saan Diego, California, metropolitan traanjit system (MTS), north County traanjit distrikt (NCTD) aur the sain Diego asosiyeshan of gavarmeint (SANDAG) ek ri-raaitebal RFID smart card ka upayog karti hai jise sthaaneeya taur par kampaas card ke roop mein nirdisht kiya jaata hai aur bason aur railgaadiyon ki yaatra aasaan banaane ke liye dainik, saaptaahik ya maasik paas ya nakad moolya ke roop mein upayog kiya ja sakta hai.

ek safal pilot ke baad, aavaas evam vikaas board (HDB) Singapore ne 2006 mein kaagaj season parking ticket (SPT) ko pratisthaapit karte hue RFID ko laagoo karne ke liye do nividaaon ko jaari kiya. safal nividaakaaron ne March 2007 ke baad se SPT dhaarakon ko RFID taig vitrit kiya.[14] viytanaam mein, futek ke paas is desh mein kai bilding ke liye svachaalit jaanch ticket pranaali laagoo hai.

kai deshon mein dhoomrapaan ki umr nirdhaarit hai, sanyukt raajya America sahit kai deshon, Europeeya sangh ke adhikaansh sadasya raajyon, New Zealand, Canada, dakshin Africa, isaraail, Bhaarat, Brazil, chili, kosta rika aur Australia mein tambaakoo utpaadon ko naabaaligon ko bechana avaidh hai aur Netherland, ostriya, Belgium, Denmark aur dakshin Africa mein 16 se kam aayu ke logon ko tambaakoo utpaad bechana avaidh hai. 1 sitmbar 2007 ko Germany mein tambaakoo utpaadon ko khareedne ki nyoonatam aayu badhaakar 16 se 18 kar di gayi aur usi ke saath saath great Britain mein bhi 1 October 2007 se yeh seema 16 se 18 kar di gayi.[98] sanyukt raajya America ke 50 mein se 46 raajyon mein nyoonatam aayu 18 varsh hai, Alabama, alaaska, new jersey ke alaava, yoota aur jahaan kaanooni umr 19 varsh hai (New York ke uttari raajya onondaga County ke saath hi saath New York ke lambe aaisalaind ki County sufafolk aur nassoo mein bhi).[krupaya uddharan jodein] kuchh deshon mein tambaakoo utpaadon ko (arthaat khareedne par) bachchon ko dene aur yahaan tak ki dhoomrapaan karne ke kaarya mein sanlagn bachchon ke khilaaf bhi kaanoon hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] aise kaanoonon ki antarnihit dhaarana hai ki log tambaakoo ke istemaal ke jokhim ke baare mein jaankaar hi upayog ke sambandh mein nirnaya lein. in kaanoonon mein kuchh deshon aur raajyon ne ek dheela pravartan kiya hai. anya kshetron mein cigarette abhi bhi bachchon ko bech rahe hain kyonki ullanghan ke liye jurmaana kam hain ya tulanaatmak roop se bachchon ko bechana laabhakaarak hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] haalaanki cheen, Turkey aur kai anya deshon mein aam taur par ek bachche ko tambaakoo utpaadon ko khareedne mein kam mushkil ka saamana karna padta hai kyonki aksar unase apne maata-pita ke liye tambaakoo khareedne ke liye dukaan jaane ko kaha jaata hai.
RFID taig, aksar UPC ya EAN baarakod ke liye ek pratisthaapan hain, jiske puraane baarakod praudyogiki ki tulana mein kai mahatvapoorn laabh hain. ho sakta hai ve kabhi bhi poori tarah se baarakod ki jagah na lein, kuchh unki laagat ke kaaran aur ek hi vastu par ekaadhik deta sroton ka laabh. kai anya yojanaaon ke saath, nai EPC, uchit keemat par vyaapak roop se upalabdh hai.
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choonki ve ek aisi gatividhi mein lipt hote hain jiska svaasthya par nakaaraatmak prabhaav padta hai, at: aise log jo log dhoomrapaan karte hain, ve apne vyavahaar ko yuktisangat banaane ke liye prayatnashali rahate hain. doosare shabdon mein ve sveekaaryata viksit karte hain, jaroori naheen ki unke paas yeh taarkik kaaran ho ki unke liye dhoomrapaan ki sveekaaryata kyon hai. udaaharan ke liye, ek dhoomrapaan karne wala apne vyavahaar ka auchitya yeh kehkar saabit kar sakta hai ki har koi marata hai aur isliye vaastav mein cigarette kuchh bhi naheen badalti. ya ek vyakti auchitya saabit karne ke liye yeh vishvaas jata sakta hai ki dhoomrapaan tanaav se raahat ya anya laabh dilaata hai. is prakaar ki maanyataaenchinta se rokati hain aur log dhoomrapaan jaari rakhate hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
kuchh companiyaan nae vikretaaon ko jodne aur vaauchar pravisht karne ke kaarya ko bhi alag karti hain. isse kisi karmachaari ke liye asambhav ho jaata hai ki vah khud ko vikreta ke roop mein jode aur fir kisi anya karmachaari ke saath bina saanth-gaanth ke apne naam check kaatein. yeh faail master veindar faail ke roop mein nirdisht hai. yeh company ke aapoortikrtaaon ke baare mein sabhi mahatvapoorn jaankaari ka bhandaar hai. jahaan beejak ke bhugataan ka maamala hai, yeh dendaari lekhon ka sandarbh bindu hai.[5]
kredit card companiyaan ab kisi bhi mobile phone se gair-sampark bhugataan card jodne ke liye bhugataan samaadhaan talaash rahi hain. ek vaahak samaadhaan jo is udyog ki jaroorat ko poora kare ab upalabdh hai. 3mm se kam mota, yeh up-card 2 varshon tak apne paryaavaran ko jhel sakega aur ek baar daale jaane ke baad yeh tatvon se rakshit aur vaahak mein surakshit rahega.[10]
ek audio deta mein singal-bit truti seedhe leeniyr pals code modyuleshan (jaise ek CD-ROM par) ke roop mein store ho jaane se ek singal klik se varst ho jaata hai. iske bajaay bahut se log storej space aur daaunalod samay ko surakshit karne ke liye audio kampreshan ka upayog karte hain kyonki ek ekal bit truti bhi poore gaane ko karapt kar sakta hai.

