1965 se lekar 2006 tak sanyukt raajya America mein dhoomrapaan ki dar 42% se girkar 20.8% tak aayi hai.[6] jin logon ne chhoda unamein adhikaansh peshevar, sampann log the. upabhog mein kami hone ke baavajood, prati din prati vyakti cigarette ki ausat khapat 1954 mein 22 se badhkar 1978 mein 30 ho gayi. yeh paraspar virodhi parinaam yeh spasht karta hai ki jin logon ne peena chhoda ve kam dhoomrapaan karte the, jabki ve log jinhonne dhoomrapaan karna jaari rakha ve adhik maatra mein halke cigarette peene lage.[37] yeh pravrutti kai audyogik deshon mein saamaantar chalti rahi jahaan bhale hi usaki dar baraabar rahi ya usamein giraavat aayi. haalaanki vikaasasheel duniya mein tambaakoo ki khapat mein 2002 mein 3.4% ki vruddhi jaari rahi.[7] Africa mein jyaadaatar ilaakon mein dhoomrapaan ko aadhunik maana jaata hai aur yeh majaboot pratikool rai hai ki pashchim mein is par bahut kam dhyaan diya jaata hai.[38] aaj roos tambaakoo ka sheersh upabhokta hai aur uske baad Indonesia, laaos, Ukraine, Belarus, grees, Jordan aur cheen hain.[39]
si pi aar I vaidyut shikt injeeniyri mein anuprayukt anusandhaan ke liye kein ke roop mein kaam karne ke alaava vidyut upaskar ke pareekshan aur pramaaneekaran ko sampann karne ke liye ek pradhaan nikaaya ke roop mein kaayarrat hai. sansthaan sthit maaneetaran evam kshetr nidaan, oorja pareekshan tatha vitran pranaali prabandhan ke alaava utpaad abhiklp tatha vikaas (design evam development) ke liye paraamarsh sevaaeain pradaan karta hai aur saath hi desh ke donon taap tatha jal vidyut sanyantron ke liye shesh aayu nirdhaaran/naveekaran evam aadhuneenakeekaran adhyayan tatha aayu vistaran adhyayan sampann karta hai.
gair electronic digital tantr nirmaan sambhav hai. siddhaant roop mein, asatat state ka pratinidhitv aur laujik kaaryon ka pratinidhitv karne mein saksham kisi bhi takaneek ka istemaal yaantrik laujik banaane ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. MIT ke chhaatron, erleen gi, Edward haardabek, daini hilis (the kanekshan machine ke sah-lekhak), maargaret minsaki aur bairi aur Brian silvaraman bhaai, ne tinkar khilaune, string, ek int aur ek teevr peinsil se do computer ka nirmaan kiya.[3] tinkaratauya computer, Boston vigyaan sangrahaalaya mein hai.
RFID taig ka istamaal jin tol booth par electronic tol sangrahan ke liye kiya jaata hai unamein shaamil hain jaurjiya ka krooj card, California ka faasatraik, Colorado ka E-470, ilinois ka I-paas, oklaahoma ka paaikapaas, vistaar karte poorvi raajyon ka E-ZPass pranaali (maisaachusets ke fast len, delaaveyar, new haimpashaayar tarnapik, maireelaind, new jersey tarnapik peinsilveniya tarnapik, vest varjeeniya tarnapik, New York ki throove pranaali, varjeeniya, main tarnapik aur rode dweep ke nyooport brij sahit), sentral florida bhi is takaneek ka istemaal apne E-PASS pranaali ke maadhyam se karte hain. E-paas aur sanapaas paarasparik roop se sangat hain. florida ka sanapaas, Texas mein vibhinn pranaali jismein shaamil hain D/FW ka NTTA tolataig, ostin metro TxTag aur Houston HCTRA EZ taig (jo praarambhik 2007 ke roop mein kisi bhi Texas tol road par maanya hain), kensaas ka K-taig, "kraus-ijraail raajamaarg" (raajamaarg 6), fileepeens ka south lujon expressway E-paas, Brisbane ke kveensalaind motaravej ka govaaya taig (pehle