web aadhaarit prabandhan upakaran, sangathanon ko apni sampatti ki nigraani ki anumati dete hue duniya mein kaheen se bhi prabandhan ke faisale karne mein saksham karte hain. web aadhaarit anuprayog ka ab matlab hai ki, teesara paksh, jaise vinirmaata aur thekedaar ko parisanpatti deta ko adyatan karne ke liye pahunch di ja sakti hai, udaaharan ke liye jismein shaamil hai, nireekshan itihaas aur online pralekhan hastaantaran jo yeh sunishchit karta hai ki antim upayogakarta ke paas hamesha sahi, rial-time data ho. sangathan, pehle se hi mobile parisanpatti prabandhan samaadhaan ke saath RFID taig ko sanyojit karke apni sampatti ko darj karne aur uske sthaan par najar rakhane, usaki vartamaan sthiti aur unka rakh-rakhaav kiya gaya hai ya naheen, yeh jaanane ke liye prayog kar rahe hain.
kai deshon mein dhoomrapaan ki umr nirdhaarit hai, sanyukt raajya America sahit kai deshon, Europeeya sangh ke adhikaansh sadasya raajyon, New Zealand, Canada, dakshin Africa, isaraail, Bhaarat, Brazil, chili, kosta rika aur Australia mein tambaakoo utpaadon ko naabaaligon ko bechana avaidh hai aur Netherland, ostriya, Belgium, Denmark aur dakshin Africa mein 16 se kam aayu ke logon ko tambaakoo utpaad bechana avaidh hai. 1 sitmbar 2007 ko Germany mein tambaakoo utpaadon ko khareedne ki nyoonatam aayu badhaakar 16 se 18 kar di gayi aur usi ke saath saath great Britain mein bhi 1 October 2007 se yeh seema 16 se 18 kar di gayi.[98] sanyukt raajya America ke 50 mein se 46 raajyon mein nyoonatam aayu 18 varsh hai, Alabama, alaaska, new jersey ke alaava, yoota aur jahaan kaanooni umr 19 varsh hai (New York ke uttari raajya onondaga County ke saath hi saath New York ke lambe aaisalaind ki County sufafolk aur nassoo mein bhi).[krupaya uddharan jodein] kuchh deshon mein tambaakoo utpaadon ko (arthaat khareedne par) bachchon ko dene aur yahaan tak ki dhoomrapaan karne ke kaarya mein sanlagn bachchon ke khilaaf bhi kaanoon hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] aise kaanoonon ki antarnihit dhaarana hai ki log tambaakoo ke istemaal ke jokhim ke baare mein jaankaar hi upayog ke sambandh mein nirnaya lein. in kaanoonon mein kuchh deshon aur raajyon ne ek dheela pravartan kiya hai. anya kshetron mein cigarette abhi bhi bachchon ko bech rahe hain kyonki ullanghan ke liye jurmaana kam hain ya tulanaatmak roop se bachchon ko bechana laabhakaarak hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] haalaanki cheen, Turkey aur kai anya deshon mein aam taur par ek bachche ko tambaakoo utpaadon ko khareedne mein kam mushkil ka saamana karna padta hai kyonki aksar unase apne maata-pita ke liye tambaakoo khareedne ke liye dukaan jaane ko kaha jaata hai.
October 2004 mein, FDA ne maanav mein pratyaaropit kiye ja sakane vaale amareeka ke pehle RFID chip ko manjoori di. vereechip corporation ke 134 kHz RFID chips mein vyaktigat chikitsa jaankaari rakhi ja sakti hai aur company ke anusaar, chikitsa upachaar mein trutiyon ke maamale mein jeevan raksha ho sakti hai aur choton ko seemit kiya ja sakta hai. FDA anumodan ko niveshakon ke saath ek sammelan ke dauraan bataaya gaya. anumodan ke sheegra hi baad, lekhak aur RFID-virodhi kaaryakarta Cathrine albrekt aur lij maikintaayar ne FDA ki or se ek chetaavani patra ki khoj ki jismein likha tha gambhir health risks associated with the VeriChip. FDA ke mutaabik, inmein shaamil hain "pratikool ootak pratikriya", "pratyaaropit traansapondar ka sthaan parivartan", "pratyaaropit traansapondar ki vifalta","bijli ke khatre" aur "maignetik rejoneins imejing [MRI] asangati."
