejiye, sau se adhik laujik char waali) sambhav state ki ek khagoleeya sankhya ho sakti hai. jaahir hai, kaarkhaane mein, har state ka pareekshan avyaavahaarik hai agar har state ke pareekshan mein ek maaikrosekand lagta hai aur brahmaand ke shuroo hone se hi maaikrosekand ki sankhya se kaheen adhik state hain. durbhaagya se, yeh haasyaaspad lagne wala maamala vishisht hai.
sanyukt raajya America mein, Chicago traanjit praadhikran ne poori pranaali mein 2002 ke baad se rel bhugataanon ke liye Chicago card aur Chicago card plas ki peshakash ki aur 2005 ke baad se bas bhugataanon ke liye. MBTA ne RFID saksham chaarleekaard ko 2006 mein Boston ke sampoorn metro, streetakaar aur bas pranaali mein laagoo kiya aur dashakon puraane tokan aadhaarit kiraaya sangrah pranaali ko pratisthaapit kiya.
udaaharan ke liye, kuchh laujik parivaaron mein, NAND gate, nirmaan hone vaale saralatam digital gate hain. anya sabhi laujik waali kaarravaai NAND gate dvaara kaaryaanvit ki ja sakti hain. yadi ek sarkit ko pehle se hi ek NAND gate ki aavashyakta hai aur ek ekal chip aam taur par chaar NAND gate rakhata hai, to baaki ke gate ko anya laujik kaarravaaiyon ko jaise laujikl end laagoo karne ke liye prayog kiya ja sakta hai. yeh, un vibhinn prakaar ke gate se yukt chip ki aavashyakta ko samaapt kar sakta hai.
si pi aar I vaidyut shikt injeeniyri mein anuprayukt anusandhaan ke liye kein ke roop mein kaam karne ke alaava vidyut upaskar ke pareekshan aur pramaaneekaran ko sampann karne ke liye ek pradhaan nikaaya ke roop mein kaayarrat hai. sansthaan sthit maaneetaran evam kshetr nidaan, oorja pareekshan tatha vitran pranaali prabandhan ke alaava utpaad abhiklp tatha vikaas (design evam development) ke liye paraamarsh sevaaeain pradaan karta hai aur saath hi desh ke donon taap tatha jal vidyut sanyantron ke liye shesh aayu nirdhaaran/naveekaran evam aadhuneenakeekaran adhyayan tatha aayu vistaran adhyayan sampann karta hai.
ek FDA-naamit taask fors ne vartamaan mein vyaavasaayik taur par upalabdh vibhinn praudyogikiyon ke adhyayan ke baad yeh nishkarsh diya ki unamein se kaun si takaneekein vanshaavali aavashyakataaon ko poora kar sakti hain. baar koding sahit adhyayan ki gayi sabhi praudyogikiyon mein, RFID sabse adhik sambhaavana yukt dikhti hai aur samiti ne mahasoos kiya ki vanshaavali aavashyakta ko, aasaani se upalabdh chhej ko nivesh kar ke praapt kiya ja sakta hai. (adhik jaankaari ke liye dekhein RFID-FDA-Regulations)
In 2017 Sarvekshak became the 1st ship of Indian Navy ever to deploy solar power. It has innovatively deployed the zero-maintenance solar power system, capable of generating 5.4 kW electricity and replacing the ship’s traditional 4.4 kW emergency diesel alternator.[12] The installation cost was around Rs. 19 lakh and the generation cost is Rs. 12 per kv per hour. The estimated savings for a lifespan of about 15 years is around Rs. 1 crore. The current diesel generator consumes a litre of diesel to produce five units of electricity. Captain Rajesh Bargoti, the commanding officer of the ship, said It took about six months to put the entire system in place. We are now using solar energy for lights and a couple of air conditioners.'[13] The estimated profit generated in a ship service life of 25 years is Rs 2.7 crore in this small project alone. "Even if the system is used for 25 days in one year, the system can repay its cost in less than 10 years while protecting the nature," the Navy said.
