Categories: 1923 birthsChief Ministers of KeralaCommunist Party of India (Marxist) politicians from KeralaIndian atheistsLiving peopleMalayali politiciansKerala politiciansIndian independence activists from KeralaTrade unionists from KeralaLeaders of the Opposition in KeralaChief ministers from Communist Party of India (Marxist)People from Alappuzha districtKerala MLAs 1967–70Kerala MLAs 1970–77Kerala MLAs 1991–96Kerala MLAs 2001–06Kerala MLAs 2006–11Kerala MLAs 2011–16 

kuchh pranaaliyon mein yadi digital deta ka ek bhaag lupt ho jaae ya galat tareeke se vyavahrut hon, to sambandhit deta ke vishaal khandon ka arth poori tarah se badal sakta hai. kyonki kleef ifekt ke kaaran, upayogakartaaon ke liye bataana mushkil hai ki koi vishisht system vifalta ke kagaar par sahi tha ya fir vah asafal hone se pehle bahut adhik shor ko sahan kar sakta hai ya naheen.
January 2004 mein, CASPIAN ke gopaneeyata ke pairokaar aur jarman gopaneeyata samooh FoeBuD ko Germany mein METRO future store mein aamantrit kiya gaya, jahaan ek RFID pilot pariyojana laagoo ki gayi thi. sanyog se yeh khulaasa hua ki METRO "pebaik" graahak lauyalti card mein graahak ID vaale RFID taig shaamil the, ek tathya jise na to card praapt karne vaale graahakon ko bataaya gaya aur na hi gopaneeyata ke pairokaar is samooh ko. yeh METRO dvaara is aashvaasan ke baavajood hua ki kisi graahak pehchaan deta ko track naheen kiya ja raha hai aur sabhi RFID upayog ko spasht roop se bataaya gaya hai.[75]
In a gap of about two years he contested the by-election to Narsapuram Assembly constituency which arose as the sitting MLA got elected to Lok Sabha in the 1996 general elections. That by-election was a closely fought election and Parakala lost it narrowly. Inner party squabbles and bickerings led to Parakala's exit from Congress Party. He joined the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in late 1997. BJP hardly had a presence in the state and especially in West Godavari District. He contested the ensuing 1998 Lok Sabha election from Narasapur Lok Sabha constituency, and not surprisingly, lost. He played an active role in the party affairs, became a spokesperson of the state unit, and went on to become a member of the BJP's national economic cell that guided the party's economic policy. He was also made a member of a task force of the Planning Commission of India that formulated the Xth Fiver Year Plan.
pichhale paanch saalon se bada aankada ek bada vishay raha hai, jab usane surkhiyon mein ek bayaan diya tha. yah vichaar yah hai ki ikatthe kie gae aankadon ke bade paimaane par jinake paas ab tak pahunch hai- behatar vipanan abhiyaanon ko behatar tareeke se chalaane ke lie yojana banaane se lekar har cheej mein hamen madad kar sakata hai. lekin badee aankadon kee sabase badee shakti-isakee maatraatmak, sankhyaatmak neenv-bhee kamajoree hai. 2017 mein, mujhe ummeed hai ki ham deta ke adhik sanvedanasheel aur gunaatmak bits kee maang karate hue aur adhik drshy, sulabh tareeke se ise pesh karane ke lie bade deta ko maanaveey banaane kee pragati dekhenge.
jin deshon mein ek saarvajanik svaasthya pranaali hai, vahaan dhoomrapaan karne vaale beemaar logon ki samaajik chikitsa dekhbhaal ki laagat karon mein vruddhi ke maadhyam se vahan ki jaati hai. is morche par do tark maujood hain, "dhoomrapaan samarthakon" ka tark hai ki bhaari dhoomrapaan karne vaale aam taur par lamba jeevan naheen jeete jisse budhaape ko prabhaavit karne waali kharcheeli aur puraani beemaari naheen hoti aur yeh samaaj mein svaasthya seva ke bojh ko kam karta hai. "dhoomrapaan virodhi" tark ke anusaar svaasthya chikitsa ka bojh badhta hai kyonki dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki saamaanya aabaadi ki tulana mein kam umr mein lambi beemaari dar adhik hai.