RFID taig, aksar UPC ya EAN baarakod ke liye ek pratisthaapan hain, jiske puraane baarakod praudyogiki ki tulana mein kai mahatvapoorn laabh hain. ho sakta hai ve kabhi bhi poori tarah se baarakod ki jagah na lein, kuchh unki laagat ke kaaran aur ek hi vastu par ekaadhik deta sroton ka laabh. kai anya yojanaaon ke saath, nai EPC, uchit keemat par vyaapak roop se upalabdh hai.

riflekted power (modyuleted baikaskaitar) RFID taig ka ek bahut praarambhik pradarshan, nishkriya aur arddh-nishkriya, donon ka, steven dep, alfred koele aur Robert freman dvaara 1973 mein loss elaamos national leboretari mein kiya gaya.[2] yeh portebal pranaali 915 megaahartj par sanchaalit hoti thi aur 12-bit taig ka prayog karti thi. is takaneek ka upayog aaj ke adhikaansh UHFID aur maaikrovev RFID taig dvaara kiya jaata hai.
laujik gate ke haaidrolik, vaayaveeya aur yaantrik sanskaran maujood hain aur aisi sthitiyon mein istemaal kiye jaate hain jahaan bijli ka upayog naheen kiya ja sakta. pehle do prakaar ko fludeeks ke tahat maana jaata hai. fludeek laujik ka ek prayog, sainya haardaveyar mein hai jiske ek vidyut chumbakeeya pals mein ujaagar hone ki sambhaavana hai (parmaanu EMP, ya NEMP) jo bijli ke sarkit ko nasht karta hai.
ZDNet ke anusaar, aalochakon ka maanana hai ki is praudyogiki se kisi vyakti ki har gatividhi par nazar rakha jaaega aur yeh gopaneeyata par ek aakraman hoga. vivaad is baat par hai ki aalochak maanate hain ki sarkaar dvaara iska durupayog hoga. kuchh log aise bhavishya ki avadhaarana pesh karte hain jahaan har gatividhi par sarkaar ki nazar hogi.[86] Cathrine albrekt ke spaaichips: how major korporeshan end gavarnameint plaan tu track yor evri moov vith RFID, se ek vyakti ko "gair-nijta waali duniya ki kalpana" ke liye protsaahit kiya jaata hai. "jahaan aapki har khareed ki nigraani aur ek detaabes mein darj ki jaati hai aur aapki har cheej sankhyaabaddh hai. jiske tahat, kisi anya sudoor raajya ke ya shaayad kisi doosare desh ke vyakti ke paas aapki har khareed ka byaura hoga. aur kya, unka pata lagaaya ja sakta hai aur door se najar rakhi ja sakti hai."[87] seedhe shabdon mein kahein, shadayantrakaareeyon ka tark hai ki RFID chip ke saath sarkaar ek vyakti ko bhaan hue bina hi usaki gopaneeyata bhang kar sakti hai.
raksha ki ek dviteeya shreni, taig kloning ko rokane ke liye kriptograafi ka upayog karti hai. kuchh taig ek prakaar ke "roling code" yojana ka upayog karte hain, jismein taig pahachaanakarta jaankaari pratyek scan ke baad parivrtit ho jaati hai, is tarah dekhi gayi pratikriyaaon ki upayogita ko kam kar deti hai. adhik parishkrut upakaran chunauti-pratikriya pramaaneekaran mein sanlagn hote hain jahaan taig, reedar ke saath soochana ka aadaan pradaan karta hai. in protokaul mein, taig aur reedar ke beech asurakshit sanchaar channel par gupt taig jaankaari naheen bheji jaati hai. balki, reedar taig ke liye ek chunauti jaari karta hai, jo ek parinaam ke saath javaab deta hai jiski ganana kuchh gupt moolya ke saath bandhe kriptograafik sarkit ka upayog karte hue ki jaati hai. aise protokaul, samamit ya saarvajanik kunji kriptograafi par aadhaarit ho sakta hai. koot roop se saksham taig ki aamtaur par keemat naatakeeya roop se uchch hoti hai aur ise saral samakaksh se adhik bijli ki aavashyakta hoti hai aur parinaamasvaroop in taig ki tainaati adhik seemit hai. is laagat/vidyut bandhan ne kuchh nirmaataaon ko kaafi kamjor ya svaamitv waali enkripshan yojanaaon ka upayog karke kootlekhit taig lagaane mein prerit kiya, jo parishkrut hamle ko aavashyak roop se naheen rokate. udaaharan ke liye, eksaun-mobil speedapaas, Texas instroomeints dvaara nirmit ek kootalekh-saksham taig ka upayog karta hai, jise digital signechar traansapondar (DST) kehte hain, jismein kam laagat ke liye ek chunauti-pratikriya protokaul karne ke liye ek kamjor, svaamitv enkripshan yojana shaamil hai.