Parakala had a chequered public life and an unsuccessful electoral career. Born into a political family, he became familiar with electoral politics since his childhood. His debut as a political activist started when he was elected as the President of the Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi unit of the Congress Party affiliated students' organisation National Students' Union of India (NSUI). He contested the Students' Union Elections of JNU and lost to the CPI(M) affiliated organisation SFI candidate. However, it was for the fist time that NSUI polled a respectable number of votes for the central panel of candidates and could win a Councillor seat. Parakala's participation in May 1983 students' agitation on the campus agains the highhanded attitude of the university authorities lent political respectability to NSUI on the Campus. till then Congress affiliated NSUI was treated as political untouchable in the left dominated student politics of the university.

theem park (jaise United Kingdom mein eltan taavars) RFID ka upayog karte hain taaki unhein raaid ke upayogakarta ki pehchaan karne aur park mein unke bitaaye samay ki ek DVD banaane mein madad ho. din ke ant mein fir ise upayogakartaaon ke liye khareedne ke liye upalabdh karaaya jaata hai. yeh upayogakartaaon ke liye svaichhik hai jo park mein unhein diye jaane vaale kalaai band ko pahan kar aisa kar sakte hain.
1980 ke dashak mein mile vaigyaanik pramaan ke anusaar tambaakoo companiyaan ne daava kiya hai ki laaparavaahi baratne ka kaaran svaasthya par padne vaale pratikool prabhaav se pehle unka anajaan hona tha ya paryaapt vishvasaneeyata ka abhaav tha. svaasthya adhikaariyon ne 1998 tak in daavon ka saath diya jiske baad unhonne apni sthiti ulat di. tambaakoo pradhaan niptaan samjhauta (the tobaiko master saitalameint egreemeint) mool roop se chaar sabse badi tambaakoo companiyon aur 46 raajyon ke ameriki etorni general ke beech hua. tambaakoo ke kuchh khaas prakaar ke vijnyaaapanon par pratibandh laga diya gaya aur svaasthya muaavaje ke taur par bhugataan ko aavashyak kar diya gaya, jo baad mein sanyukt raajya America ke itihaas mein sabse bade naagrik niptaan ke roop saamane aaya.[36]
rekheeya paripth ki tulana mein aankik paripth ko istemaal karne ki vajah iska ek laabh yeh hai ki shor[2] ke kaaran sanketo ka vightan naheen hota hai va unhein aasaani se bheja aur darshaaya ja sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye, 1 aur 0 ke kram mein banaaye huye lambe aavaaj ke ek sanket ko truti ke bina pun:nirmaan kiya ja sakta hai basharte sanket banaane ke dauraan paida hua shor itna na ho ki usaki vajah se 1 va 0 ko pahachaana hi na ja sake. seedi mein ek ghante ke sangeet ko kareeb 60 lakh dviaadhaari ankon (baainari dijits) ke roop mein sangraheet kiya ja sakta hai.
dhoomrapaan ka itihaas bahut puraana 5000-3000 E.poo. ke pehle se raha hai jab dakshin America mein krushi utpaadon ki kheti shuroo hui thi; usaka baad mein prayog paudhe ke padaarth ko jalaakaar istemaal ya to durghatanaavash shuroo hua ya upabhog ke anya saadhan ki khoj ke iraade se viksit hua.[1] iska upayog jhaad-foonk ke anushthaanon mein apni tarah se hota raha.[16][page needed] kai praacheen sabhyataaon mein jaise kasadiyon, bhaarateeyon aur cheeniyon mein dhoop jalaana ek dhaarmik anushtaan ka ek bhaag hai, jaise isaraailiyon aur baad ke Catholic aur roodhivaadi krishchiyn church jalaate hain. America mein dhoomrapaan ka mool sanbhavat: jhaadfoonk ke samaarohon mein dhoop jalaane se hua hai lekin baad mein aanand ke liye ya fir ek saamaajik upakaran ke roop mein apnaaya gaya.[2] tambaakoo aur vibhinn helusinojenik (hallucinogenic) nasheele padaarthon ka prayog tanmayaavastha aur aatma ki duniya se sampark mein aane ke liye kiya jaata tha.