E-tol ke naam se gyaat), Australia, mein system, otopista del sol (sans raajamaarg), otopista sentral (kendreeya raajamaarg), otopista los librtadores, kostaanera norte, vespusiyo norte express aur vespusiyo sur shahari raajamaarg aur har aane wala shahari raajamaarg (ek "mukt pravaah" saadhan mein) chili mein niji niveshakon ko chhoot praapt, Hongkong ke sabhi tol surang (ototol) aur Portugal ke sabhi raajamaarg (viya verd, tol ke poore network ka vistaar karne waali duniya ki pehli pranaali), France (libr-T pranaali), Italy (teleepaas), Spain (Via-T), braajeel (sem paraar - Via Fáacil). taig, jo aam taur par sakriya prakaar ke hote hain, vaahanon ke booth se gujarte samay door se padhe jaate hain aur taig jaankaari ka prayog ek poorv bhugataan khaate se tol raashi ko naame likhne ke liye kiya jaata hai. yeh pranaali tol plaaja ke maadhyam se yaataayaat ko gati dene mein madad karti hai, choonki yeh RFID vaahan taig ke liye taareekh, samay aur bill ke aankade darj karta hai. greater Toronto area mein plaaja aur kataar-mukt 407 express tol root, sabhi biling ke liye ek traansapondar (ek sakriya taig) ke prayog ki anumati deta hai. isse, license plate dvaara ek vaahan ki pehchaan karne ki aavashyakta samaapt ho jaati hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

poore Europe mein aur vishesh roop se peris mein (pranaali RATP dvaara 1995 mein shuroo ki gayi), lion, bordo, grenobal, nainsi aur maarsile France mein, poore purtagaali raajamaarg vyavastha mein aur kai purtagaali saarvajanik car park mein, Milan, turin, Italy mein nepals aur floreins aur Belgium mein brasels, kailipso antararaashtreeya maanak ke anuroop RFID paas ka saarvajanik parivhan pranaali ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai. unka upayog ab Canada (mauntriyl), maiksiko, isaraail, Columbia mein bogota aur parera, naarve mein stavaangar, laksamabarg, aadi mein bhi kiya jaata hai.
sanyukt raajya America mein, Chicago traanjit praadhikran ne poori pranaali mein 2002 ke baad se rel bhugataanon ke liye Chicago card aur Chicago card plas ki peshakash ki aur 2005 ke baad se bas bhugataanon ke liye. MBTA ne RFID saksham chaarleekaard ko 2006 mein Boston ke sampoorn metro, streetakaar aur bas pranaali mein laagoo kiya aur dashakon puraane tokan aadhaarit kiraaya sangrah pranaali ko pratisthaapit kiya.

lekha-pareekshak aksar kaate gaye chekon ke samarthan mein anumodit beejakon, vyaya riporton aur anya samarthak pralekhanon ki maujoodagi par dhyaan keindrit karte hain. aapoortikrta se pushtikran ya bayaan ka hona, khaate ke astitv ka samuchit pramaan hai. yeh asaamaanya naheen hai ki lekha-pareeksha ke chaaloo hone tak, inmein se kuchh pralekhan kho jaaen ya glat faailon mein rakhe jaaen. aisi sthitiyon mein lekha-pareekshak namoone ke aakaar ko badhaane ka faisala kar sakte hain.
dubai mein, (sanyukt arab ameeraat) shekh jaayad road aur garahaud brij se gujarane vaale driver RFID taig ka upayog karte hue tol bhugataan karte hain jise saleek (pathakar) kaha jaata hai. dubai ne ek saarvajanik parivhan card bhi shuroo kiya hai jiska naam Nol [9] hai (jiska arth arabi mein kiraaya hai) jise metro, bas aur vaatarabas mein istemaal kiya jaata hai, ise dubai metro ke sarkaari prakshepan ke 9 September 2009 ke din seva mein pesh kiya gaya tha.