theem park (jaise United Kingdom mein eltan taavars) RFID ka upayog karte hain taaki unhein raaid ke upayogakarta ki pehchaan karne aur park mein unke bitaaye samay ki ek DVD banaane mein madad ho. din ke ant mein fir ise upayogakartaaon ke liye khareedne ke liye upalabdh karaaya jaata hai. yeh upayogakartaaon ke liye svaichhik hai jo park mein unhein diye jaane vaale kalaai band ko pahan kar aisa kar sakte hain.
jyaadaatar maamalon mein sanketo ki avastha ki sankhya do hoti hai aur in do avasthaaon ko do voltej staron dvaara darshaaya jaata hai: prayog mein aapoorti voltej ke aadhaar par ek va doosra (aamtaur par "jameeni" ya shoonya volt ke roop mein kaha jaata hai)| 1 uchch star par hota hai va 0 nimn star par. aksar ye donon star "lo" aur "haai" ke roop mein pratinidhitv karte hain.
2009 ki garmiyon ke baad se, do kredit card companiyaan vishesh maaicroSD card ke vikaas ke liye dalaas, Texas aadhaarit divaaisafideliti ke saath kaam kar rahi hain. jab ise ek mobile phone mein daala jaaega to yeh microSD card, ek nishkriya taig aur ek RFID reedar, donon ho sakta hai.[11] microSD daalne ke baad, ek upayogakarta ka phone bank khaate se jud jaaega aur usaka upayog mobile bhugataan mein kiya jaaega.

hamesha ki tarah ek tulyakaalik anukramik state machine ko ek sanyojan laujik mein vibhaajit karke laagoo karne ka vyaavahaarik tareeka hota hai aur flip flop ke set ko "state rajistar" kaha jaata hai. har baar ek ghadi tik tik ki signal deti hai aur state rajistar sanyojan laujik ke pichhle state se utpann pratikriya par kabja kar leti hai aur state machine ke sanyojan bhaag mein aparivrtineeya input ke roop mein fir se ise daal deti hai. sanyojan laujik mein samay ke khapat vaale adhikaansh laujik aakalan dvaara ghadi ki sabse tej dar set hoti hai.

baharahaal, pathan seema, reedar aur taig, donon ka hi ek kaarya hai. praudyogiki ke kshetr mein sudhaar se taig ki pathan seema mein vruddhi ki ja sakti hai. reedar ke taig ke bahut paas hone se kam doori ke taig pathaneeya ho jaate hain. aam taur par, ek taig ki pathan seema ko reedar se utani doori par seemit kiya jaata hai jis par taig, reedar kshetr se taig ko niyantrit karne ke liye paryaapt oorja kheench sake. ek reedar ki shakti ko badhaakar, taig ko unke liye niyat doori se adhik door se padha ja sakta hai. pathan doori par seema, tab reedar ko taig se vaapas bheje gaye sanket ka signal-tu-nauej anupaat ban jaata hai. do suraksha sammelanon mein shodhakartaaon ne dikhaaya ki nishkriya Ultra-HighFID taig, ameriki passport mein prayukt HighFID prakaar vaale naheen, jo aamtaur par 30 feet tak padhe jaate hain, upayukt upakaranon ke upayog dvaara 50-69 foot ki doori se padhe ja sakte hain.[73][74]

digital electronic, ya sookshmaadvik aankik paddhati aisi pranaali hai jo vidyut sanketon ko, rekheeya star ke ek nirantar pattiyon ke bajaae ek alag alag pattiyon ki shrrunkhala ke roop mein darshaati hai. is patti ke sabhi star sanketon ki ek hi avastha ko darshaate hain. sanketo ki is pruthakata ki vajah se nirmaan sahanasheelata ke kaaऱaan rekheeya sanketo ke star mein aaye apekshaakrut chhote badlaav alag aavaran naheen chhodte hai. jiske parinaam svarup sanketo ki avastha ko mahasoos karne wala paripth inhe najaraandaaj kar deta hai.