kai adhyayanon ne yeh sthaapana ki hai ki cigarette ki bikri aur dhoomrapaan ke upayog ke samay sambandhi dhaanche alag hain. udaaharan ke liye, sanyukt raajya America mein cigarette ki bikri ka dhaancha kaafi had tak mausam se juda hua hai, garmi ke maheene mein iski bikri kaafi badh jaati hai, jabki sardiyon mein iski khapat kam ho jaati hai.[68]
vishv svaasthya sangathan (WHO) ka kehna hai ki "tambaakoo ke kaaran paida hui beemaariyon aur usase hui maut ke maamalon ke jyaadaatar shikaar gareeb log hote hain. 1.22 billion dhoomrapaan karne vaalon mein se 1 billion vikaasasheel ya sankramanakaaleen arthavyavasthaaon mein rahate hain. dhoomrapaan ki darein viksit duniya mein ya to khatm ho gayi hain ya unamein giraavat I hai.[54] haalaanki vikaasasheel duniya mein tambaakoo sevan prati varsh 3.4% ki dar se badh rahi hai, jitni 2002 mein thi.[7]

I Am Rahul Sankhala Founder of HAMARA VYAPAR this company part of Sankhala Services, which started in 2010. Income tax, SALES tax, service tax and all type business registration and all kinds of advice as a small firm in my life It was given in the firm and today even this work continues in this firm. In the beginning I have to face big difficulties in this work because people Due to being a new firm and not having my CA, my firm was afraid to work At that time, there was a little disappointment, but did not give up on the condition that today the condition of the smallest firm started with the help of the services, it has raised its rank very high..
In 2017 Sarvekshak became the 1st ship of Indian Navy ever to deploy solar power. It has innovatively deployed the zero-maintenance solar power system, capable of generating 5.4 kW electricity and replacing the ship’s traditional 4.4 kW emergency diesel alternator.[12] The installation cost was around Rs. 19 lakh and the generation cost is Rs. 12 per kv per hour. The estimated savings for a lifespan of about 15 years is around Rs. 1 crore. The current diesel generator consumes a litre of diesel to produce five units of electricity. Captain Rajesh Bargoti, the commanding officer of the ship, said It took about six months to put the entire system in place. We are now using solar energy for lights and a couple of air conditioners.'[13] The estimated profit generated in a ship service life of 25 years is Rs 2.7 crore in this small project alone. "Even if the system is used for 25 days in one year, the system can repay its cost in less than 10 years while protecting the nature," the Navy said.
donon ke paas hi aankade seemit hain. rog niyantran aur rokathaam kendra (the seintars for dijeej control end prijrveshan) ne 2002 mein prakaashit apne anusandhaan mein daava kiya hai ki sanyukt raajya America mein beche gaye ek packet cigarette par chikitsa dekhbhaal aur utpaadak hraas par 7 dollar se adhik ki laagat aati hai.[70] laagat aur adhik ho sakti hai jabki ek anya adhyayan mein use prati packet par $ 41 ki laagat bataayi hai, jinmein se jyaadaatar vyaktigat aur usaki/ uske parivaar ko vahan karna padta hai.[71] is tarah se ek anya aur adhyayan ke lekhak doosaron ke liye bahut kam laagat bataate hue kehte hain: "sankhya ke kam hone ka kaaran niji peinshan, saamaajik suraksha aur chikitsa hai- kharch ki ganana mein sabse bada kaarak samaaj hai- dhoomrapaan vaastav mein paise bachaata hai. dhoomrapaan karne vaale kam umr mein mar jaate hain aur ve vah dhan naheen uthaate jo un pranaaliyon se unhein bhugataan kiye jaate.[71]
1995 se 1970 ke beech gareeb vikaasasheel deshon mein prati vyakti cigarette ki khapat mein 67 pratishat ki vruddhi hui hai, jabki usamein ameer viksit duniya mein 10 pratishat giraavat aayi hai. dhoomrapaan karne vaalon mein se assi pratishat ab kam viksit deshon mein rahate hain. 2030 tak vishv svaasthya sangathan (WHO) ki bhavishyavaani hai ki 10 million logon ki maut prativrsh dhoomrapaan se sambandhit beemaariyon se hogi jo duniya bhar mein maut ka ek sabse bada kaaran hoga, mahilaaon mein iski sabse badi vruddhi hogi. WHO ki bhavishyavaani hai ki 20 veen sadi mein dhoomrapaan se hui mauton ki daron mein 21 veen sadi mein das guna vruddhi hogi. ("Washington"(Washingtonian) patrika, December 2007).