dubai mein, (sanyukt arab ameeraat) shekh jaayad road aur garahaud brij se gujarane vaale driver RFID taig ka upayog karte hue tol bhugataan karte hain jise saleek (pathakar) kaha jaata hai. dubai ne ek saarvajanik parivhan card bhi shuroo kiya hai jiska naam Nol [9] hai (jiska arth arabi mein kiraaya hai) jise metro, bas aur vaatarabas mein istemaal kiya jaata hai, ise dubai metro ke sarkaari prakshepan ke 9 September 2009 ke din seva mein pesh kiya gaya tha.
RFID traansapondar chips ko golf geind mein pratyaaropit kiya gaya hai jisse unhein track kiya ja sake. aise traiking ka upayog homing upakaran ka upayog kar, khoi hui geind ko khojane mein aur kampyootareekrut driving range praaroop mein kiya ja sakta hai jo ek khilaadi dvaara maare gaye shot ko track karta hai aur doori aur sateekata par pratikriya deta hai.
fir bhi anya kootlekhit protokaul, anadhikrut paathakon ke khilaaf gopaneeyata haasil karne ke prayaas mein hain, haalaanki ye protokaul abhi anusandhaan charan mein hain. RFID taig ko surakshit karne mein ek badi chunauti, taig ke bheetar kampyooteshanal sansaadhanon ki kami hai. maanak kootalekhan takaneek mein adhikaansh kam keemat vaale RFID upakaranon mein upalabdh sansaadhanon ki tulana mein adhik ki aavashyakta hoti hai. RSA security ne ek prototaaip upakaran ko peteint karaaya hai jo sthaaneeya star par ek maanak takkar parihaar protokaul ke dakhal se RFID sanketon ko jaam kar deta hai, or prayokta ko agar vaanchhit ho to pehchaan rokane ki anumati deta hai.[64] vibhinn neetigat upaayon ka bhi prastaav kiya gaya hai, jaise ki RFID taig waali vastu ko ek udyog maanak lebal ke saath chihnit karna. RFID suraksha, kuchh varshon se ek bahut sakriya anusandhaan kshetr hai, jismein 2002 se lekar aaj tak 400 se adhik vaigyaanik pepar prakaashit kiye gaye hain. is kshetr mein sandarbh ki ek vyaapak soochi RFID Security and Privacy Lounge mein pai ja sakti hai.

pehla ardhachaalak laujik parivaar, rejistar-traanjistar laujik tha. yeh tube se hajaar guna adhik vishvasaneeya tha, aaraam se chalta tha aur kam bijli istemaal karta tha, lekin teenon mein se bahut nyoon fan-in tha. daayod-traanjistar laujik ne fainaaaut mein saat tak sudhaar kiya aur bijli mein kami ki. kuchh DTL dijaainon ne fainaaaut mein vruddhi ke liye NPN aur PNP traanjistaron ki paryaayakramik paraton ke saath do bijli-aapoorti ka upayog kiya.