After four consequent electoral defeats, Parakala withdrew from the electoral arena. He concentrated on public discourse through the current affairs programmes on television and his profession as a policy analyst. But in 2008 some like minded people approached Parakala with an intention to start a new alternative political platform. Popular matinee idol Chiramjivi was to be the face of the party. Parakala lent his support to the idea and worked to establish the party. He was one of the signatories to the application for the registration of the Political Party 'Prajarajyam' and one of its founding General Secretaries and spokespersons. But the experimented turned out to be another disappointment for Parakala. He found that there was no clear agenda and party tickets were given in exchange of money. Several local leaders openly hurled accusations at the party leadership. Parakala held a press conference at the party headquarters and launched a scathing attack on the party leadership for betraying the ideals for which the new platform was to stand for. Terming the party as Poisonous Ivy (Vishavruksham), he announced his resignation. That address to the press was telecast live and thousands viewed it across the state. That spelt the doom for the party. A party that was hoping to have an impressive performance ended up with securing just 18 seats with the charismatic Chiramjivi himself losing one of the two seats he contested from his native place. Many people still question the moral and ethical basis of Parakala holding a press conference at the party headquarters to criticise the party and its leadership. Opinion is still bitterly divided on this. The Prajarajyam seems to have put an end to the party and electoral political career of Parakala.

anukramik system iske atirikt do upashreniyon mein vibhaajit hota hai. jab ek "klauk" signal state ko parivrtit karta hai tab "tulyakaalik" anukramik pranaali ek hi baar mein state ko badal deta hai. jab bhi input badalate hain "atulyakaalik" anukramik pranaali parivartan ko prasaarit karta hai. tulyakaalik anukramik system atulyakaalik sarkit ki visheshata se bana hota hai jaise flip flop, jo klauk jab parivartan karta hai tabhi ye parivartan karta hai aur jismein timing margin ko dhyaan se design kiya jaata hai.
Vyapar solves all these problems very well with ease and helps you be on top of you business accounts. It helps you to see all the business accounts/receivables at one place without going through the ledger. It helps you easily remind your parties by just click of a button through whatsapp, message etc. Now you can send transactions to your parties, see your cashflow status, sale/purchase status, expense status etc in just a click. Not only that, you can create sale and purchase transactions with items which you don’t have to enter again and again as app remembers what you did earlier and reduce typing for you drastically. It has lot of other features that you would need on a day to day basis to run your business smoothly and efficiently.
January, 2005 mein, Wall-Mart ne apne sheersh 100 aapoortikrtaaon ke liye sabhi ladaan par RFID lebal lagaana jaroori kar diya. is aavashyakta ko poora karne ke liye, vikretaaon ne dabbon aur pailet par jismein Wall-Mart ke liye EPC taig ki aavashyakta thi, lebal lagaane ke liye RFID printar/inakodar ka upayog kiya. ye smart lebal, saamagri ke andar RFID inlej jad kar aur uske baad lebal ki satah par baar code aur dikhaai dene waali anya jaankaari mudrit kar ke nirmit kiye gaye hain.
prativedan ke liye engineer digital system ke prakaaron par vichaar karte hain. adhikaansh digital system "sanyojan system" aur "anukramik system" mein vibhaajit ho jaate hain. sanyojan pranaali mein hamesha jo input diya jaata hai vahi aautaput vah deta hai. yeh mool roop se laujik prakriya ke set ka pratinidhitv karta hai aur jiski charcha pehle hi ki ja chuki hai.

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