tambaakoo mein sakriya tatv, vishesh roop se cigarette mein patton ko jalaakar aur vaashpeekrut gas ko saans se kheenchakar praapt kiya jaata hai. yeh jald aur prabhaavi dhang se padaarthon ko khoon mein avashoshit kar fefadon mein koshikaaon ke jariye pahunchaaya jaata hai. fefadon mein lagbhag 300 million rakt koshikaaen hoti hai, jiske satah ka kshetrafal 70 m2 (ek tennis court ke aakaar ke baraabar) hota hai. yeh vidhi vifal hai kyonki poora dhuaan saans se naheen kheencha jaata hai aur sakriya padaarthon mein se kuchh maatra jalaaye jaane ki prakriya ke dauraan vaashpeekaran mein nasht ho jaati hai.[9] pipe aur sigaar ka dhuaan uchch kshaarayukt hone ke kaaran saans se naheen kheencha jaata jo shvaasanali aur fefadon ko haani pahuncha sakte hain. tathaapi, cigarette (pH 5.3) ke dhuen ki tulana mein iske uchch kshaarayukt (pH 8.5) hone ke kaaran sangathit nikoteen aur adhik aasaani se munh mein shleshm jhilli ke maadhyam se avashoshit kar leta hai.[45] sigaar aur pipe se nikoteen avashoshan baharahaal cigarette ke dhuen se bahut kam hota hai.[46]

gopaneeyata ke pairokaaron ne pratyaaropan yogya RFID chip ke khilaaf virodh kiya hai aur sambhaavit durupayog ki chetaavani dete hue is prakaar ke RFID upakaranon ko "jaasoosachips" kah kar iski ninda ki hai, saath hi sarkaar dvaara iske istemaal se naagrik adhikaaron ki haani ho sakti hai aur durupayog bhi aasaan ho jaaega. aise durupayog ka ek maamala traiking upakaran ke roop mein microchip ka dohara upayog hoga. is tarah ki chintaaen sanyukt raajya America mein uchit saabit hui jab pata chala ki CIA ke kaaryakram COINTELPRO ka upayog uchch profaail raajaneetik kaaryakartaaon aur asantusht vyaktiyon ki gatividhiyon par nazar rakhane ke liye kiya gaya. aisi bhi sambhaavana hai ki chip ki jaankaari, sarkaaron ke alaava niji vyavasaaya jaise anya logon ko upalabdh hogi, jiske kaaran niyokta ko karmachaariyon ki atyant vyaktigat jaankaari praapt ho jaayegi. iske alaava, gopaneeyata ke pairokaar yeh kehte hain ki is chip mein maujood jaankaari ko aasaani se churaaya ja sakta hai, isliye ismein kisi bhi prakaar ke niji bhandaaran se pehchaan ki chori ka jokhim rahega.
siyol, dakshin Korea aur aaspaas ke shaharon mein, ti-mani card ka prayog saarvajanik paaragaman ke bhugataan ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. dakshin Korea ke kuchh anya shaharon ne is pranaali ko apnaaya hai, jise kuchh dukaanon mein nakadi ke roop mein bhi istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. ti-mani ne yoopaas ki jagah li, jise 1996 mein MIFARE takaneek ka istemaal karte hue pehli baar parivhan bhugataan ke liye pesh kiya gaya tha.
