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RFID daud samay ke kai roop 1990 ke dashak ke praarambh se vibhinn prakaar ki race ki timing ke liye prayog mein rahe hain. yeh istamaal pijn race se shuroo hua, jise ek company dvaara shuroo kiya gaya jiska naam tha barasingahauyasan ki daaistar electronic Gmbh, Germany: daaistar electronics. ek marathon mein jaanvaron ya vyaktiyon ke race praarambh aur samaapti ke panjeekaran ke liye iska prayog kiya jaata hai, jahaan har khilaadi ke liye sahi staupavauch reeding paana asambhav hai.
kai deshon jaise Ireland, laataviya, estoniya, Netherland, France, Finland, naarve, Canada, Australia, sveedan, Portugal, Singapore, Italy, Indonesia, Bhaarat, lithuaaniya, chili, Spain, aaisalaind, United Kingdom, sloveniya aur maalta ne saarvajanik sthaanon par dhoomrapaan ke khilaaf kaanoon banaaye hain, jinmein baar aur restaurant bhi shaamil hain. restaurant mein bhi kuchh nyaayaalayon ne anumati di hai ki ve sunishchit dhoomrapaan kshetron (ya dhoomrapaan nishedh ke liye) ka nirmaan karein. sanyukt raajya America mein kai raajyon mein restaurant mein dhoomrapaan nishedh hai aur kuchh sharaabakhaanon mein bhi dhoomrapaan nishedh hai. Canada ke praanton mein inador kaaryasthalon aur saarvajanik sthaanon par dhoomrapaan avaidh hai jinmein sharaabakhaane aur restaurant bhi shaamil hain. 31 March 2008 ko Canada ne sabhi saarvajanik sthaanon par dhoomrapaan par pratibandh lagaaya, saath hi saath kisi bhi saarvajanik jagah ke pravesh dwaar ke 10 meter ke bheetar bhi yeh pratibandh laagoo hai. Australia mein dhoomrapaan par pratibandh har raajya mein alag-alag hai. vartamaan mein kveensalaind mein sabhi saarvajanik sthalon ke androoni hisson mein dhoomrapaan par poornataya pratibandh hai (jinmein kaaryasthal, sharaabakhaane, pab aur bhojanaalaya shaamil hain) saath hi saath aavaajaahi vaale samudra tat aur kuchh saarvajanik sthalon ke baahari kshetr shaamil hain. tathaapi, chihnit dhoomrapaan kshetr apavaad hain. Victoria mein train stationon, bas staap aur train staap par dhoomrapaan nishiddh hai aur in saarvajanik sthaanon par jahaan dhoomrapaan se parivhan ka intajaar kar raha gair dhoomrapaan karne wala prabhaavit ho sakta hai aur 1 July 2007 se use sabhi inador saarvajanik sthalon par laagoo kar diya gaya hai. New Zealand aur Brazil mein saarvajanik sthaanon se sanlagn kshetr mein dhoomrapaan karne par pratibandh laga diya hai, jismein mukhya roop se sharaabakhaana, restaurant aur pab shaamil hai. Hongkong mein 1 January 2007 ko kaaryasthal mein dhoomrapaan par pratibandh laga diya gaya jaise restaurant, karaaoke rooms, imaaraton aur saarvajanik park. sharaab parosane vaale baar jinmein 18 varsh ki aayu se kam ke logon ko pravesh naheen dete, ko 2009 tak chhoot di gayi. romaaniya mein railgaadiyon, metro stationon, saarvajanik sansthaanon (jahaan aamtaur par nirdisht sthal baahar hai) aur saarvajanik parivhan mein dhoomrapaan avaidh hai.
si pi aar I vaidyut shikt injeeniyri mein anuprayukt anusandhaan ke liye kein ke roop mein kaam karne ke alaava vidyut upaskar ke pareekshan aur pramaaneekaran ko sampann karne ke liye ek pradhaan nikaaya ke roop mein kaayarrat hai. sansthaan sthit maaneetaran evam kshetr nidaan, oorja pareekshan tatha vitran pranaali prabandhan ke alaava utpaad abhiklp tatha vikaas (design evam development) ke liye paraamarsh sevaaeain pradaan karta hai aur saath hi desh ke donon taap tatha jal vidyut sanyantron ke liye shesh aayu nirdhaaran/naveekaran evam aadhuneenakeekaran adhyayan tatha aayu vistaran adhyayan sampann karta hai.

antararaashtreeya maanakon se tulya nishpaadan gunataayukt si pi aar I saare Bhaarat mein vyaapt apni saat prayogashaalaaon mein svichgiyr, fayoojagiyr, parinaamitr, kebil, sandhaaritr jaise vibhinn vidyut upaskar, vidyut rodhak saamagriyaaain aur pranaaliyaaain, sancharan line tower, drav paraavaidyuton tatha apaaranparik oorja yuktiyon ke nishpaadan, moolyaankan aur pramaaneekaran par vishisht sevaaeain upalabdh karaata hai.
ek safal pilot ke baad, aavaas evam vikaas board (HDB) Singapore ne 2006 mein kaagaj season parking ticket (SPT) ko pratisthaapit karte hue RFID ko laagoo karne ke liye do nividaaon ko jaari kiya. safal nividaakaaron ne March 2007 ke baad se SPT dhaarakon ko RFID taig vitrit kiya.[14] viytanaam mein, futek ke paas is desh mein kai bilding ke liye svachaalit jaanch ticket pranaali laagoo hai.