saan Diego, California, metropolitan traanjit system (MTS), north County traanjit distrikt (NCTD) aur the sain Diego asosiyeshan of gavarmeint (SANDAG) ek ri-raaitebal RFID smart card ka upayog karti hai jise sthaaneeya taur par kampaas card ke roop mein nirdisht kiya jaata hai aur bason aur railgaadiyon ki yaatra aasaan banaane ke liye dainik, saaptaahik ya maasik paas ya nakad moolya ke roop mein upayog kiya ja sakta hai.

anukramik system iske atirikt do upashreniyon mein vibhaajit hota hai. jab ek "klauk" signal state ko parivrtit karta hai tab "tulyakaalik" anukramik pranaali ek hi baar mein state ko badal deta hai. jab bhi input badalate hain "atulyakaalik" anukramik pranaali parivartan ko prasaarit karta hai. tulyakaalik anukramik system atulyakaalik sarkit ki visheshata se bana hota hai jaise flip flop, jo klauk jab parivartan karta hai tabhi ye parivartan karta hai aur jismein timing margin ko dhyaan se design kiya jaata hai.
praarambhik ekeekrut paripth ek aanandadaayak sanyog the. unhein paise bachaane ke liye nirmit naheen kiya gaya tha, balki vajan bachaane ke liye aur Apollo gaaideins computer ko ek antariksh yaan ko ek inarshial gaaideins system ko niyantrit karne ki anumati dene ke liye banaaya gaya tha. pehla ekeekrut paripth laujik gate ki keemat kareeb $50 thi (1960 dollar mein, jab ek engineer $10,000/varsh kamaata tha). sabhi ko aashcharyachakit karte hue, jab sarkit ka thok mein utpaadan hone laga to ve digital laujik nirmaan ki sabse sasti vidhi ban gaye. is praudyogiki mein sudhaar ne laagat mein sabhi baad ke sudhaaron ko prerit kiya.

V.S started his early political life by organising the agricultural workers in Kuttanadu. He was a well dedicated organizer of coir factory workers at the age of 16 under A.K. Gopalan and A.V. Kunjambu. Even though V.S. Achuthanandan lacked formal education, he was noted for his simplicity, dedication and deep reading. He was initiated into the political movement by P. Krishna Pillai. Later he participated in the freedom movement and the Communist Movement. V.S was in the forefront of the Punnapra-Vayalar uprising and Freedom Struggle against the policies for C.P Ramaswamy Iyer, Divan of Travancore who wanted to establish an American model government in Travancore. He was arrested on 28 October 1946 and was taken to Poonjar police station. He was beaten up severely in the lock – up. Policemen pierced his sole in both legs with bayonet. V.S spent five and half years in jails and four years underground during his political life.
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