RFID taig ka istamaal jin tol booth par electronic tol sangrahan ke liye kiya jaata hai unamein shaamil hain jaurjiya ka krooj card, California ka faasatraik, Colorado ka E-470, ilinois ka I-paas, oklaahoma ka paaikapaas, vistaar karte poorvi raajyon ka E-ZPass pranaali (maisaachusets ke fast len, delaaveyar, new haimpashaayar tarnapik, maireelaind, new jersey tarnapik peinsilveniya tarnapik, vest varjeeniya tarnapik, New York ki throove pranaali, varjeeniya, main tarnapik aur rode dweep ke nyooport brij sahit), sentral florida bhi is takaneek ka istemaal apne E-PASS pranaali ke maadhyam se karte hain. E-paas aur sanapaas paarasparik roop se sangat hain. florida ka sanapaas, Texas mein vibhinn pranaali jismein shaamil hain D/FW ka NTTA tolataig, ostin metro TxTag aur Houston HCTRA EZ taig (jo praarambhik 2007 ke roop mein kisi bhi Texas tol road par maanya hain), kensaas ka K-taig, "kraus-ijraail raajamaarg" (raajamaarg 6), fileepeens ka south lujon expressway E-paas, Brisbane ke kveensalaind motaravej ka govaaya taig (pehle E-tol ke naam se gyaat), Australia, mein system, otopista del sol (sans raajamaarg), otopista sentral (kendreeya raajamaarg), otopista los librtadores, kostaanera norte, vespusiyo norte express aur vespusiyo sur shahari raajamaarg aur har aane wala shahari raajamaarg (ek "mukt pravaah" saadhan mein) chili mein niji niveshakon ko chhoot praapt, Hongkong ke sabhi tol surang (ototol) aur Portugal ke sabhi raajamaarg (viya verd, tol ke poore network ka vistaar karne waali duniya ki pehli pranaali), France (libr-T pranaali), Italy (teleepaas), Spain (Via-T), braajeel (sem paraar - Via Fáacil). taig, jo aam taur par sakriya prakaar ke hote hain, vaahanon ke booth se gujarte samay door se padhe jaate hain aur taig jaankaari ka prayog ek poorv bhugataan khaate se tol raashi ko naame likhne ke liye kiya jaata hai. yeh pranaali tol plaaja ke maadhyam se yaataayaat ko gati dene mein madad karti hai, choonki yeh RFID vaahan taig ke liye taareekh, samay aur bill ke aankade darj karta hai. greater Toronto area mein plaaja aur kataar-mukt 407 express tol root, sabhi biling ke liye ek traansapondar (ek sakriya taig) ke prayog ki anumati deta hai. isse, license plate dvaara ek vaahan ki pehchaan karne ki aavashyakta samaapt ho jaati hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
cigarette ke maamale mein French "chhota sigaar" dhoomrapaan ka ek utpaad hai jise patali tambaakoo ki pattiyon ko ant mein kaatkar aur tambaakoo ka punargathan kar theek se taiyaar kiya jaata hai, aksar ise anya yogaj ke saath sanyukt kar ek velanaakaar kaagaj mein lapet diya jaata hai.[8] cigarette aamtaur par sulagaakar usaka dhuaan ek selooloj eseetet filtar ke maadhyam se munh aur fefadon mein kheencha jaata hai. cigarette peena tambaakoo-sevan ka sabse aam tareeka hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

paryaapt vaigyaanik saboot se pata chalta hai ki cigarette ki oonchi keemat ke kaaran cigarette ki samagr khapat mein kami aati hai. jyaadaatar adhyayanon se sanket milta hai ki moolya mein 10% ki vruddhi se cigarette ke samagr upabhog mein 3% se 5% kami ho jaayegi. moolya vruddhi ke baad yuvaaon, alpasankhyakon aur kam aay vaale dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ke nasha chhodne ki sambhaavana, anya dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki tulana mein do se teen guna adhik badh jaati hai.[84][85] dhoomrapaan karna aksar ek bahut drudh hone ka udaaharan maane jaate hain haalaanki, uda. hai ki keematon mein bhaari vruddhi ka parinaam, jiska khapat par kaafi kam prabhaav padta hai.