pustakaalayon mein RFID ko lekar jis chinta ka prasaar hua hai vah gopaneeyata ka mudda hai. choonki RFID traansameetar aur reedar ke anusaar, RFID taig ko 350 feet ya 100 meter se padha aur scan kiya ja sakta hai (udaaharan ke smart lebal RFID) aur choonki RFID, freekveinsi ke vargeekaran ka istemaal karta hai (donon, taig ke prakaar par nirbhar karta hai), chinta ka vishay yeh hai ki kya samvedansheel jaankaari ko ek anichhuk srot se ekatr kiya ja sakta hai. haalaanki, pustakaalaya ke RFID taig mein koi sanrakshak jaankaari shaamil naheen hoti,[33] aur adhikaansh pustakaalayon mein prayukt taig jis freekveinsi ka prayog karte hain vah keval lagbhag das foot se pathaneeya hai.[28] saath hi, pustakaalayon ko hamesha yeh record rakhana hai ki kisne kab kya liya hai, to us maayane mein koi nai baat naheen hai. haalaanki, kai pustakaalaya in record ko saamagri ke ek baar vaapas aa jaane ke baad nasht kar dete hain. RFID, paathakon ki gopaneeyata ke is sammaan ko jatil ya samaapt kar degi. iske alaava, ek anya gair-pustakaalaya agency sambhaavit roop se pustakaalaya vyavasthaapak ki jaankaari ya sahamati ke bina pustakaalaya se nikalne vaale pratyek vyakti ke RFID taig ko record kar sakti hai. ek aasaan vikalp hai ki pustak ko ek code sanchaarit karne diya jaae jiska mahatva sirf laaibreri ke daataabes ke saath sanyojan ke roop mein ho. ek aur kadam yeh hai ki kitaab ko jab bhi lautaaya jaae to use ek naya code diya jaae. aur agar bhavishya mein reedar sarvavyaapak ho jaae to (aur sanbhavat: jude hue), chori gayi kitaabon ko laaibreri ke baahar bhi pata lagaaya ja sakta hai. taig ko hataane ko mushkil banaaya ja sakta hai agar taig itna chhota ho ki use ek (yaadruchhik) prushth ke andar adrushya roop se lagaaya ja sake, sanbhavat: prakaashak dvaara vahaan daal diya jaae.
kuchh pranaaliyon mein yadi digital deta ka ek bhaag lupt ho jaae ya galat tareeke se vyavahrut hon, to sambandhit deta ke vishaal khandon ka arth poori tarah se badal sakta hai. kyonki kleef ifekt ke kaaran, upayogakartaaon ke liye bataana mushkil hai ki koi vishisht system vifalta ke kagaar par sahi tha ya fir vah asafal hone se pehle bahut adhik shor ko sahan kar sakta hai ya naheen.
Mrs. Pakravan confirms the well-known story that her husband saved Ayatollah Khomeini's life in 1963. He was condemned to death and General Pakravan was upset by that. Pakravan felt that Khomeini's execution would anger the common people of Iran. He knew that the population of the country is not its elite. He presented his argument to the shah. Once he had convinced the shah to allow him to find a way out, he called on Ayatollah Mohammad-Kazem Shariatmadari, one of the senior religious leaders of Iran, and asked for his help. Ayatollah Shariatmadari suggested that Khomeini be made a grand ayatollah. So, they made a religious decree which was taken by General Pakravan and Seyyed Jalal Tehrani to the Shah.