mahangi engineering prakriyaaon ko svachaalit karne ke liye, kuchh EDA state table le sakte hain jo state machine ka varnan karte hain aur ek state machine ke mishrit bhaag ke liye ek truth table ya ek fankshan table ka utpaadan kar sakte hain. state table paath ka ek tukada hai jo pratyek state ko paristhitiyon ke saath soocheebaddh karta hai, jo unke aur sambandhit utpaadan sanketon ke beech sankraman ko niyantrit karta hai.


apratyaksh dhoomrapaan tambaakoo ke dhuen ka anaichhik sevan hai. second hand dhoomrapaan (SHS) vah khapat hai jahaan sulagane ka sira maujood hota, paryaavaran tambaakoo dhoomrapaan (ETS) ya thard hand dhoomrapaan vah dhoomrapaan hai jiska upabhog jalne vaale sire ke baad bhi hota rahata hai. iske nakaaraatmak prabhaav ke kaaran upabhog ke is svaroop ne tambaakoo utpaadon ke viniyman mein ek keindreeya bhoomika nibhaai.
sakriya RFID ka sabse bada prayog, ameriki raksha vibhaag dvaara apne das lakh se adhik shiping kantenaron par saavi[3] sakriya taig ka upayog hai jo mahaadveepeeya America (CONUS) ke baahar jaata hai. sabse bada nishkriya RFID prayog, difens laujistiks agency (DLA) ka hai jo odin dvaara 72 suvidhaaon par laagoo hai[4] jisne eyarabas ke liye vaishvik prachaar kiya[5] jo vishv bhar mein 13 pariyojanaaon se nirmit tha.

maariyo kaardullo ka saaaincha:US Patent 1973 mein aadhunik RFID ka pehla sachcha poorvaj tha; smruti wala ek nishkriya radio traansapondar. praarambhik upakaran nishkriya tha, jo poochh-taachh sanket ke dvaara sanchaalit hota tha aur 1971 mein New York port athauriti aur anya sambhaavit prayoktaaon ke liye iska pradarshan kiya gaya aur yeh ek tol upakaran ke roop mein istemaal ke liye 16 bit smruti ke saath ek traansapondar se bana tha. buniyaadi kaardullo peteint sanchaaran media ke roop mein RF, dhvani aur prakaash ke istemaal ko aavrut karta hai. 1969 mein, niveshakon ke saamane prastut mool vyaapaar yojana ne parivhan (otomotiv vaahan pehchaan, svachaalit tol pranaali, electronic license plate, electronic maalasoochi, vaahan maarg, vaahan pradarshan nigraani), banking (electronic check book, electronic kredit card), suraksha (karmiyon ki pehchaan, svachaalit dwaar, nigraani) aur chikitsa (pehchaan, rogi itihaas) mein iska istemaal dikhaaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
dhoomrapaan ka itihaas bahut puraana 5000-3000 E.poo. ke pehle se raha hai jab dakshin America mein krushi utpaadon ki kheti shuroo hui thi; usaka baad mein prayog paudhe ke padaarth ko jalaakaar istemaal ya to durghatanaavash shuroo hua ya upabhog ke anya saadhan ki khoj ke iraade se viksit hua.[1] iska upayog jhaad-foonk ke anushthaanon mein apni tarah se hota raha.[16][page needed] kai praacheen sabhyataaon mein jaise kasadiyon, bhaarateeyon aur cheeniyon mein dhoop jalaana ek dhaarmik anushtaan ka ek bhaag hai, jaise isaraailiyon aur baad ke Catholic aur roodhivaadi krishchiyn church jalaate hain. America mein dhoomrapaan ka mool sanbhavat: jhaadfoonk ke samaarohon mein dhoop jalaane se hua hai lekin baad mein aanand ke liye ya fir ek saamaajik upakaran ke roop mein apnaaya gaya.[2] tambaakoo aur vibhinn helusinojenik (hallucinogenic) nasheele padaarthon ka prayog tanmayaavastha aur aatma ki duniya se sampark mein aane ke liye kiya jaata tha.
digital sarkit ka doosra roop lukaap table se nirmit hota hai ("prograamebal laujik divaais" ke roop mein anek beche ja chuka hain, haalaanki PLD ke anya prakaar vidyamaan hain). lukaap taalika, masheenon par aadhaarit laujik geton ki tarah hi kaarya kar sakti hain lekin aasaani se taaron ko badle bina hi reeprograam kar sakti hain. iska arth yeh hai ki designer, aksar taaron ki vyavastha ko badle bina hi design trutiyon ki marammat kar sakte hain. isliye chhoti maatra mein utpaad prograamebal laujik divaais aksar adhimaanya samaadhaan kar rahe hain. ve aam taur par injeeniyron dvaara electronic design svachaalan software ka upayog kar design kiya jaata hai (adhik jaankaari ke liye neeche dekhein).

RFID taig, aksar UPC ya EAN baarakod ke liye ek pratisthaapan hain, jiske puraane baarakod praudyogiki ki tulana mein kai mahatvapoorn laabh hain. ho sakta hai ve kabhi bhi poori tarah se baarakod ki jagah na lein, kuchh unki laagat ke kaaran aur ek hi vastu par ekaadhik deta sroton ka laabh. kai anya yojanaaon ke saath, nai EPC, uchit keemat par vyaapak roop se upalabdh hai.
Singapore mein, saarvajanik parivhan ki bason aur trainon mein nishkriya RFID ko laagoo kiya gaya hai jise EZ-Link card ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. bheed bhare shahar ke aatanrik kshetron mein yaataayaat ko char tol dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai jise stord vailyoo card (kaishakaard ke roop mein gyaat) ke upayog ko ek sakriya taiging pranaali ke saath upayog dvaara laagoo kiya jaata hai.
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