web aadhaarit prabandhan upakaran, sangathanon ko apni sampatti ki nigraani ki anumati dete hue duniya mein kaheen se bhi prabandhan ke faisale karne mein saksham karte hain. web aadhaarit anuprayog ka ab matlab hai ki, teesara paksh, jaise vinirmaata aur thekedaar ko parisanpatti deta ko adyatan karne ke liye pahunch di ja sakti hai, udaaharan ke liye jismein shaamil hai, nireekshan itihaas aur online pralekhan hastaantaran jo yeh sunishchit karta hai ki antim upayogakarta ke paas hamesha sahi, rial-time data ho. sangathan, pehle se hi mobile parisanpatti prabandhan samaadhaan ke saath RFID taig ko sanyojit karke apni sampatti ko darj karne aur uske sthaan par najar rakhane, usaki vartamaan sthiti aur unka rakh-rakhaav kiya gaya hai ya naheen, yeh jaanane ke liye prayog kar rahe hain.
pipe dhoomrapaan mein aamtaur par tambaakoo ke dahan ke liye ek chhota sa kaksh (katora) aur ek patali nalika (danda) shaamil hai, jo mukhapatr (thoda) mein samaapt hota hai. tambaakoo ke kase tukadon ko kaksh mein rakha aur prajvalit kar diya jaata hai. pipe mein dhoomrapaan ke liye tambaakoo aksar bahut dhyaan dekar istemaal kiya jaata hai aur svaad ki baareekiyon ki mishrit upalabdhata anya tambaakoo utpaadon mein upalabdh naheen hai.
ek FDA-naamit taask fors ne vartamaan mein vyaavasaayik taur par upalabdh vibhinn praudyogikiyon ke adhyayan ke baad yeh nishkarsh diya ki unamein se kaun si takaneekein vanshaavali aavashyakataaon ko poora kar sakti hain. baar koding sahit adhyayan ki gayi sabhi praudyogikiyon mein, RFID sabse adhik sambhaavana yukt dikhti hai aur samiti ne mahasoos kiya ki vanshaavali aavashyakta ko, aasaani se upalabdh chhej ko nivesh kar ke praapt kiya ja sakta hai. (adhik jaankaari ke liye dekhein RFID-FDA-Regulations)
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khudara vikretaaon ke maadhyam se bikne vaale utpaadon ke nirmaata khudara vikreta ko beche gaye apne utpaadon ko badhaava dene ke liye ek seemit avadhi ke liye is ummeed ke saath chhoot deta hai, ki khudara vikreta bachat ko apne graahakon tak pahunchaaega. haalaanki, khudara vikreta aamtaur par forward baaing mein vyast ho jaate hain aur chhoot avadhi ke dauraan adhik utpaad khareedne lagte hain jitna ki ve prachaar avadhi ke dauraan bechne ka iraada naheen rakhate. kuchh khudara vikreta ek prakaar ke antarapanan mein sanlagn ho jaate hain aur riyaayati utpaad ko anya khudara vikretaaon ko bechne lag jaate hain, is abhyaas ko daaivarting ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. is abhyaas ka mukaabala karne ke liye, nirmaata, prachaarit maal par RFID taig ke prayog ki sambhaavanaaon ko talaash rahe hain taaki ve track kar sakein ki vaastav mein kaun sa utpaad poori tarah se riyaayati keematon par aapoorti shrrunkhala ke maadhyam se becha gaya hai.[27]
gharon mein aam taur par vidyut company, telephone company, kebal teleevijn ya upagrah dish seva, akhbaar ka chanda aur anya aisi niyamit sevaaen dendaari lekhe hain. gruhasth log saamaanyat: check ya kredit card ka upayog karte hue, hastachaalit tareeke se maasik aadhaar par inka dhyaan rakhate aur bhugataan karte hain. vyaapaar mein, aam taur par A/P faail mein vyaapak sevaaen shaamil hoti hain aur saamaanya roop se lekhaakaar ya bahi-khaata likhnevaale, jab unhein beejak milta hai to is dendaari khaate mein aane vaale dhan aur jab ve bhugataan karte hain, to is khaate se jaane vaale dhan ke pravaah ki khoj-khabar ke liye lekhaankan software ka prayog karte hain. badi companiyaan ek sangathan ke beejakon ke sansaadhan mein prayukt kaagj aur hastachaalit tatvon ko svachaalit karne ke liye teji se vishesh dendaari lekhon ke svachaalan ka prayog kar rahi hain.
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