1980 ke dashak mein mile vaigyaanik pramaan ke anusaar tambaakoo companiyaan ne daava kiya hai ki laaparavaahi baratne ka kaaran svaasthya par padne vaale pratikool prabhaav se pehle unka anajaan hona tha ya paryaapt vishvasaneeyata ka abhaav tha. svaasthya adhikaariyon ne 1998 tak in daavon ka saath diya jiske baad unhonne apni sthiti ulat di. tambaakoo pradhaan niptaan samjhauta (the tobaiko master saitalameint egreemeint) mool roop se chaar sabse badi tambaakoo companiyon aur 46 raajyon ke ameriki etorni general ke beech hua. tambaakoo ke kuchh khaas prakaar ke vijnyaaapanon par pratibandh laga diya gaya aur svaasthya muaavaje ke taur par bhugataan ko aavashyak kar diya gaya, jo baad mein sanyukt raajya America ke itihaas mein sabse bade naagrik niptaan ke roop saamane aaya.[36]
Born on 20 October 1923 to Sankaran and Accamma in Alappuzha, Travancore (part of present-day Kerala state, India), he lost his mother when he was four years old and subsequently lost his father at age 11. This forced him to quit his studies after finishing 7th standard in school and college[9] He started working by helping his elder brother in a village tailoring shop. Later he took up the job of meshing coir to make ropes at a coir factory.[10][11]
computer aarkitekchar ek vishesh engineering gatividhi hai jo rajistar, aakalan laujik, bason aur computer ke anya bhaagon ko kuchh prayojan ke liye sabse achhe tareekon se shreneebaddh karne ki koshish karta hai. computer vaastukaar ne laagat kam karne aur gati ko teevr karne aur computer prograaming trutiyon ki pratirksha ke liye computer ke design mein vruhad maatra mein suprayog ko lagaaya hai. aur teji se baitari paavard computer pranaali mein bijli ko kam karna iska saadhaaran uddeshya hai. kai computer aarkeetek maaikroprograamars ke roop mein vistrut prashikshuta ki seva de rahe hain.
Singapore mein, saarvajanik parivhan ki bason aur trainon mein nishkriya RFID ko laagoo kiya gaya hai jise EZ-Link card ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. bheed bhare shahar ke aatanrik kshetron mein yaataayaat ko char tol dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai jise stord vailyoo card (kaishakaard ke roop mein gyaat) ke upayog ko ek sakriya taiging pranaali ke saath upayog dvaara laagoo kiya jaata hai.
praudyogiki ke udaya ke saath, kuchh vyaktiyon ko RFID maanav pratyaaropan ke kaaran adhikaaron ki haani ka dar hai. vereechip ek RFID pratyaaropan par kaam kar raha hai jismein GPS traiking kshamata hogi.[84] ameriki sarkaar dvaara yeh takaneek na keval ek vyakti ke liye balki astitv mein maujood har bhautik vastu ki kisi bhi aur har samay bhaugolik avasthati jaanane ki anumati degi. jahaan ek or yeh takaneek laapata bachchon ya bhagodon ka pata lagaane mein sahaayata kar sakti hai, vaheen doosari or yeh sarkaaron ko RFID chip vaale kisi vastu ya vyakti par nazar rakhane ki anumati deta hai. iske alaava, ise saiddhaantik roop se kisi vyakti ki jaankaari ya sahamati ke bina kiya ja sakta hai; aur isi baat par vivaad hai.
shalya chikitsa, yahaan tak ki ek chhote paimaane par bhi, apne jokhim saath laati hai. RFID chip pratyaaropan bhi koi apavaad naheen hai. "yoojing radio freekveinsi aaidenteefikeshan (RFID) teknolaaji in hyumans in the United states for total control,"[12] ke lekhak David bi smith ke anusaar, smith svaasthya jokhimon ka udaaharan dete hain jaise "... pratikool ootak pratikriya, pratyaaropit traansapondar ka pravaas, samjhauta soochana suraksha, pratyaaropit traansapondar ki vifalta, pratyaaropan ki vifalta, electronic skainar ki vifalta, vidyut chumbakeeya hastakshep bijli ke khatre, chunbakeeya anunaad imejing asangati aur needal stick"(38). is tarah ke jokhim kisi ko bhi ho sakte hain.
jin deshon mein ek saarvajanik svaasthya pranaali hai, vahaan dhoomrapaan karne vaale beemaar logon ki samaajik chikitsa dekhbhaal ki laagat karon mein vruddhi ke maadhyam se vahan ki jaati hai. is morche par do tark maujood hain, "dhoomrapaan samarthakon" ka tark hai ki bhaari dhoomrapaan karne vaale aam taur par lamba jeevan naheen jeete jisse budhaape ko prabhaavit karne waali kharcheeli aur puraani beemaari naheen hoti aur yeh samaaj mein svaasthya seva ke bojh ko kam karta hai. "dhoomrapaan virodhi" tark ke anusaar svaasthya chikitsa ka bojh badhta hai kyonki dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ki saamaanya aabaadi ki tulana mein kam umr mein lambi beemaari dar adhik hai.