POS store chekaaaut ke liye bhi RFID upayog ka prastaav kiya gaya hai jo khajaanchi ko ek svachaalit tantr se pratisthaapit karega jise kisi baarakod skaining ki jaroorat naheen hoti hai. poorv mein taig ki uchch laagat aur us vakt maujood POS proses praudyogiki ki vajah se yeh sambhav naheen tha. haalaanki, industry stainadard, ohiyo mein ek vastr ki dukaan aur rikaurding studio ne safalataapoorvak ek POS prakriya ko implemented kiya hai jo sampoorn lenaden ko apekshaakrut teji se karne ki anumati deti hai.
dendaari lekhon ke karmiyon dvaara frji beejakon par nazar rakhani chaahiye. khareed aadesh pranaali ke abhaav mein, raksha ki pehli pankti hai anumodit karne wala prabandhak. fir bhi, A/P stauf ko kuchh saamaanya samasyaaon ke saath parichit hona chaahiye, jaise "yallo pejas" dhokhaadhadiyaan, jismein kapati prachaalak vigyaapan dete hain. chalne waali ungaliyon ke logo ko kabhi tredamaark naheen banaaya gaya hai aur yallo pejas shaili ki kai nirdeshikaaen upalabdh hain, jinka bahut kam vitran hota hai. sheetakaaleen 2000 ameriki perol association ke empalauyar praiktiss ke ek lekh ke anusaar, "vikreta aise dastaavej bhej sakte hain jo dekhne mein beejak ke samaan lage, lekin jin par chhote aksharon mein mudrit hota hai "yeh bill naheen hai". ye nirdeshika soocheekaran ya vigyaapan ke liye shulk ho sakte hain. haal hi mein, kuchh companiyon ne jo check bhejane shuroo kiye hain, ve dekhne mein to chhoot ya vaapasi ki prateet hoti hain; vaastav mein, yeh sakriya sevaaon ke liye panjeekaran hai, jab dastaavej hastaakshar ke saath lautaae jaate hain."
In her memoirs, Mrs. Pakravan provides the following description of the arrest, imprisonment, and execution of her husband by the Islamic Revolutionary Court. She argues that General Pakravan was taken from his house to an unknown destination. When his son tried to contact him, he was told that the general was not arrested at all but that he was the guest of the Ayatollah. But in fact he was imprisoned shortly after his arrest.

On 12 May 2013, three of his personal staffs VK Sasidharan (additional private secretary), A Suresh (personal assistant) and K Balakrishnan (press secretary) were ousted by the Politburo, which was entrusted by the CPI(M) central committee to decide on the action to be taken against them. They were expelled on charges of leaking information to media, according to CPIM.[18] With the decision, Achuthanandan's arch-rival and Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M) state secretary Pinarayi Vijayan appears to have won. The state committee of the party where Vijayan has a huge majority also wanted Achuthanandan to be removed from the post of leader of opposition but this was not done. "This is a clipping of the wings of Achuthanandan", said K.M. Shahjahan.[19]

uparokt dvaara uthaai gayi chintaaon ko klipd taig ke prayog dvaara aanshik roop se khtm kiya ja sakta hai. klipd taig, ek RFID taig hai jise upabhokta gopaneeyata ko badhaane ke liye dijaain kiya gaya hai. klipd taig ka sujhaav IBM shodhakartaaon, paul moskovitj aur guentar karjoth dvaara diya gaya hai. bikri ke baad, upabhokta taig ke ek hisse ko ukhaad sakta hai. isse ek lambi doori ke taig ko ek najadeeki taig mein parivartan ki anumati milti hai jise ab bhi padha ja sakta hai, lekin sirf kam doori par - kuchh inch ya seinteemeetar se bhi kam mein. taig ke is sanshodhan ki aaainkhon se dekhkar pushti ki ja sakti hai. is taig ka upayog baad mein vaapasi, yaad dilaane, ya risaaikiling ke liye kiya ja sakta hai.


apni adyatan sanrachana aur suvijnyaata ke saath si pi aar I ne desh ke vidyut kshetr ko unnat yojana, prachaalan tatha vidyut pranaaliyon ke niyantran ke liye paryaapt yogadaan diya hai. aantarik anusandhaan va vikaas ke alaava, si pi aar I suvijnyaata ke vibhinn kshetron mein nirmaataaon aur anya abhikranon se praayojit anusandhaan pariyojanaaon ko sveekaarata hai.
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