kreteks ek cigarette hai jo tambaakoo, laung aur ek svaadisht chatani ke ek jatil mishran ke masaale se bani hai. yeh pehli baar kudus, jaava mein 1880 ke dashak mein pesh ki gayi, jo fefadon ko laung ke aushadheeya yugenol (eugenol) dene ke liye banaayi gayi thi. tambaakoo ki gunavatta aur vividhta ne kretek ke utpaadan mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika ada ki kyonki kretek mein 30 se adhik prakaar ke tambaakoo sammilit ho sakte hain. laung ki kaliyon ke kiye gaye chhote-chhote tukado mein tambaakoo ka 1/3 vajan ka mishran uske svaad ko badhaata hai. sanyukt raajya America ke kai raajyon mein kreteks par pratibandh hai[krupaya uddharan jodein] aur sanyukt raajya America mein 2004 mein tambaakoo aur menthaul ke alaava anya masaalon ka "vishesh svaad" hone ke kaaran kreteks ko cigarette mein vargeekrut na kar use nishiddh kar diya gaya.[44]
EPCglobal ke abhiyaanon mein se ek tha 1990 ke dashak mein RFID duniya mein prachalit protokaul ke kolaahal ko saral karna. do taig air intarafes (ek taig aur ek reedar ke beech soochana ka aadaan-pradaan karne ke liye protokaul) ko EPCglobal dvaara 2003 se pehle paribhaashit (lekin pushti naheen) kiya gaya. in protokaul ka, jinhein saamaanyat: class 0 tatha class 1 ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, 2002-2005 mein mahatvapoorn vyaavasaayik kaaryaanvayan hua.
Singapore mein, saarvajanik parivhan ki bason aur trainon mein nishkriya RFID ko laagoo kiya gaya hai jise EZ-Link card ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. bheed bhare shahar ke aatanrik kshetron mein yaataayaat ko char tol dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai jise stord vailyoo card (kaishakaard ke roop mein gyaat) ke upayog ko ek sakriya taiging pranaali ke saath upayog dvaara laagoo kiya jaata hai.
uber (aur “uber ____” hone ke aadhaar par banaaya gaya staartaps ke parinaamasvaroop paagalapan) jaise braandon ke lie dhanyavaad, logon ko phon eplikeshan ke maadhyam se maang par sab kuchh karane ke lie upayog kiya ja raha hai 2017 mein, mujhe ummeed hai ki yah dekhane ke lie ki yah aage bhee vikasit ho. hamaare paas savaaree, bhojan vitaran, aur yahaan tak ​​ki ek ke lie hamaare paas upalabdh hajaaron aip hain

mobile kanpyooting aur web praudyogikiyon ke saath milkar RFID, sangathanon ko apni sampatti ki pehchaan karne aur prabandhan karne ka tareeka pradaan karti hai. shuroo mein ekeekrut RFID reedar ke saath pramukh reetel kreg paitarasan, nauksavile, TN. mobile computer, mein shuroo kiya gaya jo ab upakaranon ka poora set pradaan kar sakte hain jo kaagaji kaarravaai ko samaapt kar sakta hai aur pehchaan aur upasthiti ka saboot de sakta hai. yeh tareeka shaareerik roop se deta pravishti ko samaapt karta hai.


Singapore mein, saarvajanik parivhan ki bason aur trainon mein nishkriya RFID ko laagoo kiya gaya hai jise EZ-Link card ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. bheed bhare shahar ke aatanrik kshetron mein yaataayaat ko char tol dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai jise stord vailyoo card (kaishakaard ke roop mein gyaat) ke upayog ko ek sakriya taiging pranaali ke saath upayog dvaara laagoo kiya jaata hai.
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